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sqlite3.c

/******************************************************************************
** This file is an amalgamation of many separate C source files from SQLite
** version 3.5.5.  By combining all the individual C code files into this 
** single large file, the entire code can be compiled as a one translation
** unit.  This allows many compilers to do optimizations that would not be
** possible if the files were compiled separately.  Performance improvements
** of 5% are more are commonly seen when SQLite is compiled as a single
** translation unit.
**
** This file is all you need to compile SQLite.  To use SQLite in other
** programs, you need this file and the "sqlite3.h" header file that defines
** the programming interface to the SQLite library.  (If you do not have 
** the "sqlite3.h" header file at hand, you will find a copy in the first
** 4801 lines past this header comment.)  Additional code files may be
** needed if you want a wrapper to interface SQLite with your choice of
** programming language.  The code for the "sqlite3" command-line shell
** is also in a separate file.  This file contains only code for the core
** SQLite library.
**
** This amalgamation was generated on 2008-01-31 16:37:58 UTC.
*/
#define SQLITE_CORE 1
#define SQLITE_AMALGAMATION 1
#ifndef SQLITE_PRIVATE
# define SQLITE_PRIVATE static
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_API
# define SQLITE_API
#endif
/************** Begin file sqliteInt.h ***************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** Internal interface definitions for SQLite.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqliteInt.h,v 1.658 2008/01/30 16:14:23 drh Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITEINT_H_
#define _SQLITEINT_H_

/*
** The macro unlikely() is a hint that surrounds a boolean
** expression that is usually false.  Macro likely() surrounds
** a boolean expression that is usually true.  GCC is able to
** use these hints to generate better code, sometimes.
*/
#if defined(__GNUC__) && 0
# define likely(X)    __builtin_expect((X),1)
# define unlikely(X)  __builtin_expect((X),0)
#else
# define likely(X)    !!(X)
# define unlikely(X)  !!(X)
#endif


/*
** These #defines should enable >2GB file support on Posix if the
** underlying operating system supports it.  If the OS lacks
** large file support, or if the OS is windows, these should be no-ops.
**
** Ticket #2739:  The _LARGEFILE_SOURCE macro must appear before any
** system #includes.  Hence, this block of code must be the very first
** code in all source files.
**
** Large file support can be disabled using the -DSQLITE_DISABLE_LFS switch
** on the compiler command line.  This is necessary if you are compiling
** on a recent machine (ex: RedHat 7.2) but you want your code to work
** on an older machine (ex: RedHat 6.0).  If you compile on RedHat 7.2
** without this option, LFS is enable.  But LFS does not exist in the kernel
** in RedHat 6.0, so the code won't work.  Hence, for maximum binary
** portability you should omit LFS.
**
** Similar is true for MacOS.  LFS is only supported on MacOS 9 and later.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DISABLE_LFS
# define _LARGE_FILE       1
# ifndef _FILE_OFFSET_BITS
#   define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
# endif
# define _LARGEFILE_SOURCE 1
#endif


/************** Include sqliteLimit.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ***********/
/************** Begin file sqliteLimit.h *************************************/
/*
** 2007 May 7
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** 
** This file defines various limits of what SQLite can process.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqliteLimit.h,v 1.6 2007/12/17 16:20:07 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** The maximum length of a TEXT or BLOB in bytes.   This also
** limits the size of a row in a table or index.
**
** The hard limit is the ability of a 32-bit signed integer
** to count the size: 2^31-1 or 2147483647.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH
# define SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH 1000000000
#endif

/*
** This is the maximum number of
**
**    * Columns in a table
**    * Columns in an index
**    * Columns in a view
**    * Terms in the SET clause of an UPDATE statement
**    * Terms in the result set of a SELECT statement
**    * Terms in the GROUP BY or ORDER BY clauses of a SELECT statement.
**    * Terms in the VALUES clause of an INSERT statement
**
** The hard upper limit here is 32676.  Most database people will
** tell you that in a well-normalized database, you usually should
** not have more than a dozen or so columns in any table.  And if
** that is the case, there is no point in having more than a few
** dozen values in any of the other situations described above.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN
# define SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN 2000
#endif

/*
** The maximum length of a single SQL statement in bytes.
** A value of zero means there is no limit.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH
# define SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH 0
#endif

/*
** The maximum depth of an expression tree. This is limited to 
** some extent by SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH. But sometime you might 
** want to place more severe limits on the complexity of an 
** expression. A value of 0 (the default) means do not enforce
** any limitation on expression tree depth.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH
# define SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH 1000
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of terms in a compound SELECT statement.
** The code generator for compound SELECT statements does one
** level of recursion for each term.  A stack overflow can result
** if the number of terms is too large.  In practice, most SQL
** never has more than 3 or 4 terms.  Use a value of 0 to disable
** any limit on the number of terms in a compount SELECT.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_COMPOUND_SELECT
# define SQLITE_MAX_COMPOUND_SELECT 500
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of opcodes in a VDBE program.
** Not currently enforced.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_VDBE_OP
# define SQLITE_MAX_VDBE_OP 25000
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of arguments to an SQL function.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_FUNCTION_ARG
# define SQLITE_MAX_FUNCTION_ARG 100
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of in-memory pages to use for the main database
** table and for temporary tables.  The SQLITE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE  2000
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_TEMP_CACHE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_TEMP_CACHE_SIZE  500
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of attached databases.  This must be at least 2
** in order to support the main database file (0) and the file used to
** hold temporary tables (1).  And it must be less than 32 because
** we use a bitmask of databases with a u32 in places (for example
** the Parse.cookieMask field).
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED
# define SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED 10
#endif


/*
** The maximum value of a ?nnn wildcard that the parser will accept.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER
# define SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER 999
#endif

/* Maximum page size.  The upper bound on this value is 32768.  This a limit
** imposed by the necessity of storing the value in a 2-byte unsigned integer
** and the fact that the page size must be a power of 2.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE 32768
#endif


/*
** The default size of a database page.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE 1024
#endif
#if SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE>SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
# undef SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
#endif

/*
** Ordinarily, if no value is explicitly provided, SQLite creates databases
** with page size SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE. However, based on certain
** device characteristics (sector-size and atomic write() support),
** SQLite may choose a larger value. This constant is the maximum value
** SQLite will choose on its own.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE 8192
#endif
#if SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE>SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
# undef SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
#endif


/*
** Maximum number of pages in one database file.
**
** This is really just the default value for the max_page_count pragma.
** This value can be lowered (or raised) at run-time using that the
** max_page_count macro.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_COUNT
# define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_COUNT 1073741823
#endif

/*
** Maximum length (in bytes) of the pattern in a LIKE or GLOB
** operator.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH
# define SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH 50000
#endif

/************** End of sqliteLimit.h *****************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/

/*
** For testing purposes, the various size limit constants are really
** variables that we can modify in the testfixture.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_COMPOUND_SELECT
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_VDBE_OP
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_FUNCTION_ARG
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_COUNT
  #undef SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH

  #define SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH              sqlite3MAX_LENGTH
  #define SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN              sqlite3MAX_COLUMN
  #define SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH          sqlite3MAX_SQL_LENGTH
  #define SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH          sqlite3MAX_EXPR_DEPTH
  #define SQLITE_MAX_COMPOUND_SELECT     sqlite3MAX_COMPOUND_SELECT
  #define SQLITE_MAX_VDBE_OP             sqlite3MAX_VDBE_OP
  #define SQLITE_MAX_FUNCTION_ARG        sqlite3MAX_FUNCTION_ARG
  #define SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER     sqlite3MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER
  #define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE           sqlite3MAX_PAGE_SIZE
  #define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_COUNT          sqlite3MAX_PAGE_COUNT
  #define SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH sqlite3MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH

  extern int sqlite3MAX_LENGTH;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_COLUMN;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_SQL_LENGTH;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_EXPR_DEPTH;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_COMPOUND_SELECT;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_VDBE_OP;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_FUNCTION_ARG;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_PAGE_SIZE;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_PAGE_COUNT;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH;
#endif


/*
** The SQLITE_THREADSAFE macro must be defined as either 0 or 1.
** Older versions of SQLite used an optional THREADSAFE macro.
** We support that for legacy
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_THREADSAFE)
#if defined(THREADSAFE)
# define SQLITE_THREADSAFE THREADSAFE
#else
# define SQLITE_THREADSAFE 1
#endif
#endif

/*
** We need to define _XOPEN_SOURCE as follows in order to enable
** recursive mutexes on most unix systems.  But Mac OS X is different.
** The _XOPEN_SOURCE define causes problems for Mac OS X we are told,
** so it is omitted there.  See ticket #2673.
**
** Later we learn that _XOPEN_SOURCE is poorly or incorrectly
** implemented on some systems.  So we avoid defining it at all
** if it is already defined or if it is unneeded because we are
** not doing a threadsafe build.  Ticket #2681.
**
** See also ticket #2741.
*/
#if !defined(_XOPEN_SOURCE) && !defined(__DARWIN__) && !defined(__APPLE__) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE
#  define _XOPEN_SOURCE 500  /* Needed to enable pthread recursive mutexes */
#endif

#if defined(SQLITE_TCL) || defined(TCLSH)
# include <tcl.h>
#endif

/*
** Many people are failing to set -DNDEBUG=1 when compiling SQLite.
** Setting NDEBUG makes the code smaller and run faster.  So the following
** lines are added to automatically set NDEBUG unless the -DSQLITE_DEBUG=1
** option is set.  Thus NDEBUG becomes an opt-in rather than an opt-out
** feature.
*/
#if !defined(NDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) 
# define NDEBUG 1
#endif

/************** Include sqlite3.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ***************/
/************** Begin file sqlite3.h *****************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This header file defines the interface that the SQLite library
** presents to client programs.  If a C-function, structure, datatype,
** or constant definition does not appear in this file, then it is
** not a published API of SQLite, is subject to change without
** notice, and should not be referenced by programs that use SQLite.
**
** Some of the definitions that are in this file are marked as
** "experimental".  Experimental interfaces are normally new
** features recently added to SQLite.  We do not anticipate changes 
** to experimental interfaces but reserve to make minor changes if
** experience from use "in the wild" suggest such changes are prudent.
**
** The official C-language API documentation for SQLite is derived
** from comments in this file.  This file is the authoritative source
** on how SQLite interfaces are suppose to operate.
**
** The name of this file under configuration management is "sqlite.h.in".
** The makefile makes some minor changes to this file (such as inserting
** the version number) and changes its name to "sqlite3.h" as
** part of the build process.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqlite.h.in,v 1.282 2008/01/31 16:36:40 drh Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE3_H_
#define _SQLITE3_H_
#include <stdarg.h>     /* Needed for the definition of va_list */

/*
** Make sure we can call this stuff from C++.
*/
#if 0
extern "C" {
#endif


/*
** Add the ability to override 'extern'
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_EXTERN
# define SQLITE_EXTERN extern
#endif

/*
** Make sure these symbols where not defined by some previous header
** file.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_VERSION
# undef SQLITE_VERSION
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER
# undef SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER
#endif

/*
** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Library Version Numbers {F10010}
**
** The SQLITE_VERSION and SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER #defines in
** the sqlite3.h file specify the version of SQLite with which
** that header file is associated.
**
** The "version" of SQLite is a strong of the form "X.Y.Z".
** The phrase "alpha" or "beta" might be appended after the Z.
** The X value is major version number always 3 in SQLite3.
** The X value only changes when  backwards compatibility is
** broken and we intend to never break
** backwards compatibility.  The Y value is the minor version
** number and only changes when
** there are major feature enhancements that are forwards compatible
** but not backwards compatible.  The Z value is release number
** and is incremented with
** each release but resets back to 0 when Y is incremented.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()] and [sqlite3_libversion_number()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F10011} The SQLITE_VERSION #define in the sqlite3.h header file
**          evaluates to a string literal that is the SQLite version
**          with which the header file is associated.
**
** {F10014} The SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER #define resolves to an integer
**          with the value  (X*1000000 + Y*1000 + Z) where X, Y, and
**          Z are the major version, minor version, and release number.
*/
#define SQLITE_VERSION         "3.5.5"
#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3005005

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers {F10020}
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version
**
** These features provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION]
** and [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER] #defines in the header, but are associated
** with the library instead of the header file.  Cautious programmers might
** include a check in their application to verify that 
** sqlite3_libversion_number() always returns the value 
** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER].
**
** The sqlite3_libversion() function returns the same information as is
** in the sqlite3_version[] string constant.  The function is provided
** for use in DLLs since DLL users usually do not have direct access to string
** constants within the DLL.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F10021} The [sqlite3_libversion_number()] interface returns an integer
**          equal to [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER]. 
**
** {F10022} The [sqlite3_version] string constant contains the text of the
**          [SQLITE_VERSION] string. 
**
** {F10023} The [sqlite3_libversion()] function returns
**          a pointer to the [sqlite3_version] string constant.
*/
SQLITE_EXTERN const char sqlite3_version[];
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_libversion(void);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_libversion_number(void);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Test To See If The Library Is Threadsafe {F10100}
**
** SQLite can be compiled with or without mutexes.  When
** the SQLITE_THREADSAFE C preprocessor macro is true, mutexes
** are enabled and SQLite is threadsafe.  When that macro os false,
** the mutexes are omitted.  Without the mutexes, it is not safe
** to use SQLite from more than one thread.
**
** There is a measurable performance penalty for enabling mutexes.
** So if speed is of utmost importance, it makes sense to disable
** the mutexes.  But for maximum safety, mutexes should be enabled.
** The default behavior is for mutexes to be enabled.
**
** This interface can be used by a program to make sure that the
** version of SQLite that it is linking against was compiled with
** the desired setting of the SQLITE_THREADSAFE macro.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F10101} The [sqlite3_threadsafe()] function returns nonzero if
**          SQLite was compiled with its mutexes enabled or zero
**          if SQLite was compiled with mutexes disabled.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_threadsafe(void);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Handle {F12000}
** KEYWORDS: {database connection}
**
** Each open SQLite database is represented by pointer to an instance of the
** opaque structure named "sqlite3".  It is useful to think of an sqlite3
** pointer as an object.  The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
** [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces are its constructors
** and [sqlite3_close()] is its destructor.  There are many other interfaces
** (such as [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_create_function()], and
** [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] to name but three) that are methods on this
** object.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3 sqlite3;


/*
** CAPI3REF: 64-Bit Integer Types {F10200}
** KEYWORDS: sqlite_int64 sqlite_uint64
**
** Because there is no cross-platform way to specify 64-bit integer types
** SQLite includes typedefs for 64-bit signed and unsigned integers.
**
** The sqlite3_int64 and sqlite3_uint64 are the preferred type
** definitions.  The sqlite_int64 and sqlite_uint64 types are
** supported for backwards compatibility only.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F10201} The [sqlite_int64] and [sqlite3_int64] types specify a
**          64-bit signed integer.
**
** {F10202} The [sqlite_uint64] and [sqlite3_uint64] types specify
**          a 64-bit unsigned integer.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_INT64_TYPE
  typedef SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_int64;
  typedef unsigned SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_uint64;
#elif defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
  typedef __int64 sqlite_int64;
  typedef unsigned __int64 sqlite_uint64;
#else
  typedef long long int sqlite_int64;
  typedef unsigned long long int sqlite_uint64;
#endif
typedef sqlite_int64 sqlite3_int64;
typedef sqlite_uint64 sqlite3_uint64;

/*
** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
** substitute integer for floating-point
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
# define double sqlite3_int64
#endif

/*
** CAPI3REF: Closing A Database Connection {F12010}
**
** This routine is the destructor for the [sqlite3] object.  
**
** Applications should [sqlite3_finalize | finalize] all
** [prepared statements] and
** [sqlite3_blob_close | close] all [sqlite3_blob | BLOBs] 
** associated with the [sqlite3] object prior
** to attempting to close the [sqlite3] object.
**
** <todo>What happens to pending transactions?  Are they
** rolled back, or abandoned?</todo>
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12011} The [sqlite3_close()] interface destroys an [sqlite3] object
**          allocated by a prior call to [sqlite3_open()],
**          [sqlite3_open16()], or [sqlite3_open_v2()].
**
** {F12012} The [sqlite3_close()] function releases all memory used by the
**          connection and closes all open files.
**
** {F12013} If the database connection contains
**          [prepared statements] that have not been
**          finalized by [sqlite3_finalize()], then [sqlite3_close()]
**          returns [SQLITE_BUSY] and leaves the connection open.
**
** {F12014} Giving sqlite3_close() a NULL pointer is a harmless no-op.
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U12015} The parameter to [sqlite3_close()] must be an [sqlite3] object
**          pointer previously obtained from [sqlite3_open()] or the 
**          equivalent, or NULL.
**
** {U12016} The parameter to [sqlite3_close()] must not have been previously
**          closed.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_close(sqlite3 *);

/*
** The type for a callback function.
** This is legacy and deprecated.  It is included for historical
** compatibility and is not documented.
*/
typedef int (*sqlite3_callback)(void*,int,char**, char**);

/*
** CAPI3REF: One-Step Query Execution Interface {F12100}
**
** The sqlite3_exec() interface is a convenient way of running
** one or more SQL statements without a lot of C code.  The
** SQL statements are passed in as the second parameter to
** sqlite3_exec().  The statements are evaluated one by one
** until either an error or an interrupt is encountered or
** until they are all done.  The 3rd parameter is an optional
** callback that is invoked once for each row of any query results
** produced by the SQL statements.  The 5th parameter tells where
** to write any error messages.
**
** The sqlite3_exec() interface is implemented in terms of
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_step()], and [sqlite3_finalize()].
** The sqlite3_exec() routine does nothing that cannot be done
** by [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_step()], and [sqlite3_finalize()].
** The sqlite3_exec() is just a convenient wrapper.
**
** INVARIANTS:
** 
** {F12101} The [sqlite3_exec()] interface evaluates zero or more UTF-8
**          encoded, semicolon-separated, SQL statements in the
**          zero-terminated string of its 2nd parameter within the
**          context of the [sqlite3] object given in the 1st parameter.
**
** {F12104} The return value of [sqlite3_exec()] is SQLITE_OK if all
**          SQL statements run successfully.
**
** {F12105} The return value of [sqlite3_exec()] is an appropriate 
**          non-zero error code if any SQL statement fails.
**
** {F12107} If one or more of the SQL statements handed to [sqlite3_exec()]
**          return results and the 3rd parameter is not NULL, then
**          the callback function specified by the 3rd parameter is
**          invoked once for each row of result.
**
** {F12110} If the callback returns a non-zero value then [sqlite3_exec()]
**          will aborted the SQL statement it is currently evaluating,
**          skip all subsequent SQL statements, and return [SQLITE_ABORT].
**          <todo>What happens to *errmsg here?  Does the result code for
**          sqlite3_errcode() get set?</todo>
**
** {F12113} The [sqlite3_exec()] routine will pass its 4th parameter through
**          as the 1st parameter of the callback.
**
** {F12116} The [sqlite3_exec()] routine sets the 2nd parameter of its
**          callback to be the number of columns in the current row of
**          result.
**
** {F12119} The [sqlite3_exec()] routine sets the 3rd parameter of its 
**          callback to be an array of pointers to strings holding the
**          values for each column in the current result set row as
**          obtained from [sqlite3_column_text()].
**
** {F12122} The [sqlite3_exec()] routine sets the 4th parameter of its
**          callback to be an array of pointers to strings holding the
**          names of result columns as obtained from [sqlite3_column_name()].
**
** {F12125} If the 3rd parameter to [sqlite3_exec()] is NULL then
**          [sqlite3_exec()] never invokes a callback.  All query
**          results are silently discarded.
**
** {F12128} If an error occurs while parsing or evaluating any of the SQL
**          statements handed to [sqlite3_exec()] then [sqlite3_exec()] will
**          return an [error code] other than [SQLITE_OK].
**
** {F12131} If an error occurs while parsing or evaluating any of the SQL
**          handed to [sqlite3_exec()] and if the 5th parameter (errmsg)
**          to [sqlite3_exec()] is not NULL, then an error message is
**          allocated using the equivalent of [sqlite3_mprintf()] and
**          *errmsg is made to point to that message.
**
** {F12134} The [sqlite3_exec()] routine does not change the value of
**          *errmsg if errmsg is NULL or if there are no errors.
**
** {F12137} The [sqlite3_exec()] function sets the error code and message
**          accessible via [sqlite3_errcode()] and [sqlite3_errmsg()].
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U12141} The first parameter to [sqlite3_exec()] must be an valid and open
**          [database connection].
**
** {U12142} The database connection must not be closed while
**          [sqlite3_exec()] is running.
** 
** {U12143} The calling function is should use [sqlite3_free()] to free
**          the memory that *errmsg is left pointing at once the error
**          message is no longer needed.
**
** {U12145} The SQL statement text in the 2nd parameter to [sqlite3_exec()]
**          must remain unchanged while [sqlite3_exec()] is running.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_exec(
  sqlite3*,                                  /* An open database */
  const char *sql,                           /* SQL to be evaluted */
  int (*callback)(void*,int,char**,char**),  /* Callback function */
  void *,                                    /* 1st argument to callback */
  char **errmsg                              /* Error msg written here */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Result Codes {F10210}
** KEYWORDS: SQLITE_OK {error code} {error codes}
**
** Many SQLite functions return an integer result code from the set shown
** here in order to indicates success or failure.
**
** See also: [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes]
*/
#define SQLITE_OK           0   /* Successful result */
/* beginning-of-error-codes */
#define SQLITE_ERROR        1   /* SQL error or missing database */
#define SQLITE_INTERNAL     2   /* Internal logic error in SQLite */
#define SQLITE_PERM         3   /* Access permission denied */
#define SQLITE_ABORT        4   /* Callback routine requested an abort */
#define SQLITE_BUSY         5   /* The database file is locked */
#define SQLITE_LOCKED       6   /* A table in the database is locked */
#define SQLITE_NOMEM        7   /* A malloc() failed */
#define SQLITE_READONLY     8   /* Attempt to write a readonly database */
#define SQLITE_INTERRUPT    9   /* Operation terminated by sqlite3_interrupt()*/
#define SQLITE_IOERR       10   /* Some kind of disk I/O error occurred */
#define SQLITE_CORRUPT     11   /* The database disk image is malformed */
#define SQLITE_NOTFOUND    12   /* NOT USED. Table or record not found */
#define SQLITE_FULL        13   /* Insertion failed because database is full */
#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN    14   /* Unable to open the database file */
#define SQLITE_PROTOCOL    15   /* NOT USED. Database lock protocol error */
#define SQLITE_EMPTY       16   /* Database is empty */
#define SQLITE_SCHEMA      17   /* The database schema changed */
#define SQLITE_TOOBIG      18   /* String or BLOB exceeds size limit */
#define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT  19   /* Abort due to constraint violation */
#define SQLITE_MISMATCH    20   /* Data type mismatch */
#define SQLITE_MISUSE      21   /* Library used incorrectly */
#define SQLITE_NOLFS       22   /* Uses OS features not supported on host */
#define SQLITE_AUTH        23   /* Authorization denied */
#define SQLITE_FORMAT      24   /* Auxiliary database format error */
#define SQLITE_RANGE       25   /* 2nd parameter to sqlite3_bind out of range */
#define SQLITE_NOTADB      26   /* File opened that is not a database file */
#define SQLITE_ROW         100  /* sqlite3_step() has another row ready */
#define SQLITE_DONE        101  /* sqlite3_step() has finished executing */
/* end-of-error-codes */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Extended Result Codes {F10220}
** KEYWORDS: {extended error code} {extended error codes}
** KEYWORDS: {extended result codes}
**
** In its default configuration, SQLite API routines return one of 26 integer
** [SQLITE_OK | result codes].  However, experience has shown that
** many of these result codes are too course-grained.  They do not provide as
** much information about problems as programmers might like.  In an effort to
** address this, newer versions of SQLite (version 3.3.8 and later) include
** support for additional result codes that provide more detailed information
** about errors. The extended result codes are enabled or disabled
** for each database connection using the [sqlite3_extended_result_codes()]
** API.
** 
** Some of the available extended result codes are listed here.
** One may expect the number of extended result codes will be expand
** over time.  Software that uses extended result codes should expect
** to see new result codes in future releases of SQLite.
**
** The SQLITE_OK result code will never be extended.  It will always
** be exactly zero.
** 
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F10223} The symbolic name for an extended result code always contains
**          a related primary result code as a prefix.
**
** {F10224} Primary result code names contain a single "_" character.
**
** {F10225} Extended result code names contain two or more "_" characters.
**
** {F10226} The numeric value of an extended result code contains the
**          numeric value of its corresponding primary result code it
**          its least significant 8 bits.
*/
#define SQLITE_IOERR_READ          (SQLITE_IOERR | (1<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ    (SQLITE_IOERR | (2<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_WRITE         (SQLITE_IOERR | (3<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSYNC         (SQLITE_IOERR | (4<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_DIR_FSYNC     (SQLITE_IOERR | (5<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_TRUNCATE      (SQLITE_IOERR | (6<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSTAT         (SQLITE_IOERR | (7<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK        (SQLITE_IOERR | (8<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_RDLOCK        (SQLITE_IOERR | (9<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_DELETE        (SQLITE_IOERR | (10<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED       (SQLITE_IOERR | (11<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM         (SQLITE_IOERR | (12<<8))

/*
** CAPI3REF: Flags For File Open Operations {F10230}
**
** These bit values are intended for use in then
** 3rd parameter to the [sqlite3_open_v2()] interface and
** in the 4th parameter to the xOpen method of the
** [sqlite3_vfs] object.
*/
#define SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY         0x00000001
#define SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE        0x00000002
#define SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE           0x00000004
#define SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE    0x00000008
#define SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE        0x00000010
#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB          0x00000100
#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB          0x00000200
#define SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB     0x00000400
#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL     0x00000800
#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL     0x00001000
#define SQLITE_OPEN_SUBJOURNAL       0x00002000
#define SQLITE_OPEN_MASTER_JOURNAL   0x00004000

/*
** CAPI3REF: Device Characteristics {F10240}
**
** The xDeviceCapabilities method of the [sqlite3_io_methods]
** object returns an integer which is a vector of the these
** bit values expressing I/O characteristics of the mass storage
** device that holds the file that the [sqlite3_io_methods]
** refers to.
**
** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
** any size are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
** nnn are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
** way around.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
** to xWrite().
*/
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC          0x00000001
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC512       0x00000002
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC1K        0x00000004
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC2K        0x00000008
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC4K        0x00000010
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC8K        0x00000020
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC16K       0x00000040
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC32K       0x00000080
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC64K       0x00000100
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND     0x00000200
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL      0x00000400

/*
** CAPI3REF: File Locking Levels {F10250}
**
** SQLite uses one of these integer values as the second
** argument to calls it makes to the xLock() and xUnlock() methods
** of an [sqlite3_io_methods] object.
*/
#define SQLITE_LOCK_NONE          0
#define SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED        1
#define SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED      2
#define SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING       3
#define SQLITE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE     4

/*
** CAPI3REF: Synchronization Type Flags {F10260}
**
** When SQLite invokes the xSync() method of an
** [sqlite3_io_methods] object it uses a combination of the
** these integer values as the second argument.
**
** When the SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY flag is used, it means that the
** sync operation only needs to flush data to mass storage.  Inode
** information need not be flushed. The SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL means 
** to use normal fsync() semantics. The SQLITE_SYNC_FULL flag means 
** to use Mac OS-X style fullsync instead of fsync().
*/
#define SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL        0x00002
#define SQLITE_SYNC_FULL          0x00003
#define SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY      0x00010


/*
** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Open File Handle {F11110}
**
** An [sqlite3_file] object represents an open file in the OS
** interface layer.  Individual OS interface implementations will
** want to subclass this object by appending additional fields
** for their own use.  The pMethods entry is a pointer to an
** [sqlite3_io_methods] object that defines methods for performing
** I/O operations on the open file.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_file sqlite3_file;
struct sqlite3_file {
  const struct sqlite3_io_methods *pMethods;  /* Methods for an open file */
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: OS Interface File Virtual Methods Object {F11120}
**
** Every file opened by the [sqlite3_vfs] xOpen method contains a pointer to
** an instance of the this object.  This object defines the
** methods used to perform various operations against the open file.
**
** The flags argument to xSync may be one of [SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL] or
** [SQLITE_SYNC_FULL].  The first choice is the normal fsync().
*  The second choice is an
** OS-X style fullsync.  The SQLITE_SYNC_DATA flag may be ORed in to
** indicate that only the data of the file and not its inode needs to be
** synced.
** 
** The integer values to xLock() and xUnlock() are one of
** <ul>
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE],
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED],
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED],
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING], or
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE].
** </ul>
** xLock() increases the lock. xUnlock() decreases the lock.  
** The xCheckReservedLock() method looks
** to see if any database connection, either in this
** process or in some other process, is holding an RESERVED,
** PENDING, or EXCLUSIVE lock on the file.  It returns true
** if such a lock exists and false if not.
** 
** The xFileControl() method is a generic interface that allows custom
** VFS implementations to directly control an open file using the
** [sqlite3_file_control()] interface.  The second "op" argument
** is an integer opcode.   The third
** argument is a generic pointer which is intended to be a pointer
** to a structure that may contain arguments or space in which to
** write return values.  Potential uses for xFileControl() might be
** functions to enable blocking locks with timeouts, to change the
** locking strategy (for example to use dot-file locks), to inquire
** about the status of a lock, or to break stale locks.  The SQLite
** core reserves opcodes less than 100 for its own use. 
** A [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE | list of opcodes] less than 100 is available.
** Applications that define a custom xFileControl method should use opcodes 
** greater than 100 to avoid conflicts.
**
** The xSectorSize() method returns the sector size of the
** device that underlies the file.  The sector size is the
** minimum write that can be performed without disturbing
** other bytes in the file.  The xDeviceCharacteristics()
** method returns a bit vector describing behaviors of the
** underlying device:
**
** <ul>
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC512]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC1K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC2K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC4K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC8K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC16K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC32K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC64K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL]
** </ul>
**
** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
** any size are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
** nnn are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
** way around.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
** to xWrite().
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_io_methods sqlite3_io_methods;
struct sqlite3_io_methods {
  int iVersion;
  int (*xClose)(sqlite3_file*);
  int (*xRead)(sqlite3_file*, void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
  int (*xWrite)(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
  int (*xTruncate)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 size);
  int (*xSync)(sqlite3_file*, int flags);
  int (*xFileSize)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 *pSize);
  int (*xLock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
  int (*xUnlock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
  int (*xCheckReservedLock)(sqlite3_file*);
  int (*xFileControl)(sqlite3_file*, int op, void *pArg);
  int (*xSectorSize)(sqlite3_file*);
  int (*xDeviceCharacteristics)(sqlite3_file*);
  /* Additional methods may be added in future releases */
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: Standard File Control Opcodes {F11310}
**
** These integer constants are opcodes for the xFileControl method
** of the [sqlite3_io_methods] object and to the [sqlite3_file_control()]
** interface.
**
** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE] opcode is used for debugging.  This
** opcode cases the xFileControl method to write the current state of
** the lock (one of [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE], [SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED],
** [SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED], [SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING], or [SQLITE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE])
** into an integer that the pArg argument points to. This capability
** is used during testing and only needs to be supported when SQLITE_TEST
** is defined.
*/
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE        1

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle {F17110}
**
** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
** abstract type for a mutex object.  The SQLite core never looks
** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex].  It only
** deals with pointers to the [sqlite3_mutex] object.
**
** Mutexes are created using [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()].
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_mutex sqlite3_mutex;

/*
** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Object {F11140}
**
** An instance of this object defines the interface between the
** SQLite core and the underlying operating system.  The "vfs"
** in the name of the object stands for "virtual file system".
**
** The iVersion field is initially 1 but may be larger for future
** versions of SQLite.  Additional fields may be appended to this
** object when the iVersion value is increased.
**
** The szOsFile field is the size of the subclassed [sqlite3_file]
** structure used by this VFS.  mxPathname is the maximum length of
** a pathname in this VFS.
**
** Registered vfs modules are kept on a linked list formed by
** the pNext pointer.  The [sqlite3_vfs_register()]
** and [sqlite3_vfs_unregister()] interfaces manage this list
** in a thread-safe way.  The [sqlite3_vfs_find()] interface
** searches the list.
**
** The pNext field is the only fields in the sqlite3_vfs 
** structure that SQLite will ever modify.  SQLite will only access
** or modify this field while holding a particular static mutex.
** The application should never modify anything within the sqlite3_vfs
** object once the object has been registered.
**
** The zName field holds the name of the VFS module.  The name must
** be unique across all VFS modules.
**
** {F11141} SQLite will guarantee that the zFilename string passed to
** xOpen() is a full pathname as generated by xFullPathname() and
** that the string will be valid and unchanged until xClose() is
** called.  {END} So the [sqlite3_file] can store a pointer to the
** filename if it needs to remember the filename for some reason.
**
** {F11142} The flags argument to xOpen() includes all bits set in
** the flags argument to [sqlite3_open_v2()].  Or if [sqlite3_open()]
** or [sqlite3_open16()] is used, then flags includes at least
** [SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE] | [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE]. {END}
** If xOpen() opens a file read-only then it sets *pOutFlags to
** include [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY].  Other bits in *pOutFlags may be
** set.
** 
** {F11143} SQLite will also add one of the following flags to the xOpen()
** call, depending on the object being opened:
** 
** <ul>
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_SUBJOURNAL]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_MASTER_JOURNAL]
** </ul> {END}
**
** The file I/O implementation can use the object type flags to
** changes the way it deals with files.  For example, an application
** that does not care about crash recovery or rollback, might make
** the open of a journal file a no-op.  Writes to this journal are
** also a no-op.  Any attempt to read the journal return SQLITE_IOERR.
** Or the implementation might recognize the a database file will
** be doing page-aligned sector reads and writes in a random order
** and set up its I/O subsystem accordingly.
** 
** SQLite might also add one of the following flags to the xOpen
** method:
** 
** <ul>
** <li> [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE]
** <li> [SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE]
** </ul>
** 
** {F11145} The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE] flag means the file should be
** deleted when it is closed.  {F11146} The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE]
** will be set for TEMP  databases, journals and for subjournals. 
** {F11147} The [SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE] flag means the file should be opened
** for exclusive access.  This flag is set for all files except
** for the main database file. {END}
** 
** {F11148} At least szOsFile bytes of memory is allocated by SQLite 
** to hold the  [sqlite3_file] structure passed as the third 
** argument to xOpen.  {END}  The xOpen method does not have to
** allocate the structure; it should just fill it in.
** 
** {F11149} The flags argument to xAccess() may be [SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS] 
** to test for the existance of a file,
** or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE] to test to see
** if a file is readable and writable, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READ]
** to test to see if a file is at least readable.  {END} The file can be a 
** directory.
** 
** {F11150} SQLite will always allocate at least mxPathname+1 byte for
** the output buffers for xGetTempname and xFullPathname. {F11151} The exact
** size of the output buffer is also passed as a parameter to both 
** methods. {END} If the output buffer is not large enough, SQLITE_CANTOPEN
** should be returned. As this is handled as a fatal error by SQLite,
** vfs implementations should endeavor to prevent this by setting 
** mxPathname to a sufficiently large value.
** 
** The xRandomness(), xSleep(), and xCurrentTime() interfaces
** are not strictly a part of the filesystem, but they are
** included in the VFS structure for completeness.
** The xRandomness() function attempts to return nBytes bytes
** of good-quality randomness into zOut.  The return value is
** the actual number of bytes of randomness obtained.  The
** xSleep() method cause the calling thread to sleep for at
** least the number of microseconds given.  The xCurrentTime()
** method returns a Julian Day Number for the current date and
** time.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_vfs sqlite3_vfs;
struct sqlite3_vfs {
  int iVersion;            /* Structure version number */
  int szOsFile;            /* Size of subclassed sqlite3_file */
  int mxPathname;          /* Maximum file pathname length */
  sqlite3_vfs *pNext;      /* Next registered VFS */
  const char *zName;       /* Name of this virtual file system */
  void *pAppData;          /* Pointer to application-specific data */
  int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, sqlite3_file*,
               int flags, int *pOutFlags);
  int (*xDelete)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int syncDir);
  int (*xAccess)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int flags);
  int (*xGetTempname)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nOut, char *zOut);
  int (*xFullPathname)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int nOut, char *zOut);
  void *(*xDlOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zFilename);
  void (*xDlError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zErrMsg);
  void *(*xDlSym)(sqlite3_vfs*,void*, const char *zSymbol);
  void (*xDlClose)(sqlite3_vfs*, void*);
  int (*xRandomness)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zOut);
  int (*xSleep)(sqlite3_vfs*, int microseconds);
  int (*xCurrentTime)(sqlite3_vfs*, double*);
  /* New fields may be appended in figure versions.  The iVersion
  ** value will increment whenever this happens. */
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: Flags for the xAccess VFS method {F11190}
**
** {F11191} These integer constants can be used as the third parameter to
** the xAccess method of an [sqlite3_vfs] object. {END}  They determine
** the kind of what kind of permissions the xAccess method is
** looking for.  {F11192} With SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS, the xAccess method
** simply checks to see if the file exists. {F11193} With
** SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE, the xAccess method checks to see
** if the file is both readable and writable.  {F11194} With
** SQLITE_ACCESS_READ the xAccess method
** checks to see if the file is readable.
*/
#define SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS    0
#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE 1
#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READ      2

/*
** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes {F12200}
**
** The sqlite3_extended_result_codes() routine enables or disables the
** [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes] feature of SQLite.
** The extended result codes are disabled by default for historical
** compatibility.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12201} Each new [database connection] has the 
**          [extended result codes] feature
**          disabled by default.
**
** {F12202} The [sqlite3_extended_result_codes(D,F)] interface will enable
**          [extended result codes] for the 
**          [database connection] D if the F parameter
**          is true, or disable them if F is false.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_extended_result_codes(sqlite3*, int onoff);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Last Insert Rowid {F12220}
**
** Each entry in an SQLite table has a unique 64-bit signed
** integer key called the "rowid". The rowid is always available
** as an undeclared column named ROWID, OID, or _ROWID_ as long as those
** names are not also used by explicitly declared columns. If
** the table has a column of type INTEGER PRIMARY KEY then that column
** is another an alias for the rowid.
**
** This routine returns the rowid of the most recent
** successful INSERT into the database from the database connection
** shown in the first argument.  If no successful inserts
** have ever occurred on this database connection, zero is returned.
**
** If an INSERT occurs within a trigger, then the rowid of the
** inserted row is returned by this routine as long as the trigger
** is running.  But once the trigger terminates, the value returned
** by this routine reverts to the last value inserted before the
** trigger fired.
**
** An INSERT that fails due to a constraint violation is not a
** successful insert and does not change the value returned by this
** routine.  Thus INSERT OR FAIL, INSERT OR IGNORE, INSERT OR ROLLBACK,
** and INSERT OR ABORT make no changes to the return value of this
** routine when their insertion fails.  When INSERT OR REPLACE 
** encounters a constraint violation, it does not fail.  The
** INSERT continues to completion after deleting rows that caused
** the constraint problem so INSERT OR REPLACE will always change
** the return value of this interface. 
**
** For the purposes of this routine, an insert is considered to
** be successful even if it is subsequently rolled back.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12221} The [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] function returns the
**          rowid of the most recent successful insert done
**          on the same database connection and within the same
**          trigger context, or zero if there have
**          been no qualifying inserts on that connection.
**
** {F12223} The [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] function returns
**          same value when called from the same trigger context
**          immediately before and after a ROLLBACK.
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U12232} If separate thread does a new insert on the same
**          database connection while the [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()]
**          function is running and thus changes the last insert rowid,
**          then the value returned by [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] is
**          unpredictable and might not equal either the old or the new
**          last insert rowid.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_last_insert_rowid(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Count The Number Of Rows Modified {F12240}
**
** This function returns the number of database rows that were changed
** or inserted or deleted by the most recently completed SQL statement
** on the connection specified by the first parameter.  Only
** changes that are directly specified by the INSERT, UPDATE, or
** DELETE statement are counted.  Auxiliary changes caused by
** triggers are not counted. Use the [sqlite3_total_changes()] function
** to find the total number of changes including changes caused by triggers.
**
** A "row changes" is a change to a single row of a single table
** caused by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statement.  Rows that
** are changed as side effects of REPLACE constraint resolution,
** rollback, ABORT processing, DROP TABLE, or by any other
** mechanisms do not count as direct row changes.
**
** A "trigger context" is a scope of execution that begins and
** ends with the script of a trigger.  Most SQL statements are
** evaluated outside of any trigger.  This is the "top level"
** trigger context.  If a trigger fires from the top level, a
** new trigger context is entered for the duration of that one
** trigger.  Subtriggers create subcontexts for their duration.
**
** Calling [sqlite3_exec()] or [sqlite3_step()] recursively does
** not create a new trigger context.
**
** This function returns the number of direct row changes in the
** most recent INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement within the same
** trigger context.
**
** So when called from the top level, this function returns the
** number of changes in the most recent INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
** that also occurred at the top level.
** Within the body of a trigger, the sqlite3_changes() interface
** can be called to find the number of
** changes in the most recently completed INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
** statement within the body of the same trigger.
** However, the number returned does not include in changes
** caused by subtriggers since they have their own context.
**
** SQLite implements the command "DELETE FROM table" without
** a WHERE clause by dropping and recreating the table.  (This is much
** faster than going through and deleting individual elements from the
** table.)  Because of this optimization, the deletions in
** "DELETE FROM table" are not row changes and will not be counted
** by the sqlite3_changes() or [sqlite3_total_changes()] functions.
** To get an accurate count of the number of rows deleted, use
** "DELETE FROM table WHERE 1" instead.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12241} The [sqlite3_changes()] function returns the number of
**          row changes caused by the most recent INSERT, UPDATE,
**          or DELETE statement on the same database connection and
**          within the same trigger context, or zero if there have
**          not been any qualifying row changes.
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U12252} If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
**          while [sqlite3_changes()] is running then the value returned
**          is unpredictable and unmeaningful.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_changes(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Total Number Of Rows Modified {F12260}
***
** This function returns the number of row changes caused
** by INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements since the database handle
** was opened.  The count includes all changes from all trigger
** contexts.  But the count does not include changes used to
** implement REPLACE constraints, do rollbacks or ABORT processing,
** or DROP table processing.
** The changes
** are counted as soon as the statement that makes them is completed 
** (when the statement handle is passed to [sqlite3_reset()] or 
** [sqlite3_finalize()]).
**
** SQLite implements the command "DELETE FROM table" without
** a WHERE clause by dropping and recreating the table.  (This is much
** faster than going
** through and deleting individual elements form the table.)  Because of
** this optimization, the change count for "DELETE FROM table" will be
** zero regardless of the number of elements that were originally in the
** table. To get an accurate count of the number of rows deleted, use
** "DELETE FROM table WHERE 1" instead.
**
** See also the [sqlite3_changes()] interface.
**
** INVARIANTS:
** 
** {F12261} The [sqlite3_total_changes()] returns the total number
**          of row changes caused by INSERT, UPDATE, and/or DELETE
**          statements on the same [database connection], in any
**          trigger context, since the database connection was
**          created.
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U12264} If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
**          while [sqlite3_total_changes()] is running then the value 
**          returned is unpredictable and unmeaningful.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_total_changes(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Interrupt A Long-Running Query {F12270}
**
** This function causes any pending database operation to abort and
** return at its earliest opportunity. This routine is typically
** called in response to a user action such as pressing "Cancel"
** or Ctrl-C where the user wants a long query operation to halt
** immediately.
**
** It is safe to call this routine from a thread different from the
** thread that is currently running the database operation.  But it
** is not safe to call this routine with a database connection that
** is closed or might close before sqlite3_interrupt() returns.
**
** If an SQL is very nearly finished at the time when sqlite3_interrupt()
** is called, then it might not have an opportunity to be interrupted.
** It might continue to completion.
** An SQL operation that is interrupted will return
** [SQLITE_INTERRUPT].  If the interrupted SQL operation is an
** INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE that is inside an explicit transaction, 
** then the entire transaction will be rolled back automatically.
** A call to sqlite3_interrupt() has no effect on SQL statements
** that are started after sqlite3_interrupt() returns.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12271} The [sqlite3_interrupt()] interface will force all running
**          SQL statements associated with the same database connection
**          to halt after processing at most one additional row of
**          data.
**
** {F12272} Any SQL statement that is interrupted by [sqlite3_interrupt()]
**          will return [SQLITE_INTERRUPT].
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U12279} If the database connection closes while [sqlite3_interrupt()]
**          is running then bad things will likely happen.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_interrupt(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Determine If An SQL Statement Is Complete {F10510}
**
** These routines are useful for command-line input to determine if the
** currently entered text seems to form complete a SQL statement or
** if additional input is needed before sending the text into
** SQLite for parsing.  These routines return true if the input string
** appears to be a complete SQL statement.  A statement is judged to be
** complete if it ends with a semicolon token and is not a fragment of a
** CREATE TRIGGER statement.  Semicolons that are embedded within
** string literals or quoted identifier names or comments are not
** independent tokens (they are part of the token in which they are
** embedded) and thus do not count as a statement terminator.
**
** These routines do not parse the SQL and
** so will not detect syntactically incorrect SQL.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F10511} The sqlite3_complete() and sqlite3_complete16() functions
**          return true (non-zero) if and only if the last
**          non-whitespace token in their input is a semicolon that
**          is not in between the BEGIN and END of a CREATE TRIGGER
**          statement.
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U10512} The input to sqlite3_complete() must be a zero-terminated
**          UTF-8 string.
**
** {U10513} The input to sqlite3_complete16() must be a zero-terminated
**          UTF-16 string in native byte order.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete(const char *sql);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete16(const void *sql);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Register A Callback To Handle SQLITE_BUSY Errors {F12310}
**
** This routine identifies a callback function that might be
** invoked whenever an attempt is made to open a database table 
** that another thread or process has locked.
** If the busy callback is NULL, then [SQLITE_BUSY]
** or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED]
** is returned immediately upon encountering the lock.
** If the busy callback is not NULL, then the
** callback will be invoked with two arguments.  The
** first argument to the handler is a copy of the void* pointer which
** is the third argument to this routine.  The second argument to
** the handler is the number of times that the busy handler has
** been invoked for this locking event.   If the
** busy callback returns 0, then no additional attempts are made to
** access the database and [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] is returned.
** If the callback returns non-zero, then another attempt
** is made to open the database for reading and the cycle repeats.
**
** The presence of a busy handler does not guarantee that
** it will be invoked when there is lock contention.
** If SQLite determines that invoking the busy handler could result in
** a deadlock, it will go ahead and return [SQLITE_BUSY] or
** [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] instead of invoking the
** busy handler.
** Consider a scenario where one process is holding a read lock that
** it is trying to promote to a reserved lock and
** a second process is holding a reserved lock that it is trying
** to promote to an exclusive lock.  The first process cannot proceed
** because it is blocked by the second and the second process cannot
** proceed because it is blocked by the first.  If both processes
** invoke the busy handlers, neither will make any progress.  Therefore,
** SQLite returns [SQLITE_BUSY] for the first process, hoping that this
** will induce the first process to release its read lock and allow
** the second process to proceed.
**
** The default busy callback is NULL.
**
** The [SQLITE_BUSY] error is converted to [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED]
** when SQLite is in the middle of a large transaction where all the
** changes will not fit into the in-memory cache.  SQLite will
** already hold a RESERVED lock on the database file, but it needs
** to promote this lock to EXCLUSIVE so that it can spill cache
** pages into the database file without harm to concurrent
** readers.  If it is unable to promote the lock, then the in-memory
** cache will be left in an inconsistent state and so the error
** code is promoted from the relatively benign [SQLITE_BUSY] to
** the more severe [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED].  This error code promotion
** forces an automatic rollback of the changes.  See the
** <a href="http://www.sqlite.org/cvstrac/wiki?p=CorruptionFollowingBusyError">
** CorruptionFollowingBusyError</a> wiki page for a discussion of why
** this is important.
**    
** There can only be a single busy handler defined for each database
** connection.  Setting a new busy handler clears any previous one. 
** Note that calling [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] will also set or clear
** the busy handler.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12311} The [sqlite3_busy_handler()] function replaces the busy handler
**          callback in the database connection identified by the 1st
**          parameter with a new busy handler identified by the 2nd and 3rd
**          parameters.
**
** {F12312} The default busy handler for new database connections is NULL.
**
** {F12314} When two or more database connection share a common cache,
**          the busy handler for the database connection currently using
**          the cache is invoked when the cache encounters a lock.
**
** {F12316} If a busy handler callback returns zero, then the SQLite
**          interface that provoked the locking event will return
**          [SQLITE_BUSY].
**
** {F12318} SQLite will invokes the busy handler with two argument which
**          are a copy of the pointer supplied by the 3rd parameter to
**          [sqlite3_busy_handler()] and a count of the number of prior
**          invocations of the busy handler for the same locking event.
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U12319} A busy handler should not call close the database connection
**          or prepared statement that invoked the busy handler.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_handler(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*,int), void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Set A Busy Timeout {F12340}
**
** This routine sets a [sqlite3_busy_handler | busy handler]
** that sleeps for a while when a
** table is locked.  The handler will sleep multiple times until 
** at least "ms" milliseconds of sleeping have been done. {F12343} After
** "ms" milliseconds of sleeping, the handler returns 0 which
** causes [sqlite3_step()] to return [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED].
**
** Calling this routine with an argument less than or equal to zero
** turns off all busy handlers.
**
** There can only be a single busy handler for a particular database
** connection.  If another busy handler was defined  
** (using [sqlite3_busy_handler()]) prior to calling
** this routine, that other busy handler is cleared.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12341} The [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] function overrides any prior
**          [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] or [sqlite3_busy_handler()] setting
**          on the same database connection.
**
** {F12343} If the 2nd parameter to [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] is less than
**          or equal to zero, then the busy handler is cleared so that
**          all subsequent locking events immediately return [SQLITE_BUSY].
**
** {F12344} If the 2nd parameter to [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] is a positive
**          number N, then a busy handler is set that repeatedly calls
**          the xSleep() method in the VFS interface until either the
**          lock clears or until the cumulative sleep time reported back
**          by xSleep() exceeds N milliseconds.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_timeout(sqlite3*, int ms);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Convenience Routines For Running Queries {F12370}
**
** Definition: A <b>result table</b> is memory data structure created by the
** [sqlite3_get_table()] interface.  A result table records the
** complete query results from one or more queries.
**
** The table conceptually has a number of rows and columns.  But
** these numbers are not part of the result table itself.  These
** numbers are obtained separately.  Let N be the number of rows
** and M be the number of columns.
**
** A result table is an array of pointers to zero-terminated
** UTF-8 strings.  There are (N+1)*M elements in the array.  
** The first M pointers point to zero-terminated strings that 
** contain the names of the columns.
** The remaining entries all point to query results.  NULL
** values are give a NULL pointer.  All other values are in
** their UTF-8 zero-terminated string representation as returned by
** [sqlite3_column_text()].
**
** A result table might consists of one or more memory allocations.
** It is not safe to pass a result table directly to [sqlite3_free()].
** A result table should be deallocated using [sqlite3_free_table()].
**
** As an example of the result table format, suppose a query result
** is as follows:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**        Name        | Age
**        -----------------------
**        Alice       | 43
**        Bob         | 28
**        Cindy       | 21
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** There are two column (M==2) and three rows (N==3).  Thus the
** result table has 8 entries.  Suppose the result table is stored
** in an array names azResult.  Then azResult holds this content:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**        azResult&#91;0] = "Name";
**        azResult&#91;1] = "Age";
**        azResult&#91;2] = "Alice";
**        azResult&#91;3] = "43";
**        azResult&#91;4] = "Bob";
**        azResult&#91;5] = "28";
**        azResult&#91;6] = "Cindy";
**        azResult&#91;7] = "21";
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** The sqlite3_get_table() function evaluates one or more
** semicolon-separated SQL statements in the zero-terminated UTF-8
** string of its 2nd parameter.  It returns a result table to the
** pointer given in its 3rd parameter.
**
** After the calling function has finished using the result, it should 
** pass the pointer to the result table to sqlite3_free_table() in order to 
** release the memory that was malloc-ed.  Because of the way the 
** [sqlite3_malloc()] happens within sqlite3_get_table(), the calling
** function must not try to call [sqlite3_free()] directly.  Only 
** [sqlite3_free_table()] is able to release the memory properly and safely.
**
** The sqlite3_get_table() interface is implemented as a wrapper around
** [sqlite3_exec()].  The sqlite3_get_table() routine does not have access
** to any internal data structures of SQLite.  It uses only the public
** interface defined here.  As a consequence, errors that occur in the
** wrapper layer outside of the internal [sqlite3_exec()] call are not
** reflected in subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] or
** [sqlite3_errmsg()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12371} If a [sqlite3_get_table()] fails a memory allocation, then
**          it frees the result table under construction, aborts the
**          query in process, skips any subsequent queries, sets the
**          *resultp output pointer to NULL and returns [SQLITE_NOMEM].
**
** {F12373} If the ncolumn parameter to [sqlite3_get_table()] is not NULL
**          then [sqlite3_get_table()] write the number of columns in the
**          result set of the query into *ncolumn if the query is
**          successful (if the function returns SQLITE_OK).
**
** {F12374} If the nrow parameter to [sqlite3_get_table()] is not NULL
**          then [sqlite3_get_table()] write the number of rows in the
**          result set of the query into *nrow if the query is
**          successful (if the function returns SQLITE_OK).
**
** {F12376} The [sqlite3_get_table()] function sets its *ncolumn value
**          to the number of columns in the result set of the query in the
**          sql parameter, or to zero if the query in sql has an empty
**          result set.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_get_table(
  sqlite3*,             /* An open database */
  const char *sql,      /* SQL to be evaluated */
  char ***pResult,      /* Results of the query */
  int *nrow,            /* Number of result rows written here */
  int *ncolumn,         /* Number of result columns written here */
  char **errmsg         /* Error msg written here */
);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free_table(char **result);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Formatted String Printing Functions {F17400}
**
** These routines are workalikes of the "printf()" family of functions
** from the standard C library.
**
** The sqlite3_mprintf() and sqlite3_vmprintf() routines write their
** results into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].
** The strings returned by these two routines should be
** released by [sqlite3_free()].   Both routines return a
** NULL pointer if [sqlite3_malloc()] is unable to allocate enough
** memory to hold the resulting string.
**
** In sqlite3_snprintf() routine is similar to "snprintf()" from
** the standard C library.  The result is written into the
** buffer supplied as the second parameter whose size is given by
** the first parameter. Note that the order of the
** first two parameters is reversed from snprintf().  This is an
** historical accident that cannot be fixed without breaking
** backwards compatibility.  Note also that sqlite3_snprintf()
** returns a pointer to its buffer instead of the number of
** characters actually written into the buffer.  We admit that
** the number of characters written would be a more useful return
** value but we cannot change the implementation of sqlite3_snprintf()
** now without breaking compatibility.
**
** As long as the buffer size is greater than zero, sqlite3_snprintf()
** guarantees that the buffer is always zero-terminated.  The first
** parameter "n" is the total size of the buffer, including space for
** the zero terminator.  So the longest string that can be completely
** written will be n-1 characters.
**
** These routines all implement some additional formatting
** options that are useful for constructing SQL statements.
** All of the usual printf formatting options apply.  In addition, there
** is are "%q", "%Q", and "%z" options.
**
** The %q option works like %s in that it substitutes a null-terminated
** string from the argument list.  But %q also doubles every '\'' character.
** %q is designed for use inside a string literal.  By doubling each '\''
** character it escapes that character and allows it to be inserted into
** the string.
**
** For example, so some string variable contains text as follows:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  char *zText = "It's a happy day!";
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** One can use this text in an SQL statement as follows:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES('%q')", zText);
**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** Because the %q format string is used, the '\'' character in zText
** is escaped and the SQL generated is as follows:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It''s a happy day!')
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** This is correct.  Had we used %s instead of %q, the generated SQL
** would have looked like this:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It's a happy day!');
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** This second example is an SQL syntax error.  As a general rule you
** should always use %q instead of %s when inserting text into a string 
** literal.
**
** The %Q option works like %q except it also adds single quotes around
** the outside of the total string.  Or if the parameter in the argument
** list is a NULL pointer, %Q substitutes the text "NULL" (without single
** quotes) in place of the %Q option. {END}  So, for example, one could say:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES(%Q)", zText);
**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** The code above will render a correct SQL statement in the zSQL
** variable even if the zText variable is a NULL pointer.
**
** The "%z" formatting option works exactly like "%s" with the
** addition that after the string has been read and copied into
** the result, [sqlite3_free()] is called on the input string. {END}
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F17403}  The [sqlite3_mprintf()] and [sqlite3_vmprintf()] interfaces
**           return either pointers to zero-terminated UTF-8 strings held in
**           memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()] or NULL pointers if
**           a call to [sqlite3_malloc()] fails.
**
** {F17406}  The [sqlite3_snprintf()] interface writes a zero-terminated
**           UTF-8 string into the buffer pointed to by the second parameter
**           provided that the first parameter is greater than zero.
**
** {F17407}  The [sqlite3_snprintf()] interface does not writes slots of
**           its output buffer (the second parameter) outside the range
**           of 0 through N-1 (where N is the first parameter)
**           regardless of the length of the string
**           requested by the format specification.
**   
*/
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_mprintf(const char*,...);
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_vmprintf(const char*, va_list);
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int,char*,const char*, ...);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Subsystem {F17300}
**
** The SQLite core  uses these three routines for all of its own
** internal memory allocation needs. "Core" in the previous sentence
** does not include operating-system specific VFS implementation.  The
** windows VFS uses native malloc and free for some operations.
**
** The sqlite3_malloc() routine returns a pointer to a block
** of memory at least N bytes in length, where N is the parameter.
** If sqlite3_malloc() is unable to obtain sufficient free
** memory, it returns a NULL pointer.  If the parameter N to
** sqlite3_malloc() is zero or negative then sqlite3_malloc() returns
** a NULL pointer.
**
** Calling sqlite3_free() with a pointer previously returned
** by sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_realloc() releases that memory so
** that it might be reused.  The sqlite3_free() routine is
** a no-op if is called with a NULL pointer.  Passing a NULL pointer
** to sqlite3_free() is harmless.  After being freed, memory
** should neither be read nor written.  Even reading previously freed
** memory might result in a segmentation fault or other severe error.
** Memory corruption, a segmentation fault, or other severe error
** might result if sqlite3_free() is called with a non-NULL pointer that
** was not obtained from sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_free().
**
** The sqlite3_realloc() interface attempts to resize a
** prior memory allocation to be at least N bytes, where N is the
** second parameter.  The memory allocation to be resized is the first
** parameter.  If the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc()
** is a NULL pointer then its behavior is identical to calling
** sqlite3_malloc(N) where N is the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
** If the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc() is zero or
** negative then the behavior is exactly the same as calling
** sqlite3_free(P) where P is the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
** Sqlite3_realloc() returns a pointer to a memory allocation
** of at least N bytes in size or NULL if sufficient memory is unavailable.
** If M is the size of the prior allocation, then min(N,M) bytes
** of the prior allocation are copied into the beginning of buffer returned
** by sqlite3_realloc() and the prior allocation is freed.
** If sqlite3_realloc() returns NULL, then the prior allocation
** is not freed.
**
** The memory returned by sqlite3_malloc() and sqlite3_realloc()
** is always aligned to at least an 8 byte boundary. {END}
**
** The default implementation
** of the memory allocation subsystem uses the malloc(), realloc()
** and free() provided by the standard C library. {F17382} However, if 
** SQLite is compiled with the following C preprocessor macro
**
** <blockquote> SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE=<i>NNN</i> </blockquote>
**
** where <i>NNN</i> is an integer, then SQLite create a static
** array of at least <i>NNN</i> bytes in size and use that array
** for all of its dynamic memory allocation needs. {END}  Additional
** memory allocator options may be added in future releases.
**
** In SQLite version 3.5.0 and 3.5.1, it was possible to define
** the SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION which would cause the built-in
** implementation of these routines to be omitted.  That capability
** is no longer provided.  Only built-in memory allocators can be
** used.
**
** The windows OS interface layer calls
** the system malloc() and free() directly when converting
** filenames between the UTF-8 encoding used by SQLite
** and whatever filename encoding is used by the particular windows
** installation.  Memory allocation errors are detected, but
** they are reported back as [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] or
** [SQLITE_IOERR] rather than [SQLITE_NOMEM].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F17303}  The [sqlite3_malloc(N)] interface returns either a pointer to 
**           newly checked-out block of at least N bytes of memory
**           that is 8-byte aligned, 
**           or it returns NULL if it is unable to fulfill the request.
**
** {F17304}  The [sqlite3_malloc(N)] interface returns a NULL pointer if
**           N is less than or equal to zero.
**
** {F17305}  The [sqlite3_free(P)] interface releases memory previously
**           returned from [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()],
**           making it available for reuse.
**
** {F17306}  A call to [sqlite3_free(NULL)] is a harmless no-op.
**
** {F17310}  A call to [sqlite3_realloc(0,N)] is equivalent to a call
**           to [sqlite3_malloc(N)].
**
** {F17312}  A call to [sqlite3_realloc(P,0)] is equivalent to a call
**           to [sqlite3_free(P)].
**
** {F17315}  The SQLite core uses [sqlite3_malloc()], [sqlite3_realloc()],
**           and [sqlite3_free()] for all of its memory allocation and
**           deallocation needs.
**
** {F17318}  The [sqlite3_realloc(P,N)] interface returns either a pointer
**           to a block of checked-out memory of at least N bytes in size
**           that is 8-byte aligned, or a NULL pointer.
**
** {F17321}  When [sqlite3_realloc(P,N)] returns a non-NULL pointer, it first
**           copies the first K bytes of content from P into the newly allocated
**           where K is the lessor of N and the size of the buffer P.
**
** {F17322}  When [sqlite3_realloc(P,N)] returns a non-NULL pointer, it first
**           releases the buffer P.
**
** {F17323}  When [sqlite3_realloc(P,N)] returns NULL, the buffer P is
**           not modified or released.
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U17350}  The pointer arguments to [sqlite3_free()] and [sqlite3_realloc()]
**           must be either NULL or else a pointer obtained from a prior
**           invocation of [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] that has
**           not been released.
**
** {U17351}  The application must not read or write any part of 
**           a block of memory after it has been released using
**           [sqlite3_free()] or [sqlite3_realloc()].
**
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_malloc(int);
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_realloc(void*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free(void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocator Statistics {F17370}
**
** SQLite provides these two interfaces for reporting on the status
** of the [sqlite3_malloc()], [sqlite3_free()], and [sqlite3_realloc()]
** the memory allocation subsystem included within the SQLite.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F17371} The [sqlite3_memory_used()] routine returns the
**          number of bytes of memory currently outstanding 
**          (malloced but not freed).
**
** {F17373} The [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] routine returns the maximum
**          value of [sqlite3_memory_used()] 
**          since the highwater mark was last reset.
**
** {F17374} The values returned by [sqlite3_memory_used()] and
**          [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] include any overhead
**          added by SQLite in its implementation of [sqlite3_malloc()],
**          but not overhead added by the any underlying system library
**          routines that [sqlite3_malloc()] may call.
** 
** {F17375} The memory highwater mark is reset to the current value of
**          [sqlite3_memory_used()] if and only if the parameter to
**          [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] is true.  The value returned
**          by [sqlite3_memory_highwater(1)] is the highwater mark
**          prior to the reset.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_used(void);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_highwater(int resetFlag);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Authorization Callbacks {F12500}
**
** This routine registers a authorizer callback with a particular
** database connection, supplied in the first argument.
** The authorizer callback is invoked as SQL statements are being compiled
** by [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants [sqlite3_prepare_v2()],
** [sqlite3_prepare16()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].  At various
** points during the compilation process, as logic is being created
** to perform various actions, the authorizer callback is invoked to
** see if those actions are allowed.  The authorizer callback should
** return SQLITE_OK to allow the action, [SQLITE_IGNORE] to disallow the
** specific action but allow the SQL statement to continue to be
** compiled, or [SQLITE_DENY] to cause the entire SQL statement to be
** rejected with an error.   If the authorizer callback returns
** any value other than [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_OK], or [SQLITE_DENY]
** then [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered
** the authorizer will fail with an error message.
**
** When the callback returns [SQLITE_OK], that means the operation
** requested is ok.  When the callback returns [SQLITE_DENY], the
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered the
** authorizer will fail with an error message explaining that
** access is denied.  If the authorizer code is [SQLITE_READ]
** and the callback returns [SQLITE_IGNORE] then the prepared
** statement is constructed to insert a NULL value in place of
** the table column that would have
** been read if [SQLITE_OK] had been returned.  The [SQLITE_IGNORE]
** return can be used to deny an untrusted user access to individual
** columns of a table.
**
** The first parameter to the authorizer callback is a copy of
** the third parameter to the sqlite3_set_authorizer() interface.
** The second parameter to the callback is an integer 
** [SQLITE_COPY | action code] that specifies the particular action
** to be authorized. The third through sixth
** parameters to the callback are zero-terminated strings that contain 
** additional details about the action to be authorized.
**
** An authorizer is used when preparing SQL statements from an untrusted
** source, to ensure that the SQL statements do not try to access data
** that they are not allowed to see, or that they do not try to
** execute malicious statements that damage the database.  For
** example, an application may allow a user to enter arbitrary
** SQL queries for evaluation by a database.  But the application does
** not want the user to be able to make arbitrary changes to the
** database.  An authorizer could then be put in place while the
** user-entered SQL is being prepared that disallows everything
** except SELECT statements.  
**
** Only a single authorizer can be in place on a database connection
** at a time.  Each call to sqlite3_set_authorizer overrides the
** previous call.  Disable the authorizer by installing a NULL callback.
** The authorizer is disabled by default.
**
** Note that the authorizer callback is invoked only during 
** [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants.  Authorization is not
** performed during statement evaluation in [sqlite3_step()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12501} The [sqlite3_set_authorizer(D,...)] interface registers a
**          authorizer callback with database connection D.
**
** {F12502} The authorizer callback is invoked as SQL statements are
**          being compiled
**
** {F12503} If the authorizer callback returns any value other than
**          [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_OK], or [SQLITE_DENY] then
**          the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that caused
**          the authorizer callback to run shall fail with an
**          [SQLITE_ERROR] error code and an appropriate error message.
**
** {F12504} When the authorizer callback returns [SQLITE_OK], the operation
**          described is coded normally.
**
** {F12505} When the authorizer callback returns [SQLITE_DENY], the
**          [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that caused the
**          authorizer callback to run shall fail
**          with an [SQLITE_ERROR] error code and an error message
**          explaining that access is denied.
**
** {F12506} If the authorizer code (the 2nd parameter to the authorizer
**          callback) is [SQLITE_READ] and the authorizer callback returns
**          [SQLITE_IGNORE] then the prepared statement is constructed to
**          insert a NULL value in place of the table column that would have
**          been read if [SQLITE_OK] had been returned.
**
** {F12507} If the authorizer code (the 2nd parameter to the authorizer
**          callback) is anything other than [SQLITE_READ], then
**          a return of [SQLITE_IGNORE] has the same effect as [SQLITE_DENY]. 
**
** {F12510} The first parameter to the authorizer callback is a copy of
**          the third parameter to the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] interface.
**
** {F12511} The second parameter to the callback is an integer 
**          [SQLITE_COPY | action code] that specifies the particular action
**          to be authorized.
**
** {F12512} The third through sixth parameters to the callback are
**          zero-terminated strings that contain 
**          additional details about the action to be authorized.
**
** {F12520} Each call to [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] overrides the
**          any previously installed authorizer.
**
** {F12521} A NULL authorizer means that no authorization
**          callback is invoked.
**
** {F12522} The default authorizer is NULL.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_set_authorizer(
  sqlite3*,
  int (*xAuth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,const char*),
  void *pUserData
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Return Codes {F12590}
**
** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback function] must
** return either [SQLITE_OK] or one of these two constants in order
** to signal SQLite whether or not the action is permitted.  See the
** [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer documentation] for additional
** information.
*/
#define SQLITE_DENY   1   /* Abort the SQL statement with an error */
#define SQLITE_IGNORE 2   /* Don't allow access, but don't generate an error */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Action Codes {F12550}
**
** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] interface registers a callback function
** that is invoked to authorizer certain SQL statement actions.  The
** second parameter to the callback is an integer code that specifies
** what action is being authorized.  These are the integer action codes that
** the authorizer callback may be passed.
**
** These action code values signify what kind of operation is to be 
** authorized.  The 3rd and 4th parameters to the authorization
** callback function will be parameters or NULL depending on which of these
** codes is used as the second parameter.  The 5th parameter to the
** authorizer callback is the name of the database ("main", "temp", 
** etc.) if applicable.  The 6th parameter to the authorizer callback
** is the name of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for
** the access attempt or NULL if this access attempt is directly from 
** top-level SQL code.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12551} The second parameter to an 
**          [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback is always an integer
**          [SQLITE_COPY | authorizer code] that specifies what action
**          is being authorized.
**
** {F12552} The 3rd and 4th parameters to the 
**          [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorization callback function]
**          will be parameters or NULL depending on which 
**          [SQLITE_COPY | authorizer code] is used as the second parameter.
**
** {F12553} The 5th parameter to the
**          [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback] is the name
**          of the database (example: "main", "temp", etc.) if applicable.
**
** {F12554} The 6th parameter to the
**          [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback] is the name
**          of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for
**          the access attempt or NULL if this access attempt is directly from 
**          top-level SQL code.
*/
/******************************************* 3rd ************ 4th ***********/
#define SQLITE_CREATE_INDEX          1   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TABLE          2   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_INDEX     3   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TABLE     4   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TRIGGER   5   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_VIEW      6   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TRIGGER        7   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_VIEW           8   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DELETE                9   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_INDEX           10   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TABLE           11   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_INDEX      12   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TABLE      13   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TRIGGER    14   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_VIEW       15   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TRIGGER         16   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_VIEW            17   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_INSERT               18   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_PRAGMA               19   /* Pragma Name     1st arg or NULL */
#define SQLITE_READ                 20   /* Table Name      Column Name     */
#define SQLITE_SELECT               21   /* NULL            NULL            */
#define SQLITE_TRANSACTION          22   /* NULL            NULL            */
#define SQLITE_UPDATE               23   /* Table Name      Column Name     */
#define SQLITE_ATTACH               24   /* Filename        NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DETACH               25   /* Database Name   NULL            */
#define SQLITE_ALTER_TABLE          26   /* Database Name   Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_REINDEX              27   /* Index Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_ANALYZE              28   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_VTABLE        29   /* Table Name      Module Name     */
#define SQLITE_DROP_VTABLE          30   /* Table Name      Module Name     */
#define SQLITE_FUNCTION             31   /* Function Name   NULL            */
#define SQLITE_COPY                  0   /* No longer used */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Tracing And Profiling Functions {F12280}
**
** These routines register callback functions that can be used for
** tracing and profiling the execution of SQL statements.
**
** The callback function registered by sqlite3_trace() is invoked at
** various times when an SQL statement is being run by [sqlite3_step()].
** The callback returns a UTF-8 rendering of the SQL statement text
** as the statement first begins executing.  Additional callbacks occur
** as each triggersubprogram is entered.  The callbacks for triggers
** contain a UTF-8 SQL comment that identifies the trigger.
** 
** The callback function registered by sqlite3_profile() is invoked
** as each SQL statement finishes.  The profile callback contains
** the original statement text and an estimate of wall-clock time
** of how long that statement took to run.
**
** The sqlite3_profile() API is currently considered experimental and
** is subject to change or removal in a future release.
**
** The trigger reporting feature of the trace callback is considered
** experimental and is subject to change or removal in future releases.
** Future versions of SQLite might also add new trace callback 
** invocations.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12281} The callback function registered by [sqlite3_trace()] is
**          whenever an SQL statement first begins to execute and
**          whenever a trigger subprogram first begins to run.
**
** {F12282} Each call to [sqlite3_trace()] overrides the previously
**          registered trace callback.
**
** {F12283} A NULL trace callback disables tracing.
**
** {F12284} The first argument to the trace callback is a copy of
**          the pointer which was the 3rd argument to [sqlite3_trace()].
**
** {F12285} The second argument to the trace callback is a
**          zero-terminated UTF8 string containing the original text
**          of the SQL statement as it was passed into [sqlite3_prepare_v2()]
**          or the equivalent, or an SQL comment indicating the beginning
**          of a trigger subprogram.
**
** {F12287} The callback function registered by [sqlite3_profile()] is invoked
**          as each SQL statement finishes.
**
** {F12288} The first parameter to the profile callback is a copy of
**          the 3rd parameter to [sqlite3_profile()].
**
** {F12289} The second parameter to the profile callback is a
**          zero-terminated UTF-8 string that contains the complete text of
**          the SQL statement as it was processed by [sqlite3_prepare_v2()]
**          or the equivalent.
**
** {F12290} The third parameter to the profile  callback is an estimate
**          of the number of nanoseconds of wall-clock time required to
**          run the SQL statement from start to finish.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_trace(sqlite3*, void(*xTrace)(void*,const char*), void*);
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_profile(sqlite3*,
   void(*xProfile)(void*,const char*,sqlite3_uint64), void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Query Progress Callbacks {F12910}
**
** This routine configures a callback function - the
** progress callback - that is invoked periodically during long
** running calls to [sqlite3_exec()], [sqlite3_step()] and
** [sqlite3_get_table()].   An example use for this 
** interface is to keep a GUI updated during a large query.
**
** If the progress callback returns non-zero, the opertion is
** interrupted.  This feature can be used to implement a
** "Cancel" button on a GUI dialog box.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12911} The callback function registered by [sqlite3_progress_handler()]
**          is invoked periodically during long running calls to
**          [sqlite3_step()].
**
** {F12912} The progress callback is invoked once for every N virtual
**          machine opcodes, where N is the second argument to 
**          the [sqlite3_progress_handler()] call that registered
**          the callback.  <todo>What if N is less than 1?</todo>
**
** {F12913} The progress callback itself is identified by the third
**          argument to [sqlite3_progress_handler()].
**
** {F12914} The fourth argument [sqlite3_progress_handler()] is a
***         void pointer passed to the progress callback
**          function each time it is invoked.
**
** {F12915} If a call to [sqlite3_step()] results in fewer than
**          N opcodes being executed,
**          then the progress callback is never invoked. {END}
** 
** {F12916} Every call to [sqlite3_progress_handler()]
**          overwrites any previously registere progress handler.
**
** {F12917} If the progress handler callback is NULL then no progress
**          handler is invoked.
**
** {F12918} If the progress callback returns a result other than 0, then
**          the behavior is a if [sqlite3_interrupt()] had been called.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_progress_handler(sqlite3*, int, int(*)(void*), void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Opening A New Database Connection {F12700}
**
** These routines open an SQLite database file whose name
** is given by the filename argument.
** The filename argument is interpreted as UTF-8
** for [sqlite3_open()] and [sqlite3_open_v2()] and as UTF-16
** in the native byte order for [sqlite3_open16()].
** An [sqlite3*] handle is usually returned in *ppDb, even
** if an error occurs.  The only exception is if SQLite is unable
** to allocate memory to hold the [sqlite3] object, a NULL will
** be written into *ppDb instead of a pointer to the [sqlite3] object.
** If the database is opened (and/or created)
** successfully, then [SQLITE_OK] is returned.  Otherwise an
** error code is returned.  The
** [sqlite3_errmsg()] or [sqlite3_errmsg16()]  routines can be used to obtain
** an English language description of the error.
**
** The default encoding for the database will be UTF-8 if
** [sqlite3_open()] or [sqlite3_open_v2()] is called and
** UTF-16 in the native byte order if [sqlite3_open16()] is used.
**
** Whether or not an error occurs when it is opened, resources
** associated with the [sqlite3*] handle should be released by passing it
** to [sqlite3_close()] when it is no longer required.
**
** The [sqlite3_open_v2()] interface works like [sqlite3_open()] 
** except that it acccepts two additional parameters for additional control
** over the new database connection.  The flags parameter can be
** one of:
**
** <ol>
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE] | [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE]
** </ol>
**
** The first value opens the database read-only. 
** If the database does not previously exist, an error is returned.
** The second option opens
** the database for reading and writing if possible, or reading only if
** if the file is write protected.  In either case the database
** must already exist or an error is returned.  The third option
** opens the database for reading and writing and creates it if it does
** not already exist.
** The third options is behavior that is always used for [sqlite3_open()]
** and [sqlite3_open16()].
**
** If the filename is ":memory:", then an private
** in-memory database is created for the connection.  This in-memory
** database will vanish when the database connection is closed.  Future
** version of SQLite might make use of additional special filenames
** that begin with the ":" character.  It is recommended that 
** when a database filename really does begin with
** ":" that you prefix the filename with a pathname like "./" to
** avoid ambiguity.
**
** If the filename is an empty string, then a private temporary
** on-disk database will be created.  This private database will be
** automatically deleted as soon as the database connection is closed.
**
** The fourth parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is the name of the
** [sqlite3_vfs] object that defines the operating system 
** interface that the new database connection should use.  If the
** fourth parameter is a NULL pointer then the default [sqlite3_vfs]
** object is used.
**
** <b>Note to windows users:</b>  The encoding used for the filename argument
** of [sqlite3_open()] and [sqlite3_open_v2()] must be UTF-8, not whatever
** codepage is currently defined.  Filenames containing international
** characters must be converted to UTF-8 prior to passing them into
** [sqlite3_open()] or [sqlite3_open_v2()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12701} The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
**          [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces create a new
**          [database connection] associated with
**          the database file given in their first parameter.
**
** {F12702} The filename argument is interpreted as UTF-8
**          for [sqlite3_open()] and [sqlite3_open_v2()] and as UTF-16
**          in the native byte order for [sqlite3_open16()].
**
** {F12703} A successful invocation of [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], 
**          or [sqlite3_open_v2()] writes a pointer to a new
**          [database connection] into *ppDb.
**
** {F12704} The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
**          [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces return [SQLITE_OK] upon success,
**          or an appropriate [error code] on failure.
**
** {F12706} The default text encoding for a new database created using
**          [sqlite3_open()] or [sqlite3_open_v2()] will be UTF-8.
**
** {F12707} The default text encoding for a new database created using
**          [sqlite3_open16()] will be UTF-16.
**
** {F12709} The [sqlite3_open(F,D)] interface is equivalent to
**          [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,0)] where the G parameter is
**          [SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE]|[SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE].
**
** {F12711} If the G parameter to [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)] contains the
**          bit value [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY] then the database is opened
**          for reading only.
**
** {F12712} If the G parameter to [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)] contains the
**          bit value [SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE] then the database is opened
**          reading and writing if possible, or for reading only if the
**          file is write protected by the operating system.
**
** {F12713} If the G parameter to [sqlite3_open(v2(F,D,G,V)] omits the
**          bit value [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE] and the database does not
**          previously exist, an error is returned.
**
** {F12714} If the G parameter to [sqlite3_open(v2(F,D,G,V)] contains the
**          bit value [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE] and the database does not
**          previously exist, then an attempt is made to create and
**          initialize the database.
**
** {F12717} If the filename argument to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()],
**          or [sqlite3_open_v2()] is ":memory:", then an private,
**          ephemeral, in-memory database is created for the connection.
**          <todo>Is SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE|SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE required
**          in sqlite3_open_v2()?</todo>
**
** {F12719} If the filename is an empty string, then a private, ephermeral
**          on-disk database will be created.
**          <todo>Is SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE|SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE required
**          in sqlite3_open_v2()?</todo>
**
** {F12721} The [database connection] created by 
**          [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)] will use the
**          [sqlite3_vfs] object identified by the V parameter, or
**          the default [sqlite3_vfs] object is V is a NULL pointer.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open(
  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open16(
  const void *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-16) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open_v2(
  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb,         /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
  int flags,              /* Flags */
  const char *zVfs        /* Name of VFS module to use */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Error Codes And Messages {F12800}
**
** The sqlite3_errcode() interface returns the numeric
** [SQLITE_OK | result code] or [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result code]
** for the most recent failed sqlite3_* API call associated
** with [sqlite3] handle 'db'. If a prior API call failed but the
** most recent API call succeeded, the return value from sqlite3_errcode()
** is undefined.
**
** The sqlite3_errmsg() and sqlite3_errmsg16() return English-language
** text that describes the error, as either UTF8 or UTF16 respectively.
** Memory to hold the error message string is managed internally.
** The application does not need to worry with freeing the result.
** However, the error string might be overwritten or deallocated b
** subsequent calls to other SQLite interface functions.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12801} The [sqlite3_errcode(D)] interface returns the numeric
**          [SQLITE_OK | result code] or
**          [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result code]
**          for the most recent failed interface call associated
**          with [sqlite3] handle D.
**
** {U12802} If a prior API call failed but the most recent API call
**          succeeded, the return value from [sqlite3_errcode()],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg()], and [sqlite3_errmsg16()] are undefined.
**
** {F12803} The [sqlite3_errmsg(D)] and [sqlite3_errmsg16(D)]
**          interfaces return English-language text that describes
**          the error in the mostly recently failed interface call,
**          encoded as either UTF8 or UTF16 respectively.
**
** {U12804} The strings returned by [sqlite3_errmsg()] and [sqlite3_errmsg16()]
**          are only valid until the next SQLite interface call.
**
** {F12807} Calls to [sqlite3_errcode()], [sqlite3_errmsg()], and
**          [sqlite3_errmsg16()] themselves do not affect the
**          results of future invocations of these routines.
**
** {F12808} Calls to API routines that do not return an error code
**          (example: [sqlite3_data_count()]) do not
**          change the error code or message returned by
**          [sqlite3_errcode()], [sqlite3_errmsg()], or [sqlite3_errmsg16()].
**
** {F12809} Interfaces that are not associated with a specific
**          [database connection] (examples:
**          [sqlite3_mprintf()] or [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache()]
**          do not change the values returned by
**          [sqlite3_errcode()], [sqlite3_errmsg()], or [sqlite3_errmsg16()].
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_errcode(sqlite3 *db);
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_errmsg(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_errmsg16(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: SQL Statement Object {F13000}
** KEYWORDS: {prepared statement} {prepared statements}
**
** An instance of this object represent single SQL statements.  This
** object is variously known as a "prepared statement" or a 
** "compiled SQL statement" or simply as a "statement".
** 
** The life of a statement object goes something like this:
**
** <ol>
** <li> Create the object using [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or a related
**      function.
** <li> Bind values to host parameters using
**      [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_* interfaces].
** <li> Run the SQL by calling [sqlite3_step()] one or more times.
** <li> Reset the statement using [sqlite3_reset()] then go back
**      to step 2.  Do this zero or more times.
** <li> Destroy the object using [sqlite3_finalize()].
** </ol>
**
** Refer to documentation on individual methods above for additional
** information.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_stmt sqlite3_stmt;

/*
** CAPI3REF: Compiling An SQL Statement {F13010}
**
** To execute an SQL query, it must first be compiled into a byte-code
** program using one of these routines. 
**
** The first argument "db" is an [database connection] 
** obtained from a prior call to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()]
** or [sqlite3_open16()]. 
** The second argument "zSql" is the statement to be compiled, encoded
** as either UTF-8 or UTF-16.  The sqlite3_prepare() and sqlite3_prepare_v2()
** interfaces uses UTF-8 and sqlite3_prepare16() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2()
** use UTF-16. {END}
**
** If the nByte argument is less
** than zero, then zSql is read up to the first zero terminator.
** If nByte is non-negative, then it is the maximum number of 
** bytes read from zSql.  When nByte is non-negative, the
** zSql string ends at either the first '\000' or '\u0000' character or 
** until the nByte-th byte, whichever comes first. {END}
**
** *pzTail is made to point to the first byte past the end of the
** first SQL statement in zSql.  These routines only compiles the first
** statement in zSql, so *pzTail is left pointing to what remains
** uncompiled.
**
** *ppStmt is left pointing to a compiled [prepared statement] that can be
** executed using [sqlite3_step()].  Or if there is an error, *ppStmt may be
** set to NULL.  If the input text contains no SQL (if the input
** is and empty string or a comment) then *ppStmt is set to NULL.
** {U13018} The calling procedure is responsible for deleting the
** compiled SQL statement
** using [sqlite3_finalize()] after it has finished with it.
**
** On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned.  Otherwise an 
** [error code] is returned.
**
** The sqlite3_prepare_v2() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2() interfaces are
** recommended for all new programs. The two older interfaces are retained
** for backwards compatibility, but their use is discouraged.
** In the "v2" interfaces, the prepared statement
** that is returned (the [sqlite3_stmt] object) contains a copy of the 
** original SQL text. {END} This causes the [sqlite3_step()] interface to
** behave a differently in two ways:
**
** <ol>
** <li>
** If the database schema changes, instead of returning [SQLITE_SCHEMA] as it
** always used to do, [sqlite3_step()] will automatically recompile the SQL
** statement and try to run it again.  If the schema has changed in
** a way that makes the statement no longer valid, [sqlite3_step()] will still
** return [SQLITE_SCHEMA].  But unlike the legacy behavior, 
** [SQLITE_SCHEMA] is now a fatal error.  Calling
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] again will not make the
** error go away.  Note: use [sqlite3_errmsg()] to find the text
** of the parsing error that results in an [SQLITE_SCHEMA] return. {END}
** </li>
**
** <li>
** When an error occurs, 
** [sqlite3_step()] will return one of the detailed 
** [error codes] or [extended error codes]. 
** The legacy behavior was that [sqlite3_step()] would only return a generic
** [SQLITE_ERROR] result code and you would have to make a second call to
** [sqlite3_reset()] in order to find the underlying cause of the problem.
** With the "v2" prepare interfaces, the underlying reason for the error is
** returned immediately.
** </li>
** </ol>
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13011} The [sqlite3_prepare(db,zSql,...)] and
**          [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,...)] interfaces interpret the
**          text in their zSql parameter as UTF-8.
**
** {F13012} The [sqlite3_prepare16(db,zSql,...)] and
**          [sqlite3_prepare16_v2(db,zSql,...)] interfaces interpret the
**          text in their zSql parameter as UTF-16 in the native byte order.
**
** {F13013} If the nByte argument to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,nByte,...)]
**          and its variants is less than zero, then SQL text is
**          read from zSql is read up to the first zero terminator.
**
** {F13014} If the nByte argument to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,nByte,...)]
**          and its variants is non-negative, then nBytes bytes
**          SQL text is read from zSql.
**
** {F13015} In [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,N,P,pzTail)] and its variants
**          if the zSql input text contains more than one SQL statement
**          and pzTail is not NULL, then *pzTail is made to point to the
**          first byte past the end of the first SQL statement in zSql.
**          <todo>What does *pzTail point to if there is one statement?</todo>
**
** {F13016} A successful call to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,N,ppStmt,...)]
**          or one of its variants writes into *ppStmt a pointer to a new
**          [prepared statement] or a pointer to NULL
**          if zSql contains nothing other than whitespace or comments. 
**
** {F13019} The [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] interface and its variants return
**          [SQLITE_OK] or an appropriate [error code] upon failure.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare_v2(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare16(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const void *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare16_v2(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const void *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);

/*
** CAPIREF: Retrieving Statement SQL {F13100}
**
** This intereface can be used to retrieve a saved copy of the original
** SQL text used to create a [prepared statement].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13101} If the [prepared statement] passed as 
**          the an argument to [sqlite3_sql()] was compiled
**          compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or
**          [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()],
**          then [sqlite3_sql()] function returns a pointer to a
**          zero-terminated string containing a UTF-8 rendering
**          of the original SQL statement.
**
** {F13102} If the [prepared statement] passed as 
**          the an argument to [sqlite3_sql()] was compiled
**          compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare()] or
**          [sqlite3_prepare16()],
**          then [sqlite3_sql()] function returns a NULL pointer.
**
** {F13103} The string returned by [sqlite3_sql(S)] is valid until the
**          [prepared statement] S is deleted using [sqlite3_finalize(S)].
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_sql(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Dynamically Typed Value Object  {F15000}
**
** SQLite uses the sqlite3_value object to represent all values
** that are or can be stored in a database table.
** SQLite uses dynamic typing for the values it stores.  
** Values stored in sqlite3_value objects can be
** be integers, floating point values, strings, BLOBs, or NULL.
*/
typedef struct Mem sqlite3_value;

/*
** CAPI3REF:  SQL Function Context Object {F16001}
**
** The context in which an SQL function executes is stored in an
** sqlite3_context object.  A pointer to an sqlite3_context
** object is always first parameter to application-defined SQL functions.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_context sqlite3_context;

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Binding Values To Prepared Statements {F13500}
**
** In the SQL strings input to [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and its
** variants, literals may be replace by a parameter in one
** of these forms:
**
** <ul>
** <li>  ?
** <li>  ?NNN
** <li>  :VVV
** <li>  @VVV
** <li>  $VVV
** </ul>
**
** In the parameter forms shown above NNN is an integer literal,
** VVV alpha-numeric parameter name.
** The values of these parameters (also called "host parameter names"
** or "SQL parameters")
** can be set using the sqlite3_bind_*() routines defined here.
**
** The first argument to the sqlite3_bind_*() routines always
** is a pointer to the [sqlite3_stmt] object returned from
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or its variants. The second
** argument is the index of the parameter to be set. The
** first parameter has an index of 1.  When the same named
** parameter is used more than once, second and subsequent
** occurrences have the same index as the first occurrence. 
** The index for named parameters can be looked up using the
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()] API if desired.  The index
** for "?NNN" parameters is the value of NNN.
** The NNN value must be between 1 and the compile-time
** parameter SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER (default value: 999).
** See <a href="limits.html">limits.html</a> for additional information.
**
** The third argument is the value to bind to the parameter.
**
** In those
** routines that have a fourth argument, its value is the number of bytes
** in the parameter.  To be clear: the value is the number of <u>bytes</u>
** in the value, not the number of characters.   The number
** of bytes does not include the zero-terminator at the end of strings.
** If the fourth parameter is negative, the length of the string is
** number of bytes up to the first zero terminator.
**
** The fifth argument to sqlite3_bind_blob(), sqlite3_bind_text(), and
** sqlite3_bind_text16() is a destructor used to dispose of the BLOB or
** string after SQLite has finished with it. If the fifth argument is
** the special value [SQLITE_STATIC], then SQLite assumes that the
** information is in static, unmanaged space and does not need to be freed.
** If the fifth argument has the value [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], then
** SQLite makes its own private copy of the data immediately, before
** the sqlite3_bind_*() routine returns.
**
** The sqlite3_bind_zeroblob() routine binds a BLOB of length N that
** is filled with zeros.  A zeroblob uses a fixed amount of memory
** (just an integer to hold it size) while it is being processed.
** Zeroblobs are intended to serve as place-holders for BLOBs whose
** content is later written using 
** [sqlite3_blob_open | increment BLOB I/O] routines. A negative
** value for the zeroblob results in a zero-length BLOB.
**
** The sqlite3_bind_*() routines must be called after
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] (and its variants) or [sqlite3_reset()] and
** before [sqlite3_step()].
** Bindings are not cleared by the [sqlite3_reset()] routine.
** Unbound parameters are interpreted as NULL.
**
** These routines return [SQLITE_OK] on success or an error code if
** anything goes wrong.  [SQLITE_RANGE] is returned if the parameter
** index is out of range.  [SQLITE_NOMEM] is returned if malloc fails.
** [SQLITE_MISUSE] might be returned if these routines are called on a
** virtual machine that is the wrong state or which has already been finalized.
** Detection of misuse is unreliable.  Applications should not depend
** on SQLITE_MISUSE returns.  SQLITE_MISUSE is intended to indicate a
** a logic error in the application.  Future versions of SQLite might
** panic rather than return SQLITE_MISUSE.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13506} The [sqlite3_prepare | SQL statement compiler] recognizes
**          tokens of the forms "?", "?NNN", "$VVV", ":VVV", and "@VVV"
**          as SQL parameters, where NNN is any sequence of one or more
**          digits and where VVV is any sequence of one or more 
**          alphanumeric characters or "::" optionally followed by
**          a string containing no spaces and contained within parentheses.
**
** {F13509} The initial value of an SQL parameter is NULL.
**
** {F13512} The index of an "?" SQL parameter is one larger than the
**          largest index of SQL parameter to the left, or 1 if
**          the "?" is the leftmost SQL parameter.
**
** {F13515} The index of an "?NNN" SQL parameter is the integer NNN.
**
** {F13518} The index of an ":VVV", "$VVV", or "@VVV" SQL parameter is
**          the same as the index of leftmost occurances of the same
**          parameter, or one more than the largest index over all
**          parameters to the left if this is the first occurrance
**          of this parameter, or 1 if this is the leftmost parameter.
**
** {F13521} The [sqlite3_prepare | SQL statement compiler] fail with
**          an [SQLITE_RANGE] error if the index of an SQL parameter
**          is less than 1 or greater than SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER.
**
** {F13524} Calls to [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,N,V,...)]
**          associate the value V with all SQL parameters having an
**          index of N in the [prepared statement] S.
**
** {F13527} Calls to [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,N,...)]
**          override prior calls with the same values of S and N.
**
** {F13530} Bindings established by [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,...)]
**          persist across calls to [sqlite3_reset(S)].
**
** {F13533} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] SQLite binds the first L
**          bytes of the blob or string pointed to by V, when L
**          is non-negative.
**
** {F13536} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)] or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] SQLite binds characters
**          from V through the first zero character when L is negative.
**
** {F13539} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is the special
**          constant [SQLITE_STATIC], SQLite assumes that the value V
**          is held in static unmanaged space that will not change
**          during the lifetime of the binding.
**
** {F13542} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is the special
**          constant [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], the routine makes a 
**          private copy of V value before it returns.
**
** {F13545} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is a pointer to
**          a function, SQLite invokes that function to destroy the
**          V value after it has finished using the V value.
**
** {F13548} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(S,N,V,L)] the value bound
**          is a blob of L bytes, or a zero-length blob if L is negative.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int n, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int, double);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int, sqlite3_int64);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_null(sqlite3_stmt*, int);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_text(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const char*, int n, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int n);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number Of SQL Parameters {F13600}
**
** This routine can be used to find the number of SQL parameters
** in a prepared statement.  SQL parameters are tokens of the
** form "?", "?NNN", ":AAA", "$AAA", or "@AAA" that serve as
** place-holders for values that are [sqlite3_bind_blob | bound]
** to the parameters at a later time.
**
** This routine actually returns the index of the largest parameter.
** For all forms except ?NNN, this will correspond to the number of
** unique parameters.  If parameters of the ?NNN are used, there may
** be gaps in the list.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13601} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(S)] interface returns
**          the largest index of all SQL parameters in the
**          [prepared statement] S, or 0 if S
**          contains no SQL parameters.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Name Of A Host Parameter {F13620}
**
** This routine returns a pointer to the name of the n-th
** SQL parameter in a [prepared statement].
** SQL parameters of the form ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA" have a name
** which is the string ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$VVV". 
** In other words, the initial ":" or "$" or "@"
** is included as part of the name.
** Parameters of the form "?" or "?NNN" have no name.
**
** The first host parameter has an index of 1, not 0.
**
** If the value n is out of range or if the n-th parameter is
** nameless, then NULL is returned.  The returned string is
** always in the UTF-8 encoding even if the named parameter was
** originally specified as UTF-16 in [sqlite3_prepare16()] or
** [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13621} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(S,N)] interface returns
**          a UTF-8 rendering of the name of the SQL parameter in
**          [prepared statement] S having index N, or
**          NULL if there is no SQL parameter with index N or if the
**          parameter with index N is an anonymous parameter "?" or
**          a numbered parameter "?NNN".
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Index Of A Parameter With A Given Name {F13640}
**
** Return the index of an SQL parameter given its name.  The
** index value returned is suitable for use as the second
** parameter to [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()].  A zero
** is returned if no matching parameter is found.  The parameter
** name must be given in UTF-8 even if the original statement
** was prepared from UTF-16 text using [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13641} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(S,N)] interface returns
**          the index of SQL parameter in [prepared statement]
**          S whose name matches the UTF-8 string N, or 0 if there is
**          no match.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(sqlite3_stmt*, const char *zName);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Reset All Bindings On A Prepared Statement {F13660}
**
** Contrary to the intuition of many, [sqlite3_reset()] does not
** reset the [sqlite3_bind_blob | bindings] on a 
** [prepared statement].  Use this routine to
** reset all host parameters to NULL.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13661} The [sqlite3_clear_bindings(S)] interface resets all
**          SQL parameter bindings in [prepared statement] S
**          back to NULL.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_clear_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number Of Columns In A Result Set {F13710}
**
** Return the number of columns in the result set returned by the 
** [prepared statement]. This routine returns 0
** if pStmt is an SQL statement that does not return data (for 
** example an UPDATE).
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13711} The [sqlite3_column_count(S)] interface returns the number of
**          columns in the result set generated by the
**          [prepared statement] S, or 0 if S does not generate
**          a result set.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Column Names In A Result Set {F13720}
**
** These routines return the name assigned to a particular column
** in the result set of a SELECT statement.  The sqlite3_column_name()
** interface returns a pointer to a zero-terminated UTF8 string
** and sqlite3_column_name16() returns a pointer to a zero-terminated
** UTF16 string.  The first parameter is the
** [prepared statement] that implements the SELECT statement.
** The second parameter is the column number.  The left-most column is
** number 0.
**
** The returned string pointer is valid until either the 
** [prepared statement] is destroyed by [sqlite3_finalize()]
** or until the next call sqlite3_column_name() or sqlite3_column_name16()
** on the same column.
**
** If sqlite3_malloc() fails during the processing of either routine
** (for example during a conversion from UTF-8 to UTF-16) then a
** NULL pointer is returned.
**
** The name of a result column is the value of the "AS" clause for
** that column, if there is an AS clause.  If there is no AS clause
** then the name of the column is unspecified and may change from
** one release of SQLite to the next.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13721} A successful invocation of the [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)]
**          interface returns the name
**          of the Nth column (where 0 is the left-most column) for the
**          result set of [prepared statement] S as a
**          zero-terminated UTF-8 string.
**
** {F13723} A successful invocation of the [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)]
**          interface returns the name
**          of the Nth column (where 0 is the left-most column) for the
**          result set of [prepared statement] S as a
**          zero-terminated UTF-16 string in the native byte order.
**
** {F13724} The [sqlite3_column_name()] and [sqlite3_column_name16()]
**          interfaces return a NULL pointer if they are unable to
**          allocate memory memory to hold there normal return strings.
**
** {F13725} If the N parameter to [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)] or
**          [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)] is out of range, then the
**          interfaces returns a NULL pointer.
** 
** {F13726} The strings returned by [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)] and
**          [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)] are valid until the next
**          call to either routine with the same S and N parameters
**          or until [sqlite3_finalize(S)] is called.
**
** {F13727} When a result column of a [SELECT] statement contains
**          an AS clause, the name of that column is the indentifier
**          to the right of the AS keyword.
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_name16(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Source Of Data In A Query Result {F13740}
**
** These routines provide a means to determine what column of what
** table in which database a result of a SELECT statement comes from.
** The name of the database or table or column can be returned as
** either a UTF8 or UTF16 string.  The _database_ routines return
** the database name, the _table_ routines return the table name, and
** the origin_ routines return the column name.
** The returned string is valid until
** the [prepared statement] is destroyed using
** [sqlite3_finalize()] or until the same information is requested
** again in a different encoding.
**
** The names returned are the original un-aliased names of the
** database, table, and column.
**
** The first argument to the following calls is a [prepared statement].
** These functions return information about the Nth column returned by 
** the statement, where N is the second function argument.
**
** If the Nth column returned by the statement is an expression
** or subquery and is not a column value, then all of these functions
** return NULL.  These routine might also return NULL if a memory
** allocation error occurs.  Otherwise, they return the 
** name of the attached database, table and column that query result
** column was extracted from.
**
** As with all other SQLite APIs, those postfixed with "16" return
** UTF-16 encoded strings, the other functions return UTF-8. {END}
**
** These APIs are only available if the library was compiled with the 
** SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA preprocessor symbol defined.
**
** {U13751}
** If two or more threads call one or more of these routines against the same
** prepared statement and column at the same time then the results are
** undefined.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13741} The [sqlite3_column_database_name(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-8 zero-terminated name of the database from which the 
**          Nth result column of [prepared statement] S 
**          is extracted, or NULL if the the Nth column of S is a
**          general expression or if unable to allocate memory
**          to store the name.
**          
** {F13742} The [sqlite3_column_database_name16(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-16 native byte order
**          zero-terminated name of the database from which the 
**          Nth result column of [prepared statement] S 
**          is extracted, or NULL if the the Nth column of S is a
**          general expression or if unable to allocate memory
**          to store the name.
**          
** {F13743} The [sqlite3_column_table_name(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-8 zero-terminated name of the table from which the 
**          Nth result column of [prepared statement] S 
**          is extracted, or NULL if the the Nth column of S is a
**          general expression or if unable to allocate memory
**          to store the name.
**          
** {F13744} The [sqlite3_column_table_name16(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-16 native byte order
**          zero-terminated name of the table from which the 
**          Nth result column of [prepared statement] S 
**          is extracted, or NULL if the the Nth column of S is a
**          general expression or if unable to allocate memory
**          to store the name.
**          
** {F13745} The [sqlite3_column_origin_name(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-8 zero-terminated name of the table column from which the 
**          Nth result column of [prepared statement] S 
**          is extracted, or NULL if the the Nth column of S is a
**          general expression or if unable to allocate memory
**          to store the name.
**          
** {F13746} The [sqlite3_column_origin_name16(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-16 native byte order
**          zero-terminated name of the table column from which the 
**          Nth result column of [prepared statement] S 
**          is extracted, or NULL if the the Nth column of S is a
**          general expression or if unable to allocate memory
**          to store the name.
**          
** {F13748} The return values from
**          [sqlite3_column_database_name|column metadata interfaces]
**          are valid
**          for the lifetime of the [prepared statement]
**          or until the encoding is changed by another metadata
**          interface call for the same prepared statement and column.
**
** LIMITATIONS:
**
** {U13751} If two or more threads call one or more
**          [sqlite3_column_database_name|column metadata interfaces]
**          the same [prepared statement] and result column
**          at the same time then the results are undefined.
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_database_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_database_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_table_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_table_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_origin_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_origin_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Declared Datatype Of A Query Result {F13760}
**
** The first parameter is a [prepared statement]. 
** If this statement is a SELECT statement and the Nth column of the 
** returned result set of that SELECT is a table column (not an
** expression or subquery) then the declared type of the table
** column is returned.  If the Nth column of the result set is an
** expression or subquery, then a NULL pointer is returned.
** The returned string is always UTF-8 encoded.  {END} 
** For example, in the database schema:
**
** CREATE TABLE t1(c1 VARIANT);
**
** And the following statement compiled:
**
** SELECT c1 + 1, c1 FROM t1;
**
** Then this routine would return the string "VARIANT" for the second
** result column (i==1), and a NULL pointer for the first result column
** (i==0).
**
** SQLite uses dynamic run-time typing.  So just because a column
** is declared to contain a particular type does not mean that the
** data stored in that column is of the declared type.  SQLite is
** strongly typed, but the typing is dynamic not static.  Type
** is associated with individual values, not with the containers
** used to hold those values.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13761}  A successful call to [sqlite3_column_decltype(S,N)]
**           returns a zero-terminated UTF-8 string containing the
**           the declared datatype of the table column that appears
**           as the Nth column (numbered from 0) of the result set to the
**           [prepared statement] S.
**
** {F13762}  A successful call to [sqlite3_column_decltype16(S,N)]
**           returns a zero-terminated UTF-16 native byte order string
**           containing the declared datatype of the table column that appears
**           as the Nth column (numbered from 0) of the result set to the
**           [prepared statement] S.
**
** {F13763}  If N is less than 0 or N is greater than or equal to
**           the number of columns in [prepared statement] S
**           or if the Nth column of S is an expression or subquery rather
**           than a table column or if a memory allocation failure
**           occurs during encoding conversions, then
**           calls to [sqlite3_column_decltype(S,N)] or
**           [sqlite3_column_decltype16(S,N)] return NULL.
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_decltype(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_decltype16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);

/* 
** CAPI3REF:  Evaluate An SQL Statement {F13200}
**
** After an [prepared statement] has been prepared with a call
** to either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or to one of
** the legacy interfaces [sqlite3_prepare()] or [sqlite3_prepare16()],
** then this function must be called one or more times to evaluate the 
** statement.
**
** The details of the behavior of this sqlite3_step() interface depend
** on whether the statement was prepared using the newer "v2" interface
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or the older legacy
** interface [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()].  The use of the
** new "v2" interface is recommended for new applications but the legacy
** interface will continue to be supported.
**
** In the lagacy interface, the return value will be either [SQLITE_BUSY], 
** [SQLITE_DONE], [SQLITE_ROW], [SQLITE_ERROR], or [SQLITE_MISUSE].
** With the "v2" interface, any of the other [SQLITE_OK | result code]
** or [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result code] might be returned as
** well.
**
** [SQLITE_BUSY] means that the database engine was unable to acquire the
** database locks it needs to do its job.  If the statement is a COMMIT
** or occurs outside of an explicit transaction, then you can retry the
** statement.  If the statement is not a COMMIT and occurs within a
** explicit transaction then you should rollback the transaction before
** continuing.
**
** [SQLITE_DONE] means that the statement has finished executing
** successfully.  sqlite3_step() should not be called again on this virtual
** machine without first calling [sqlite3_reset()] to reset the virtual
** machine back to its initial state.
**
** If the SQL statement being executed returns any data, then 
** [SQLITE_ROW] is returned each time a new row of data is ready
** for processing by the caller. The values may be accessed using
** the [sqlite3_column_int | column access functions].
** sqlite3_step() is called again to retrieve the next row of data.
** 
** [SQLITE_ERROR] means that a run-time error (such as a constraint
** violation) has occurred.  sqlite3_step() should not be called again on
** the VM. More information may be found by calling [sqlite3_errmsg()].
** With the legacy interface, a more specific error code (example:
** [SQLITE_INTERRUPT], [SQLITE_SCHEMA], [SQLITE_CORRUPT], and so forth)
** can be obtained by calling [sqlite3_reset()] on the
** [prepared statement].  In the "v2" interface,
** the more specific error code is returned directly by sqlite3_step().
**
** [SQLITE_MISUSE] means that the this routine was called inappropriately.
** Perhaps it was called on a [prepared statement] that has
** already been [sqlite3_finalize | finalized] or on one that had 
** previously returned [SQLITE_ERROR] or [SQLITE_DONE].  Or it could
** be the case that the same database connection is being used by two or
** more threads at the same moment in time.
**
** <b>Goofy Interface Alert:</b>
** In the legacy interface, 
** the sqlite3_step() API always returns a generic error code,
** [SQLITE_ERROR], following any error other than [SQLITE_BUSY]
** and [SQLITE_MISUSE].  You must call [sqlite3_reset()] or
** [sqlite3_finalize()] in order to find one of the specific
** [error codes] that better describes the error.
** We admit that this is a goofy design.  The problem has been fixed
** with the "v2" interface.  If you prepare all of your SQL statements
** using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] instead
** of the legacy [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()], then the 
** more specific [error codes] are returned directly
** by sqlite3_step().  The use of the "v2" interface is recommended.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13202}  If [prepared statement] S is ready to be
**           run, then [sqlite3_step(S)] advances that prepared statement
**           until to completion or until it is ready to return another
**           row of the result set or an interrupt or run-time error occurs.
**
** {F15304}  When a call to [sqlite3_step(S)] causes the 
**           [prepared statement] S to run to completion,
**           the function returns [SQLITE_DONE].
**
** {F15306}  When a call to [sqlite3_step(S)] stops because it is ready
**           to return another row of the result set, it returns
**           [SQLITE_ROW].
**
** {F15308}  If a call to [sqlite3_step(S)] encounters an
**           [sqlite3_interrupt|interrupt] or a run-time error,
**           it returns an appropraite error code that is not one of
**           [SQLITE_OK], [SQLITE_ROW], or [SQLITE_DONE].
**
** {F15310}  If an [sqlite3_interrupt|interrupt] or run-time error
**           occurs during a call to [sqlite3_step(S)]
**           for a [prepared statement] S created using
**           legacy interfaces [sqlite3_prepare()] or
**           [sqlite3_prepare16()] then the function returns either
**           [SQLITE_ERROR], [SQLITE_BUSY], or [SQLITE_MISUSE].
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_step(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number of columns in a result set {F13770}
**
** Return the number of values in the current row of the result set.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13771}  After a call to [sqlite3_step(S)] that returns
**           [SQLITE_ROW], the [sqlite3_data_count(S)] routine
**           will return the same value as the
**           [sqlite3_column_count(S)] function.
**
** {F13772}  After [sqlite3_step(S)] has returned any value other than
**           [SQLITE_ROW] or before [sqlite3_step(S)] has been 
**           called on the [prepared statement] for
**           the first time since it was [sqlite3_prepare|prepared]
**           or [sqlite3_reset|reset], the [sqlite3_data_count(S)]
**           routine returns zero.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_data_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Fundamental Datatypes {F10265}
** KEYWORDS: SQLITE_TEXT
**
** {F10266}Every value in SQLite has one of five fundamental datatypes:
**
** <ul>
** <li> 64-bit signed integer
** <li> 64-bit IEEE floating point number
** <li> string
** <li> BLOB
** <li> NULL
** </ul> {END}
**
** These constants are codes for each of those types.
**
** Note that the SQLITE_TEXT constant was also used in SQLite version 2
** for a completely different meaning.  Software that links against both
** SQLite version 2 and SQLite version 3 should use SQLITE3_TEXT not
** SQLITE_TEXT.
*/
#define SQLITE_INTEGER  1
#define SQLITE_FLOAT    2
#define SQLITE_BLOB     4
#define SQLITE_NULL     5
#ifdef SQLITE_TEXT
# undef SQLITE_TEXT
#else
# define SQLITE_TEXT     3
#endif
#define SQLITE3_TEXT     3

/*
** CAPI3REF: Results Values From A Query {F13800}
**
** These routines form the "result set query" interface.
**
** These routines return information about
** a single column of the current result row of a query.  In every
** case the first argument is a pointer to the 
** [prepared statement] that is being
** evaluated (the [sqlite3_stmt*] that was returned from 
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or one of its variants) and
** the second argument is the index of the column for which information 
** should be returned.  The left-most column of the result set
** has an index of 0.
**
** If the SQL statement is not currently point to a valid row, or if the
** the column index is out of range, the result is undefined. 
** These routines may only be called when the most recent call to
** [sqlite3_step()] has returned [SQLITE_ROW] and neither
** [sqlite3_reset()] nor [sqlite3_finalize()] has been call subsequently.
** If any of these routines are called after [sqlite3_reset()] or
** [sqlite3_finalize()] or after [sqlite3_step()] has returned
** something other than [SQLITE_ROW], the results are undefined.
** If [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()]
** are called from a different thread while any of these routines
** are pending, then the results are undefined.  
**
** The sqlite3_column_type() routine returns 
** [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype code] for the initial data type
** of the result column.  The returned value is one of [SQLITE_INTEGER],
** [SQLITE_FLOAT], [SQLITE_TEXT], [SQLITE_BLOB], or [SQLITE_NULL].  The value
** returned by sqlite3_column_type() is only meaningful if no type
** conversions have occurred as described below.  After a type conversion,
** the value returned by sqlite3_column_type() is undefined.  Future
** versions of SQLite may change the behavior of sqlite3_column_type()
** following a type conversion.
**
** If the result is a BLOB or UTF-8 string then the sqlite3_column_bytes() 
** routine returns the number of bytes in that BLOB or string.
** If the result is a UTF-16 string, then sqlite3_column_bytes() converts
** the string to UTF-8 and then returns the number of bytes.
** If the result is a numeric value then sqlite3_column_bytes() uses
** [sqlite3_snprintf()] to convert that value to a UTF-8 string and returns
** the number of bytes in that string.
** The value returned does not include the zero terminator at the end
** of the string.  For clarity: the value returned is the number of
** bytes in the string, not the number of characters.
**
** Strings returned by sqlite3_column_text() and sqlite3_column_text16(),
** even empty strings, are always zero terminated.  The return
** value from sqlite3_column_blob() for a zero-length blob is an arbitrary
** pointer, possibly even a NULL pointer.
**
** The sqlite3_column_bytes16() routine is similar to sqlite3_column_bytes()
** but leaves the result in UTF-16 in native byte order instead of UTF-8.  
** The zero terminator is not included in this count.
**
** These routines attempt to convert the value where appropriate.  For
** example, if the internal representation is FLOAT and a text result
** is requested, [sqlite3_snprintf()] is used internally to do the conversion
** automatically.  The following table details the conversions that
** are applied:
**
** <blockquote>
** <table border="1">
** <tr><th> Internal<br>Type <th> Requested<br>Type <th>  Conversion
**
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td> INTEGER   <td> Result is 0
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Result is 0.0
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>   TEXT    <td> Result is NULL pointer
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>   BLOB    <td> Result is NULL pointer
** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>  FLOAT    <td> Convert from integer to float
** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>   TEXT    <td> ASCII rendering of the integer
** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>   BLOB    <td> Same as for INTEGER->TEXT
** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td> INTEGER   <td> Convert from float to integer
** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td>   TEXT    <td> ASCII rendering of the float
** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td>   BLOB    <td> Same as FLOAT->TEXT
** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td> INTEGER   <td> Use atoi()
** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Use atof()
** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td>   BLOB    <td> No change
** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td> INTEGER   <td> Convert to TEXT then use atoi()
** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Convert to TEXT then use atof()
** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td>   TEXT    <td> Add a zero terminator if needed
** </table>
** </blockquote>
**
** The table above makes reference to standard C library functions atoi()
** and atof().  SQLite does not really use these functions.  It has its
** on equavalent internal routines.  The atoi() and atof() names are
** used in the table for brevity and because they are familiar to most
** C programmers.
**
** Note that when type conversions occur, pointers returned by prior
** calls to sqlite3_column_blob(), sqlite3_column_text(), and/or
** sqlite3_column_text16() may be invalidated. 
** Type conversions and pointer invalidations might occur
** in the following cases:
**
** <ul>
** <li><p>  The initial content is a BLOB and sqlite3_column_text() 
**          or sqlite3_column_text16() is called.  A zero-terminator might
**          need to be added to the string.</p></li>
**
** <li><p>  The initial content is UTF-8 text and sqlite3_column_bytes16() or
**          sqlite3_column_text16() is called.  The content must be converted
**          to UTF-16.</p></li>
**
** <li><p>  The initial content is UTF-16 text and sqlite3_column_bytes() or
**          sqlite3_column_text() is called.  The content must be converted
**          to UTF-8.</p></li>
** </ul>
**
** Conversions between UTF-16be and UTF-16le are always done in place and do
** not invalidate a prior pointer, though of course the content of the buffer
** that the prior pointer points to will have been modified.  Other kinds
** of conversion are done in place when it is possible, but sometime it is
** not possible and in those cases prior pointers are invalidated.  
**
** The safest and easiest to remember policy is to invoke these routines
** in one of the following ways:
**
**  <ul>
**  <li>sqlite3_column_text() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
**  <li>sqlite3_column_blob() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
**  <li>sqlite3_column_text16() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes16()</li>
**  </ul>
**
** In other words, you should call sqlite3_column_text(), sqlite3_column_blob(),
** or sqlite3_column_text16() first to force the result into the desired
** format, then invoke sqlite3_column_bytes() or sqlite3_column_bytes16() to
** find the size of the result.  Do not mix call to sqlite3_column_text() or
** sqlite3_column_blob() with calls to sqlite3_column_bytes16().  And do not
** mix calls to sqlite3_column_text16() with calls to sqlite3_column_bytes().
**
** The pointers returned are valid until a type conversion occurs as
** described above, or until [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or
** [sqlite3_finalize()] is called.  The memory space used to hold strings
** and blobs is freed automatically.  Do <b>not</b> pass the pointers returned
** [sqlite3_column_blob()], [sqlite3_column_text()], etc. into 
** [sqlite3_free()].
**
** If a memory allocation error occurs during the evaluation of any
** of these routines, a default value is returned.  The default value
** is either the integer 0, the floating point number 0.0, or a NULL
** pointer.  Subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] will return
** [SQLITE_NOMEM].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13803} The [sqlite3_column_blob(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          [prepared statement] S into a blob and then returns a
**          pointer to the converted value.
**
** {F13806} The [sqlite3_column_bytes(S,N)] interface returns the
**          number of bytes in the blob or string (exclusive of the
**          zero terminator on the string) that was returned by the
**          most recent call to [sqlite3_column_blob(S,N)] or
**          [sqlite3_column_text(S,N)].
**
** {F13809} The [sqlite3_column_bytes16(S,N)] interface returns the
**          number of bytes in the string (exclusive of the
**          zero terminator on the string) that was returned by the
**          most recent call to [sqlite3_column_text16(S,N)].
**
** {F13812} The [sqlite3_column_double(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          [prepared statement] S into a floating point value and
**          returns a copy of that value.
**
** {F13815} The [sqlite3_column_int(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          [prepared statement] S into a 32-bit signed integer and
**          returns a copy of that integer.
**
** {F13818} The [sqlite3_column_int64(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          [prepared statement] S into a 64-bit signed integer and
**          returns a copy of that integer.
**
** {F13821} The [sqlite3_column_text(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          [prepared statement] S into a zero-terminated UTF-8 
**          string and returns a pointer to that string.
**
** {F13824} The [sqlite3_column_text16(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          [prepared statement] S into a zero-terminated 2-byte
**          aligned UTF-16 native byte order
**          string and returns a pointer to that string.
**
** {F13827} The [sqlite3_column_type(S,N)] interface returns
**          one of [SQLITE_NULL], [SQLITE_INTEGER], [SQLITE_FLOAT],
**          [SQLITE_TEXT], or [SQLITE_BLOB] as appropriate for
**          the Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          [prepared statement] S.
**
** {F13830} The [sqlite3_column_value(S,N)] interface returns a
**          pointer to the [sqlite3_value] object that for the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          [prepared statement] S.
*/
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_bytes(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_bytes16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API double sqlite3_column_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_column_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API const unsigned char *sqlite3_column_text(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_type(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_value *sqlite3_column_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Destroy A Prepared Statement Object {F13300}
**
** The sqlite3_finalize() function is called to delete a 
** [prepared statement]. If the statement was
** executed successfully, or not executed at all, then SQLITE_OK is returned.
** If execution of the statement failed then an 
** [error code] or [extended error code]
** is returned. 
**
** This routine can be called at any point during the execution of the
** [prepared statement].  If the virtual machine has not 
** completed execution when this routine is called, that is like
** encountering an error or an interrupt.  (See [sqlite3_interrupt()].) 
** Incomplete updates may be rolled back and transactions cancelled,  
** depending on the circumstances, and the 
** [error code] returned will be [SQLITE_ABORT].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F11302} The [sqlite3_finalize(S)] interface destroys the
**          [prepared statement] S and releases all
**          memory and file resources held by that object.
**
** {F11304} If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for the
**          [prepared statement] S returned an error,
**          then [sqlite3_finalize(S)] returns that same error.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_finalize(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Reset A Prepared Statement Object {F13330}
**
** The sqlite3_reset() function is called to reset a 
** [prepared statement] object.
** back to its initial state, ready to be re-executed.
** Any SQL statement variables that had values bound to them using
** the [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_*() API] retain their values.
** Use [sqlite3_clear_bindings()] to reset the bindings.
**
** {F11332} The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface resets the [prepared statement] S
**          back to the beginning of its program.
**
** {F11334} If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for 
**          [prepared statement] S returned [SQLITE_ROW] or [SQLITE_DONE],
**          or if [sqlite3_step(S)] has never before been called on S,
**          then [sqlite3_reset(S)] returns [SQLITE_OK].
**
** {F11336} If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for
**          [prepared statement] S indicated an error, then
**          [sqlite3_reset(S)] returns an appropriate [error code].
**
** {F11338} The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface does not change the values
**          of any [sqlite3_bind_blob|bindings] on [prepared statement] S.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_reset(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Create Or Redefine SQL Functions {F16100}
** KEYWORDS: {function creation routines} 
**
** These two functions (collectively known as
** "function creation routines") are used to add SQL functions or aggregates
** or to redefine the behavior of existing SQL functions or aggregates.  The
** difference only between the two is that the second parameter, the
** name of the (scalar) function or aggregate, is encoded in UTF-8 for
** sqlite3_create_function() and UTF-16 for sqlite3_create_function16().
**
** The first argument is the [database connection] that holds the
** SQL function or aggregate is to be added or redefined. If a single
** program uses more than one database handle internally, then SQL
** functions or aggregates must be added individually to each database
** handle with which they will be used.
**
** The second parameter is the name of the SQL function to be created
** or redefined.
** The length of the name is limited to 255 bytes, exclusive of the 
** zero-terminator.  Note that the name length limit is in bytes, not
** characters.  Any attempt to create a function with a longer name
** will result in an SQLITE_ERROR error.
**
** The third parameter is the number of arguments that the SQL function or
** aggregate takes. If this parameter is negative, then the SQL function or
** aggregate may take any number of arguments.
**
** The fourth parameter, eTextRep, specifies what 
** [SQLITE_UTF8 | text encoding] this SQL function prefers for
** its parameters.  Any SQL function implementation should be able to work
** work with UTF-8, UTF-16le, or UTF-16be.  But some implementations may be
** more efficient with one encoding than another.  It is allowed to
** invoke sqlite3_create_function() or sqlite3_create_function16() multiple
** times with the same function but with different values of eTextRep.
** When multiple implementations of the same function are available, SQLite
** will pick the one that involves the least amount of data conversion.
** If there is only a single implementation which does not care what
** text encoding is used, then the fourth argument should be
** [SQLITE_ANY].
**
** The fifth parameter is an arbitrary pointer.  The implementation
** of the function can gain access to this pointer using
** [sqlite3_user_data()].
**
** The seventh, eighth and ninth parameters, xFunc, xStep and xFinal, are
** pointers to C-language functions that implement the SQL
** function or aggregate. A scalar SQL function requires an implementation of
** the xFunc callback only, NULL pointers should be passed as the xStep
** and xFinal parameters. An aggregate SQL function requires an implementation
** of xStep and xFinal and NULL should be passed for xFunc. To delete an
** existing SQL function or aggregate, pass NULL for all three function
** callback.
**
** It is permitted to register multiple implementations of the same
** functions with the same name but with either differing numbers of
** arguments or differing perferred text encodings.  SQLite will use
** the implementation most closely matches the way in which the
** SQL function is used.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F16103} The [sqlite3_create_function16()] interface behaves exactly
**          like [sqlite3_create_function()] in every way except that it
**          interprets the zFunctionName argument as
**          zero-terminated UTF-16 native byte order instead of as a
**          zero-terminated UTF-8.
**
** {F16106} 
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function(
  sqlite3 *db,
  const char *zFunctionName,
  int nArg,
  int eTextRep,
  void *pApp,
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function16(
  sqlite3 *db,
  const void *zFunctionName,
  int nArg,
  int eTextRep,
  void *pApp,
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Text Encodings {F10267}
**
** These constant define integer codes that represent the various
** text encodings supported by SQLite.
*/
#define SQLITE_UTF8           1
#define SQLITE_UTF16LE        2
#define SQLITE_UTF16BE        3
#define SQLITE_UTF16          4    /* Use native byte order */
#define SQLITE_ANY            5    /* sqlite3_create_function only */
#define SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED  8    /* sqlite3_create_collation only */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Obsolete Functions
**
** These functions are all now obsolete.  In order to maintain
** backwards compatibility with older code, we continue to support
** these functions.  However, new development projects should avoid
** the use of these functions.  To help encourage people to avoid
** using these functions, we are not going to tell you want they do.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_aggregate_count(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_expired(sqlite3_stmt*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_transfer_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*, sqlite3_stmt*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_global_recover(void);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_thread_cleanup(void);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_memory_alarm(void(*)(void*,sqlite3_int64,int),void*,sqlite3_int64);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Obtaining SQL Function Parameter Values {F15100}
**
** The C-language implementation of SQL functions and aggregates uses
** this set of interface routines to access the parameter values on
** the function or aggregate.
**
** The xFunc (for scalar functions) or xStep (for aggregates) parameters
** to [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
** define callbacks that implement the SQL functions and aggregates.
** The 4th parameter to these callbacks is an array of pointers to
** [sqlite3_value] objects.  There is one [sqlite3_value] object for
** each parameter to the SQL function.  These routines are used to
** extract values from the [sqlite3_value] objects.
**
** These routines work just like the corresponding 
** [sqlite3_column_blob | sqlite3_column_* routines] except that 
** these routines take a single [sqlite3_value*] pointer instead
** of an [sqlite3_stmt*] pointer and an integer column number.
**
** The sqlite3_value_text16() interface extracts a UTF16 string
** in the native byte-order of the host machine.  The
** sqlite3_value_text16be() and sqlite3_value_text16le() interfaces
** extract UTF16 strings as big-endian and little-endian respectively.
**
** The sqlite3_value_numeric_type() interface attempts to apply
** numeric affinity to the value.  This means that an attempt is
** made to convert the value to an integer or floating point.  If
** such a conversion is possible without loss of information (in other
** words if the value is a string that looks like a number)
** then the conversion is done.  Otherwise no conversion occurs.  The 
** [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype] after conversion is returned.
**
** Please pay particular attention to the fact that the pointer that
** is returned from [sqlite3_value_blob()], [sqlite3_value_text()], or
** [sqlite3_value_text16()] can be invalidated by a subsequent call to
** [sqlite3_value_bytes()], [sqlite3_value_bytes16()], [sqlite3_value_text()],
** or [sqlite3_value_text16()].  
**
** These routines must be called from the same thread as
** the SQL function that supplied the sqlite3_value* parameters.
** Or, if the sqlite3_value* argument comes from the [sqlite3_column_value()]
** interface, then these routines should be called from the same thread
** that ran [sqlite3_column_value()].
**
*/
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_blob(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_bytes(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_bytes16(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API double sqlite3_value_double(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_int(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_value_int64(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const unsigned char *sqlite3_value_text(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16le(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16be(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_type(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_numeric_type(sqlite3_value*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Obtain Aggregate Function Context {F16210}
**
** The implementation of aggregate SQL functions use this routine to allocate
** a structure for storing their state.  
** {F16211} The first time the sqlite3_aggregate_context() routine is
** is called for a particular aggregate, SQLite allocates nBytes of memory
** zeros that memory, and returns a pointer to it.
** {F16212} On second and subsequent calls to sqlite3_aggregate_context()
** for the same aggregate function index, the same buffer is returned. {END}
** The implementation
** of the aggregate can use the returned buffer to accumulate data.
**
** {F16213} SQLite automatically frees the allocated buffer when the aggregate
** query concludes. {END}
**
** The first parameter should be a copy of the 
** [sqlite3_context | SQL function context] that is the first
** parameter to the callback routine that implements the aggregate
** function.
**
** This routine must be called from the same thread in which
** the aggregate SQL function is running.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_aggregate_context(sqlite3_context*, int nBytes);

/*
** CAPI3REF: User Data For Functions {F16240}
**
** {F16241} The sqlite3_user_data() interface returns a copy of
** the pointer that was the pUserData parameter (the 5th parameter)
** of the the [sqlite3_create_function()]
** and [sqlite3_create_function16()] routines that originally
** registered the application defined function. {END}
**
** {U16243} This routine must be called from the same thread in which
** the application-defined function is running.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_user_data(sqlite3_context*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Function Auxiliary Data {F16270}
**
** The following two functions may be used by scalar SQL functions to
** associate meta-data with argument values. If the same value is passed to
** multiple invocations of the same SQL function during query execution, under
** some circumstances the associated meta-data may be preserved. This may
** be used, for example, to add a regular-expression matching scalar
** function. The compiled version of the regular expression is stored as
** meta-data associated with the SQL value passed as the regular expression
** pattern.  The compiled regular expression can be reused on multiple
** invocations of the same function so that the original pattern string
** does not need to be recompiled on each invocation.
**
** {F16271}
** The sqlite3_get_auxdata() interface returns a pointer to the meta-data
** associated by the sqlite3_set_auxdata() function with the Nth argument
** value to the application-defined function.
** {F16272} If no meta-data has been ever been set for the Nth
** argument of the function, or if the cooresponding function parameter
** has changed since the meta-data was set, then sqlite3_get_auxdata()
** returns a NULL pointer.
**
** {F16275} The sqlite3_set_auxdata() interface saves the meta-data
** pointed to by its 3rd parameter as the meta-data for the N-th
** argument of the application-defined function. {END} Subsequent
** calls to sqlite3_get_auxdata() might return this data, if it has
** not been destroyed. 
** {F16277} If it is not NULL, SQLite will invoke the destructor 
** function given by the 4th parameter to sqlite3_set_auxdata() on
** the meta-data when the corresponding function parameter changes
** or when the SQL statement completes, whichever comes first. {END}
**
** In practice, meta-data is preserved between function calls for
** expressions that are constant at compile time. This includes literal
** values and SQL variables.
**
** These routines must be called from the same thread in which
** the SQL function is running.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_get_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_set_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N, void*, void (*)(void*));


/*
** CAPI3REF: Constants Defining Special Destructor Behavior {F10280}
**
** These are special value for the destructor that is passed in as the
** final argument to routines like [sqlite3_result_blob()].  If the destructor
** argument is SQLITE_STATIC, it means that the content pointer is constant
** and will never change.  It does not need to be destroyed.  The 
** SQLITE_TRANSIENT value means that the content will likely change in
** the near future and that SQLite should make its own private copy of
** the content before returning.
**
** The typedef is necessary to work around problems in certain
** C++ compilers.  See ticket #2191.
*/
typedef void (*sqlite3_destructor_type)(void*);
#define SQLITE_STATIC      ((sqlite3_destructor_type)0)
#define SQLITE_TRANSIENT   ((sqlite3_destructor_type)-1)

/*
** CAPI3REF: Setting The Result Of An SQL Function {F16400}
**
** These routines are used by the xFunc or xFinal callbacks that
** implement SQL functions and aggregates.  See
** [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
** for additional information.
**
** These functions work very much like the 
** [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_*] family of functions used
** to bind values to host parameters in prepared statements.
** Refer to the
** [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_* documentation] for
** additional information.
**
** {F16402} The sqlite3_result_blob() interface sets the result from
** an application defined function to be the BLOB whose content is pointed
** to by the second parameter and which is N bytes long where N is the
** third parameter. 
** {F16403} The sqlite3_result_zeroblob() inerfaces set the result of
** the application defined function to be a BLOB containing all zero
** bytes and N bytes in size, where N is the value of the 2nd parameter.
**
** {F16407} The sqlite3_result_double() interface sets the result from
** an application defined function to be a floating point value specified
** by its 2nd argument.
**
** {F16409} The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16() functions
** cause the implemented SQL function to throw an exception.
** {F16411} SQLite uses the string pointed to by the
** 2nd parameter of sqlite3_result_error() or sqlite3_result_error16()
** as the text of an error message. {F16412} SQLite interprets the error
** message string from sqlite3_result_error() as UTF8.  {F16413} SQLite
** interprets the string from sqlite3_result_error16() as UTF16 in native
** byte order.  {F16414} If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error()
** or sqlite3_result_error16() is negative then SQLite takes as the error
** message all text up through the first zero character.
** {F16415} If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error() or
** sqlite3_result_error16() is non-negative then SQLite takes that many
** bytes (not characters) from the 2nd parameter as the error message.
** {F16417} The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16()
** routines make a copy private copy of the error message text before
** they return.  {END} Hence, the calling function can deallocate or
** modify the text after they return without harm.
**
** {F16421} The sqlite3_result_toobig() interface causes SQLite
** to throw an error indicating that a string or BLOB is to long
** to represent.  {F16422} The sqlite3_result_nomem() interface
** causes SQLite to throw an exception indicating that the a
** memory allocation failed.
**
** {F16431} The sqlite3_result_int() interface sets the return value
** of the application-defined function to be the 32-bit signed integer
** value given in the 2nd argument.
** {F16432} The sqlite3_result_int64() interface sets the return value
** of the application-defined function to be the 64-bit signed integer
** value given in the 2nd argument.
**
** {F16437} The sqlite3_result_null() interface sets the return value
** of the application-defined function to be NULL.
**
** {F16441} The sqlite3_result_text(), sqlite3_result_text16(), 
** sqlite3_result_text16le(), and sqlite3_result_text16be() interfaces
** set the return value of the application-defined function to be
** a text string which is represented as UTF-8, UTF-16 native byte order,
** UTF-16 little endian, or UTF-16 big endian, respectively.
** {F16442} SQLite takes the text result from the application from
** the 2nd parameter of the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces.
** {F16444} If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** is negative, then SQLite takes result text from the 2nd parameter 
** through the first zero character.
** {F16447} If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** is non-negative, then as many bytes (not characters) of the text
** pointed to by the 2nd parameter are taken as the application-defined
** function result.
** {F16451} If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** or sqlite3_result_blob is a non-NULL pointer, then SQLite calls that
** function as the destructor on the text or blob result when it has
** finished using that result.
** {F16453} If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** or sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_STATIC, then
** SQLite assumes that the text or blob result is constant space and
** does not copy the space or call a destructor when it has
** finished using that result.
** {F16454} If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** or sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_TRANSIENT
** then SQLite makes a copy of the result into space obtained from
** from [sqlite3_malloc()] before it returns.
**
** {F16461} The sqlite3_result_value() interface sets the result of
** the application-defined function to be a copy the [sqlite3_value]
** object specified by the 2nd parameter.  {F16463} The
** sqlite3_result_value() interface makes a copy of the [sqlite3_value]
** so that [sqlite3_value] specified in the parameter may change or
** be deallocated after sqlite3_result_value() returns without harm.
**
** {U16491} These routines are called from within the different thread 
** than the one containing the application-defined function that recieved
** the [sqlite3_context] pointer, the results are undefined.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_blob(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_double(sqlite3_context*, double);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_toobig(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_nomem(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_int(sqlite3_context*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_int64(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_int64);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_null(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16le(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16be(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_value(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_zeroblob(sqlite3_context*, int n);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Define New Collating Sequences {F16600}
**
** {F16601}
** These functions are used to add new collation sequences to the
** [sqlite3*] handle specified as the first argument. 
**
** {F16602}
** The name of the new collation sequence is specified as a UTF-8 string
** for sqlite3_create_collation() and sqlite3_create_collation_v2()
** and a UTF-16 string for sqlite3_create_collation16(). {F16603} In all cases
** the name is passed as the second function argument.
**
** {F16604}
** The third argument may be one of the constants [SQLITE_UTF8],
** [SQLITE_UTF16LE] or [SQLITE_UTF16BE], indicating that the user-supplied
** routine expects to be passed pointers to strings encoded using UTF-8,
** UTF-16 little-endian or UTF-16 big-endian respectively. {F16605} The
** third argument might also be [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED] to indicate that
** the routine expects pointers to 16-bit word aligned strings
** of UTF16 in the native byte order of the host computer.
**
** {F16607}
** A pointer to the user supplied routine must be passed as the fifth
** argument. {F16609} If it is NULL, this is the same as deleting the collation
** sequence (so that SQLite cannot call it anymore).
** {F16611} Each time the application
** supplied function is invoked, it is passed a copy of the void* passed as
** the fourth argument to sqlite3_create_collation() or
** sqlite3_create_collation16() as its first parameter.
**
** {F16612}
** The remaining arguments to the application-supplied routine are two strings,
** each represented by a (length, data) pair and encoded in the encoding
** that was passed as the third argument when the collation sequence was
** registered. {END} The application defined collation routine should
** return negative, zero or positive if
** the first string is less than, equal to, or greater than the second
** string. i.e. (STRING1 - STRING2).
**
** {F16615}
** The sqlite3_create_collation_v2() works like sqlite3_create_collation()
** excapt that it takes an extra argument which is a destructor for
** the collation.  {F16617} The destructor is called when the collation is
** destroyed and is passed a copy of the fourth parameter void* pointer
** of the sqlite3_create_collation_v2().
** {F16618}  Collations are destroyed when
** they are overridden by later calls to the collation creation functions
** or when the [sqlite3*] database handle is closed using [sqlite3_close()].
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation(
  sqlite3*, 
  const char *zName, 
  int eTextRep, 
  void*,
  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation_v2(
  sqlite3*, 
  const char *zName, 
  int eTextRep, 
  void*,
  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*),
  void(*xDestroy)(void*)
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation16(
  sqlite3*, 
  const char *zName, 
  int eTextRep, 
  void*,
  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Collation Needed Callbacks {F16700}
**
** {F16701}
** To avoid having to register all collation sequences before a database
** can be used, a single callback function may be registered with the
** database handle to be called whenever an undefined collation sequence is
** required.
**
** {F16702}
** If the function is registered using the sqlite3_collation_needed() API,
** then it is passed the names of undefined collation sequences as strings
** encoded in UTF-8. {F16703} If sqlite3_collation_needed16() is used, the names
** are passed as UTF-16 in machine native byte order. {F16704} A call to either
** function replaces any existing callback.
**
** {F16705} When the callback is invoked, the first argument passed is a copy
** of the second argument to sqlite3_collation_needed() or
** sqlite3_collation_needed16(). {F16706} The second argument is the database
** handle.  {F16707} The third argument is one of [SQLITE_UTF8],
** [SQLITE_UTF16BE], or [SQLITE_UTF16LE], indicating the most
** desirable form of the collation sequence function required.
** {F16708} The fourth parameter is the name of the
** required collation sequence. {END}
**
** The callback function should register the desired collation using
** [sqlite3_create_collation()], [sqlite3_create_collation16()], or
** [sqlite3_create_collation_v2()].
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_collation_needed(
  sqlite3*, 
  void*, 
  void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*)
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_collation_needed16(
  sqlite3*, 
  void*,
  void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*)
);

/*
** Specify the key for an encrypted database.  This routine should be
** called right after sqlite3_open().
**
** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
** of SQLite.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_key(
  sqlite3 *db,                   /* Database to be rekeyed */
  const void *pKey, int nKey     /* The key */
);

/*
** Change the key on an open database.  If the current database is not
** encrypted, this routine will encrypt it.  If pNew==0 or nNew==0, the
** database is decrypted.
**
** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
** of SQLite.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_rekey(
  sqlite3 *db,                   /* Database to be rekeyed */
  const void *pKey, int nKey     /* The new key */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Suspend Execution For A Short Time {F10530}
**
** {F10531} The sqlite3_sleep() function
** causes the current thread to suspend execution
** for at least a number of milliseconds specified in its parameter.
**
** {F10532} If the operating system does not support sleep requests with 
** millisecond time resolution, then the time will be rounded up to 
** the nearest second. {F10533} The number of milliseconds of sleep actually 
** requested from the operating system is returned.
**
** {F10534} SQLite implements this interface by calling the xSleep()
** method of the default [sqlite3_vfs] object. {END}
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_sleep(int);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Name Of The Folder Holding Temporary Files {F10310}
**
** If this global variable is made to point to a string which is
** the name of a folder (a.ka. directory), then all temporary files
** created by SQLite will be placed in that directory.  If this variable
** is NULL pointer, then SQLite does a search for an appropriate temporary
** file directory.
**
** It is not safe to modify this variable once a database connection
** has been opened.  It is intended that this variable be set once
** as part of process initialization and before any SQLite interface
** routines have been call and remain unchanged thereafter.
*/
SQLITE_EXTERN char *sqlite3_temp_directory;

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Test To See If The Database Is In Auto-Commit Mode {F12930}
**
** The sqlite3_get_autocommit() interfaces returns non-zero or
** zero if the given database connection is or is not in autocommit mode,
** respectively.   Autocommit mode is on
** by default.  Autocommit mode is disabled by a [BEGIN] statement.
** Autocommit mode is reenabled by a [COMMIT] or [ROLLBACK].
**
** If certain kinds of errors occur on a statement within a multi-statement
** transactions (errors including [SQLITE_FULL], [SQLITE_IOERR], 
** [SQLITE_NOMEM], [SQLITE_BUSY], and [SQLITE_INTERRUPT]) then the
** transaction might be rolled back automatically.  The only way to
** find out if SQLite automatically rolled back the transaction after
** an error is to use this function.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12931} The [sqlite3_get_autocommit()] interface returns non-zero or
**          zero if the given database connection is or is not in autocommit
**          mode, respectively.
**
** {F12932} Autocommit mode is on by default.
**
** {F12933} Autocommit mode is disabled by a successful [BEGIN] statement.
**
** {F12934} Autocommit mode is enabled by a successful [COMMIT] or [ROLLBACK]
**          statement.
** 
**
** LIMITATIONS:
***
** {U12936} If another thread changes the autocommit status of the database
**          connection while this routine is running, then the return value
**          is undefined.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_get_autocommit(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Find The Database Handle Of A Prepared Statement {F13120}
**
** {F13121} The sqlite3_db_handle interface
** returns the [sqlite3*] database handle to which a
** [prepared statement] belongs.
** {F13122} the database handle returned by sqlite3_db_handle
** is the same database handle that was
** the first argument to the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or its variants
** that was used to create the statement in the first place.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3 *sqlite3_db_handle(sqlite3_stmt*);


/*
** CAPI3REF: Commit And Rollback Notification Callbacks {F12950}
**
** {F12951} The sqlite3_commit_hook() interface registers a callback
** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is committed.
** {F12952} Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_commit_hook()
** for the same database connection is overridden.
** {F12953} The sqlite3_rollback_hook() interface registers a callback
** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is committed.
** {F12954} Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_commit_hook()
** for the same database connection is overridden.
** {F12956} The pArg argument is passed through
** to the callback.  {F12957} If the callback on a commit hook function 
** returns non-zero, then the commit is converted into a rollback.
**
** {F12958} If another function was previously registered, its
** pArg value is returned.  Otherwise NULL is returned.
**
** {F12959} Registering a NULL function disables the callback.
**
** {F12961} For the purposes of this API, a transaction is said to have been 
** rolled back if an explicit "ROLLBACK" statement is executed, or
** an error or constraint causes an implicit rollback to occur.
** {F12962} The rollback callback is not invoked if a transaction is
** automatically rolled back because the database connection is closed.
** {F12964} The rollback callback is not invoked if a transaction is
** rolled back because a commit callback returned non-zero.
** <todo> Check on this </todo> {END}
**
** These are experimental interfaces and are subject to change.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_commit_hook(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*), void*);
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_rollback_hook(sqlite3*, void(*)(void *), void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Data Change Notification Callbacks {F12970}
**
** {F12971} The sqlite3_update_hook() interface
** registers a callback function with the database connection identified by the 
** first argument to be invoked whenever a row is updated, inserted or deleted.
** {F12972} Any callback set by a previous call to this function for the same 
** database connection is overridden.
**
** {F12974} The second argument is a pointer to the function to invoke when a 
** row is updated, inserted or deleted. 
** {F12976} The first argument to the callback is
** a copy of the third argument to sqlite3_update_hook().
** {F12977} The second callback 
** argument is one of [SQLITE_INSERT], [SQLITE_DELETE] or [SQLITE_UPDATE],
** depending on the operation that caused the callback to be invoked.
** {F12978} The third and 
** fourth arguments to the callback contain pointers to the database and 
** table name containing the affected row.
** {F12979} The final callback parameter is 
** the rowid of the row.
** {F12981} In the case of an update, this is the rowid after 
** the update takes place.
**
** {F12983} The update hook is not invoked when internal system tables are
** modified (i.e. sqlite_master and sqlite_sequence).
**
** {F12984} If another function was previously registered, its pArg value
** is returned.  {F12985} Otherwise NULL is returned.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_update_hook(
  sqlite3*, 
  void(*)(void *,int ,char const *,char const *,sqlite3_int64),
  void*
);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Enable Or Disable Shared Pager Cache {F10330}
**
** {F10331}
** This routine enables or disables the sharing of the database cache
** and schema data structures between connections to the same database.
** {F10332}
** Sharing is enabled if the argument is true and disabled if the argument
** is false.
**
** {F10333} Cache sharing is enabled and disabled
** for an entire process. {END} This is a change as of SQLite version 3.5.0.
** In prior versions of SQLite, sharing was
** enabled or disabled for each thread separately.
**
** {F10334}
** The cache sharing mode set by this interface effects all subsequent
** calls to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()], and [sqlite3_open16()].
** {F10335} Existing database connections continue use the sharing mode
** that was in effect at the time they were opened. {END}
**
** Virtual tables cannot be used with a shared cache.  {F10336} When shared
** cache is enabled, the [sqlite3_create_module()] API used to register
** virtual tables will always return an error. {END}
**
** {F10337} This routine returns [SQLITE_OK] if shared cache was
** enabled or disabled successfully.  {F10338} An [error code]
** is returned otherwise. {END}
**
** {F10339} Shared cache is disabled by default. {END} But this might change in
** future releases of SQLite.  Applications that care about shared
** cache setting should set it explicitly.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_enable_shared_cache(int);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Attempt To Free Heap Memory {F17340}
**
** {F17341} The sqlite3_release_memory() interface attempts to
** free N bytes of heap memory by deallocating non-essential memory
** allocations held by the database labrary. {END}  Memory used
** to cache database pages to improve performance is an example of
** non-essential memory.  {F16342} sqlite3_release_memory() returns
** the number of bytes actually freed, which might be more or less
** than the amount requested.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_release_memory(int);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Impose A Limit On Heap Size {F17350}
**
** {F16351} The sqlite3_soft_heap_limit() interface
** places a "soft" limit on the amount of heap memory that may be allocated
** by SQLite. {F16352} If an internal allocation is requested 
** that would exceed the soft heap limit, [sqlite3_release_memory()] is
** invoked one or more times to free up some space before the allocation
** is made. {END}
**
** {F16353} The limit is called "soft", because if
** [sqlite3_release_memory()] cannot
** free sufficient memory to prevent the limit from being exceeded,
** the memory is allocated anyway and the current operation proceeds.
**
** {F16354}
** A negative or zero value for N means that there is no soft heap limit and
** [sqlite3_release_memory()] will only be called when memory is exhausted.
** {F16355} The default value for the soft heap limit is zero.
**
** SQLite makes a best effort to honor the soft heap limit.  
** {F16356} But if the soft heap limit cannot honored, execution will
** continue without error or notification. {END}  This is why the limit is 
** called a "soft" limit.  It is advisory only.
**
** Prior to SQLite version 3.5.0, this routine only constrained the memory
** allocated by a single thread - the same thread in which this routine
** runs.  Beginning with SQLite version 3.5.0, the soft heap limit is
** applied to all threads. {F16357} The value specified for the soft heap limit
** is an upper bound on the total memory allocation for all threads. {END}  In
** version 3.5.0 there is no mechanism for limiting the heap usage for
** individual threads.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(int);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Extract Metadata About A Column Of A Table {F12850}
**
** This routine
** returns meta-data about a specific column of a specific database
** table accessible using the connection handle passed as the first function 
** argument.
**
** The column is identified by the second, third and fourth parameters to 
** this function. The second parameter is either the name of the database
** (i.e. "main", "temp" or an attached database) containing the specified
** table or NULL. If it is NULL, then all attached databases are searched
** for the table using the same algorithm as the database engine uses to 
** resolve unqualified table references.
**
** The third and fourth parameters to this function are the table and column 
** name of the desired column, respectively. Neither of these parameters 
** may be NULL.
**
** Meta information is returned by writing to the memory locations passed as
** the 5th and subsequent parameters to this function. Any of these 
** arguments may be NULL, in which case the corresponding element of meta 
** information is ommitted.
**
** <pre>
** Parameter     Output Type      Description
** -----------------------------------
**
**   5th         const char*      Data type
**   6th         const char*      Name of the default collation sequence 
**   7th         int              True if the column has a NOT NULL constraint
**   8th         int              True if the column is part of the PRIMARY KEY
**   9th         int              True if the column is AUTOINCREMENT
** </pre>
**
**
** The memory pointed to by the character pointers returned for the 
** declaration type and collation sequence is valid only until the next 
** call to any sqlite API function.
**
** If the specified table is actually a view, then an error is returned.
**
** If the specified column is "rowid", "oid" or "_rowid_" and an 
** INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column has been explicitly declared, then the output 
** parameters are set for the explicitly declared column. If there is no
** explicitly declared IPK column, then the output parameters are set as 
** follows:
**
** <pre>
**     data type: "INTEGER"
**     collation sequence: "BINARY"
**     not null: 0
**     primary key: 1
**     auto increment: 0
** </pre>
**
** This function may load one or more schemas from database files. If an
** error occurs during this process, or if the requested table or column
** cannot be found, an SQLITE error code is returned and an error message
** left in the database handle (to be retrieved using sqlite3_errmsg()).
**
** This API is only available if the library was compiled with the
** SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA preprocessor symbol defined.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_table_column_metadata(
  sqlite3 *db,                /* Connection handle */
  const char *zDbName,        /* Database name or NULL */
  const char *zTableName,     /* Table name */
  const char *zColumnName,    /* Column name */
  char const **pzDataType,    /* OUTPUT: Declared data type */
  char const **pzCollSeq,     /* OUTPUT: Collation sequence name */
  int *pNotNull,              /* OUTPUT: True if NOT NULL constraint exists */
  int *pPrimaryKey,           /* OUTPUT: True if column part of PK */
  int *pAutoinc               /* OUTPUT: True if column is auto-increment */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Load An Extension {F12600}
**
** {F12601} The sqlite3_load_extension() interface
** attempts to load an SQLite extension library contained in the file
** zFile. {F12602} The entry point is zProc. {F12603} zProc may be 0
** in which case the name of the entry point defaults
** to "sqlite3_extension_init".
**
** {F12604} The sqlite3_load_extension() interface shall
** return [SQLITE_OK] on success and [SQLITE_ERROR] if something goes wrong.
**
** {F12605}
** If an error occurs and pzErrMsg is not 0, then the
** sqlite3_load_extension() interface shall attempt to fill *pzErrMsg with 
** error message text stored in memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].
** {END}  The calling function should free this memory
** by calling [sqlite3_free()].
**
** {F12606}
** Extension loading must be enabled using [sqlite3_enable_load_extension()]
** prior to calling this API or an error will be returned.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_load_extension(
  sqlite3 *db,          /* Load the extension into this database connection */
  const char *zFile,    /* Name of the shared library containing extension */
  const char *zProc,    /* Entry point.  Derived from zFile if 0 */
  char **pzErrMsg       /* Put error message here if not 0 */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Enable Or Disable Extension Loading {F12620}
**
** So as not to open security holes in older applications that are
** unprepared to deal with extension loading, and as a means of disabling
** extension loading while evaluating user-entered SQL, the following
** API is provided to turn the [sqlite3_load_extension()] mechanism on and
** off.  {F12622} It is off by default. {END} See ticket #1863.
**
** {F12621} Call the sqlite3_enable_load_extension() routine
** with onoff==1 to turn extension loading on
** and call it with onoff==0 to turn it back off again. {END}
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_enable_load_extension(sqlite3 *db, int onoff);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Make Arrangements To Automatically Load An Extension {F12640}
**
** {F12641} This function
** registers an extension entry point that is automatically invoked
** whenever a new database connection is opened using
** [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], or [sqlite3_open_v2()]. {END}
**
** This API can be invoked at program startup in order to register
** one or more statically linked extensions that will be available
** to all new database connections.
**
** {F12642} Duplicate extensions are detected so calling this routine multiple
** times with the same extension is harmless.
**
** {F12643} This routine stores a pointer to the extension in an array
** that is obtained from sqlite_malloc(). {END} If you run a memory leak
** checker on your program and it reports a leak because of this
** array, then invoke [sqlite3_reset_auto_extension()] prior
** to shutdown to free the memory.
**
** {F12644} Automatic extensions apply across all threads. {END}
**
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_auto_extension(void *xEntryPoint);


/*
** CAPI3REF: Reset Automatic Extension Loading {F12660}
**
** {F12661} This function disables all previously registered
** automatic extensions. {END}  This
** routine undoes the effect of all prior [sqlite3_auto_extension()]
** calls.
**
** {F12662} This call disabled automatic extensions in all threads. {END}
**
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_reset_auto_extension(void);


/*
****** EXPERIMENTAL - subject to change without notice **************
**
** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism is currently considered
** to be experimental.  The interface might change in incompatible ways.
** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
**
** When the virtual-table mechanism stablizes, we will declare the
** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.
*/

/*
** Structures used by the virtual table interface
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_vtab sqlite3_vtab;
typedef struct sqlite3_index_info sqlite3_index_info;
typedef struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor sqlite3_vtab_cursor;
typedef struct sqlite3_module sqlite3_module;

/*
** A module is a class of virtual tables.  Each module is defined
** by an instance of the following structure.  This structure consists
** mostly of methods for the module.
*/
struct sqlite3_module {
  int iVersion;
  int (*xCreate)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
               int argc, const char *const*argv,
               sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
  int (*xConnect)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
               int argc, const char *const*argv,
               sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
  int (*xBestIndex)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_index_info*);
  int (*xDisconnect)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xDestroy)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_vtab_cursor **ppCursor);
  int (*xClose)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
  int (*xFilter)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, int idxNum, const char *idxStr,
                int argc, sqlite3_value **argv);
  int (*xNext)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
  int (*xEof)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
  int (*xColumn)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_context*, int);
  int (*xRowid)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_int64 *pRowid);
  int (*xUpdate)(sqlite3_vtab *, int, sqlite3_value **, sqlite3_int64 *);
  int (*xBegin)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xSync)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xCommit)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xRollback)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xFindFunction)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, int nArg, const char *zName,
                       void (**pxFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
                       void **ppArg);

  int (*xRename)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, const char *zNew);
};

/*
** The sqlite3_index_info structure and its substructures is used to
** pass information into and receive the reply from the xBestIndex
** method of an sqlite3_module.  The fields under **Inputs** are the
** inputs to xBestIndex and are read-only.  xBestIndex inserts its
** results into the **Outputs** fields.
**
** The aConstraint[] array records WHERE clause constraints of the
** form:
**
**         column OP expr
**
** Where OP is =, &lt;, &lt;=, &gt;, or &gt;=.  
** The particular operator is stored
** in aConstraint[].op.  The index of the column is stored in 
** aConstraint[].iColumn.  aConstraint[].usable is TRUE if the
** expr on the right-hand side can be evaluated (and thus the constraint
** is usable) and false if it cannot.
**
** The optimizer automatically inverts terms of the form "expr OP column"
** and makes other simplifications to the WHERE clause in an attempt to
** get as many WHERE clause terms into the form shown above as possible.
** The aConstraint[] array only reports WHERE clause terms in the correct
** form that refer to the particular virtual table being queried.
**
** Information about the ORDER BY clause is stored in aOrderBy[].
** Each term of aOrderBy records a column of the ORDER BY clause.
**
** The xBestIndex method must fill aConstraintUsage[] with information
** about what parameters to pass to xFilter.  If argvIndex>0 then
** the right-hand side of the corresponding aConstraint[] is evaluated
** and becomes the argvIndex-th entry in argv.  If aConstraintUsage[].omit
** is true, then the constraint is assumed to be fully handled by the
** virtual table and is not checked again by SQLite.
**
** The idxNum and idxPtr values are recorded and passed into xFilter.
** sqlite3_free() is used to free idxPtr if needToFreeIdxPtr is true.
**
** The orderByConsumed means that output from xFilter will occur in
** the correct order to satisfy the ORDER BY clause so that no separate
** sorting step is required.
**
** The estimatedCost value is an estimate of the cost of doing the
** particular lookup.  A full scan of a table with N entries should have
** a cost of N.  A binary search of a table of N entries should have a
** cost of approximately log(N).
*/
struct sqlite3_index_info {
  /* Inputs */
  int nConstraint;           /* Number of entries in aConstraint */
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint {
     int iColumn;              /* Column on left-hand side of constraint */
     unsigned char op;         /* Constraint operator */
     unsigned char usable;     /* True if this constraint is usable */
     int iTermOffset;          /* Used internally - xBestIndex should ignore */
  } *aConstraint;            /* Table of WHERE clause constraints */
  int nOrderBy;              /* Number of terms in the ORDER BY clause */
  struct sqlite3_index_orderby {
     int iColumn;              /* Column number */
     unsigned char desc;       /* True for DESC.  False for ASC. */
  } *aOrderBy;               /* The ORDER BY clause */

  /* Outputs */
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage {
    int argvIndex;           /* if >0, constraint is part of argv to xFilter */
    unsigned char omit;      /* Do not code a test for this constraint */
  } *aConstraintUsage;
  int idxNum;                /* Number used to identify the index */
  char *idxStr;              /* String, possibly obtained from sqlite3_malloc */
  int needToFreeIdxStr;      /* Free idxStr using sqlite3_free() if true */
  int orderByConsumed;       /* True if output is already ordered */
  double estimatedCost;      /* Estimated cost of using this index */
};
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_EQ    2
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GT    4
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LE    8
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LT    16
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GE    32
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_MATCH 64

/*
** This routine is used to register a new module name with an SQLite
** connection.  Module names must be registered before creating new
** virtual tables on the module, or before using preexisting virtual
** tables of the module.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_module(
  sqlite3 *db,               /* SQLite connection to register module with */
  const char *zName,         /* Name of the module */
  const sqlite3_module *,    /* Methods for the module */
  void *                     /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */
);

/*
** This routine is identical to the sqlite3_create_module() method above,
** except that it allows a destructor function to be specified. It is
** even more experimental than the rest of the virtual tables API.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_module_v2(
  sqlite3 *db,               /* SQLite connection to register module with */
  const char *zName,         /* Name of the module */
  const sqlite3_module *,    /* Methods for the module */
  void *,                    /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */
  void(*xDestroy)(void*)     /* Module destructor function */
);

/*
** Every module implementation uses a subclass of the following structure
** to describe a particular instance of the module.  Each subclass will
** be tailored to the specific needs of the module implementation.   The
** purpose of this superclass is to define certain fields that are common
** to all module implementations.
**
** Virtual tables methods can set an error message by assigning a
** string obtained from sqlite3_mprintf() to zErrMsg.  The method should
** take care that any prior string is freed by a call to sqlite3_free()
** prior to assigning a new string to zErrMsg.  After the error message
** is delivered up to the client application, the string will be automatically
** freed by sqlite3_free() and the zErrMsg field will be zeroed.  Note
** that sqlite3_mprintf() and sqlite3_free() are used on the zErrMsg field
** since virtual tables are commonly implemented in loadable extensions which
** do not have access to sqlite3MPrintf() or sqlite3Free().
*/
struct sqlite3_vtab {
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;  /* The module for this virtual table */
  int nRef;                       /* Used internally */
  char *zErrMsg;                  /* Error message from sqlite3_mprintf() */
  /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */
};

/* Every module implementation uses a subclass of the following structure
** to describe cursors that point into the virtual table and are used
** to loop through the virtual table.  Cursors are created using the
** xOpen method of the module.  Each module implementation will define
** the content of a cursor structure to suit its own needs.
**
** This superclass exists in order to define fields of the cursor that
** are common to all implementations.
*/
struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor {
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Virtual table of this cursor */
  /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */
};

/*
** The xCreate and xConnect methods of a module use the following API
** to declare the format (the names and datatypes of the columns) of
** the virtual tables they implement.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_declare_vtab(sqlite3*, const char *zCreateTable);

/*
** Virtual tables can provide alternative implementations of functions
** using the xFindFunction method.  But global versions of those functions
** must exist in order to be overloaded.
**
** This API makes sure a global version of a function with a particular
** name and number of parameters exists.  If no such function exists
** before this API is called, a new function is created.  The implementation
** of the new function always causes an exception to be thrown.  So
** the new function is not good for anything by itself.  Its only
** purpose is to be a place-holder function that can be overloaded
** by virtual tables.
**
** This API should be considered part of the virtual table interface,
** which is experimental and subject to change.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_overload_function(sqlite3*, const char *zFuncName, int nArg);

/*
** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism defined above (back up
** to a comment remarkably similar to this one) is currently considered
** to be experimental.  The interface might change in incompatible ways.
** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
**
** When the virtual-table mechanism stabilizes, we will declare the
** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.
**
****** EXPERIMENTAL - subject to change without notice **************
*/

/*
** CAPI3REF: A Handle To An Open BLOB {F17800}
**
** An instance of the following opaque structure is used to 
** represent an blob-handle.  A blob-handle is created by
** [sqlite3_blob_open()] and destroyed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].
** The [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] interfaces
** can be used to read or write small subsections of the blob.
** The [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface returns the size of the
** blob in bytes.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_blob sqlite3_blob;

/*
** CAPI3REF: Open A BLOB For Incremental I/O {F17810}
**
** {F17811} This interfaces opens a handle to the blob located
** in row iRow,, column zColumn, table zTable in database zDb;
** in other words,  the same blob that would be selected by:
**
** <pre>
**     SELECT zColumn FROM zDb.zTable WHERE rowid = iRow;
** </pre> {END}
**
** {F17812} If the flags parameter is non-zero, the blob is opened for 
** read and write access. If it is zero, the blob is opened for read 
** access. {END}
**
** {F17813} On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned and the new 
** [sqlite3_blob | blob handle] is written to *ppBlob. 
** {F17814} Otherwise an error code is returned and 
** any value written to *ppBlob should not be used by the caller.
** {F17815} This function sets the database-handle error code and message
** accessible via [sqlite3_errcode()] and [sqlite3_errmsg()].
** <todo>We should go through and mark all interfaces that behave this
** way with a similar statement</todo>
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_open(
  sqlite3*,
  const char *zDb,
  const char *zTable,
  const char *zColumn,
  sqlite3_int64 iRow,
  int flags,
  sqlite3_blob **ppBlob
);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Close A BLOB Handle {F17830}
**
** Close an open [sqlite3_blob | blob handle].
**
** {F17831} Closing a BLOB shall cause the current transaction to commit
** if there are no other BLOBs, no pending prepared statements, and the
** database connection is in autocommit mode.
** {F17832} If any writes were made to the BLOB, they might be held in cache
** until the close operation if they will fit. {END}
** Closing the BLOB often forces the changes
** out to disk and so if any I/O errors occur, they will likely occur
** at the time when the BLOB is closed.  {F17833} Any errors that occur during
** closing are reported as a non-zero return value.
**
** {F17839} The BLOB is closed unconditionally.  Even if this routine returns
** an error code, the BLOB is still closed.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_close(sqlite3_blob *);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Return The Size Of An Open BLOB {F17805}
**
** {F16806} Return the size in bytes of the blob accessible via the open 
** [sqlite3_blob | blob-handle] passed as an argument.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_bytes(sqlite3_blob *);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Read Data From A BLOB Incrementally {F17850}
**
** This function is used to read data from an open 
** [sqlite3_blob | blob-handle] into a caller supplied buffer.
** {F17851} n bytes of data are copied into buffer
** z from the open blob, starting at offset iOffset.
**
** {F17852} If offset iOffset is less than n bytes from the end of the blob, 
** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read.  {F17853} If n is
** less than zero [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read.
**
** {F17854} On success, SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise, an 
** [error code] or an [extended error code] is returned.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_read(sqlite3_blob *, void *z, int n, int iOffset);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Write Data Into A BLOB Incrementally {F17870}
**
** This function is used to write data into an open 
** [sqlite3_blob | blob-handle] from a user supplied buffer.
** {F17871} n bytes of data are copied from the buffer
** pointed to by z into the open blob, starting at offset iOffset.
**
** {F17872} If the [sqlite3_blob | blob-handle] passed as the first argument
** was not opened for writing (the flags parameter to [sqlite3_blob_open()]
*** was zero), this function returns [SQLITE_READONLY].
**
** {F17873} This function may only modify the contents of the blob; it is
** not possible to increase the size of a blob using this API.
** {F17874} If offset iOffset is less than n bytes from the end of the blob, 
** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written.  {F17875} If n is
** less than zero [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written.
**
** {F17876} On success, SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise, an 
** [error code] or an [extended error code] is returned.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_write(sqlite3_blob *, const void *z, int n, int iOffset);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Virtual File System Objects {F11200}
**
** A virtual filesystem (VFS) is an [sqlite3_vfs] object
** that SQLite uses to interact
** with the underlying operating system.  Most builds come with a
** single default VFS that is appropriate for the host computer.
** New VFSes can be registered and existing VFSes can be unregistered.
** The following interfaces are provided.
**
** {F11201} The sqlite3_vfs_find() interface returns a pointer to 
** a VFS given its name.  {F11202} Names are case sensitive.
** {F11203} Names are zero-terminated UTF-8 strings.
** {F11204} If there is no match, a NULL
** pointer is returned. {F11205} If zVfsName is NULL then the default 
** VFS is returned. {END}
**
** {F11210} New VFSes are registered with sqlite3_vfs_register().
** {F11211} Each new VFS becomes the default VFS if the makeDflt flag is set.
** {F11212} The same VFS can be registered multiple times without injury.
** {F11213} To make an existing VFS into the default VFS, register it again
** with the makeDflt flag set. {U11214} If two different VFSes with the
** same name are registered, the behavior is undefined.  {U11215} If a
** VFS is registered with a name that is NULL or an empty string,
** then the behavior is undefined.
** 
** {F11220} Unregister a VFS with the sqlite3_vfs_unregister() interface.
** {F11221} If the default VFS is unregistered, another VFS is chosen as
** the default.  The choice for the new VFS is arbitrary.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3_vfs_find(const char *zVfsName);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_register(sqlite3_vfs*, int makeDflt);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_unregister(sqlite3_vfs*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutexes {F17000}
**
** The SQLite core uses these routines for thread
** synchronization.  Though they are intended for internal
** use by SQLite, code that links against SQLite is
** permitted to use any of these routines.
**
** The SQLite source code contains multiple implementations 
** of these mutex routines.  An appropriate implementation
** is selected automatically at compile-time.  The following
** implementations are available in the SQLite core:
**
** <ul>
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREAD
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_W32
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
** </ul>
**
** The SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP implementation is a set of routines 
** that does no real locking and is appropriate for use in 
** a single-threaded application.  The SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2,
** SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREAD, and SQLITE_MUTEX_W32 implementations
** are appropriate for use on os/2, unix, and windows.
** 
** If SQLite is compiled with the SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF preprocessor
** macro defined (with "-DSQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF=1"), then no mutex
** implementation is included with the library.  The
** mutex interface routines defined here become external
** references in the SQLite library for which implementations
** must be provided by the application.  This facility allows an
** application that links against SQLite to provide its own mutex
** implementation without having to modify the SQLite core.
**
** {F17011} The sqlite3_mutex_alloc() routine allocates a new
** mutex and returns a pointer to it. {F17012} If it returns NULL
** that means that a mutex could not be allocated. {F17013} SQLite
** will unwind its stack and return an error. {F17014} The argument
** to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() is one of these integer constants:
**
** <ul>
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM2
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU
** </ul> {END}
**
** {F17015} The first two constants cause sqlite3_mutex_alloc() to create
** a new mutex.  The new mutex is recursive when SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
** is used but not necessarily so when SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST is used. {END}
** The mutex implementation does not need to make a distinction
** between SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE and SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST if it does
** not want to.  {F17016} But SQLite will only request a recursive mutex in
** cases where it really needs one.  {END} If a faster non-recursive mutex
** implementation is available on the host platform, the mutex subsystem
** might return such a mutex in response to SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST.
**
** {F17017} The other allowed parameters to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() each return
** a pointer to a static preexisting mutex. {END}  Four static mutexes are
** used by the current version of SQLite.  Future versions of SQLite
** may add additional static mutexes.  Static mutexes are for internal
** use by SQLite only.  Applications that use SQLite mutexes should
** use only the dynamic mutexes returned by SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST or
** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE.
**
** {F17018} Note that if one of the dynamic mutex parameters (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
** or SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE) is used then sqlite3_mutex_alloc()
** returns a different mutex on every call.  {F17034} But for the static 
** mutex types, the same mutex is returned on every call that has
** the same type number. {END}
**
** {F17019} The sqlite3_mutex_free() routine deallocates a previously
** allocated dynamic mutex. {F17020} SQLite is careful to deallocate every
** dynamic mutex that it allocates. {U17021} The dynamic mutexes must not be in 
** use when they are deallocated. {U17022} Attempting to deallocate a static
** mutex results in undefined behavior. {F17023} SQLite never deallocates
** a static mutex. {END}
**
** The sqlite3_mutex_enter() and sqlite3_mutex_try() routines attempt
** to enter a mutex. {F17024} If another thread is already within the mutex,
** sqlite3_mutex_enter() will block and sqlite3_mutex_try() will return
** SQLITE_BUSY. {F17025}  The sqlite3_mutex_try() interface returns SQLITE_OK
** upon successful entry.  {F17026} Mutexes created using
** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE can be entered multiple times by the same thread.
** {F17027} In such cases the,
** mutex must be exited an equal number of times before another thread
** can enter.  {U17028} If the same thread tries to enter any other
** kind of mutex more than once, the behavior is undefined.
** {F17029} SQLite will never exhibit
** such behavior in its own use of mutexes. {END}
**
** Some systems (ex: windows95) do not the operation implemented by
** sqlite3_mutex_try().  On those systems, sqlite3_mutex_try() will
** always return SQLITE_BUSY.  {F17030} The SQLite core only ever uses
** sqlite3_mutex_try() as an optimization so this is acceptable behavior. {END}
**
** {F17031} The sqlite3_mutex_leave() routine exits a mutex that was
** previously entered by the same thread.  {U17032} The behavior
** is undefined if the mutex is not currently entered by the
** calling thread or is not currently allocated.  {F17033} SQLite will
** never do either. {END}
**
** See also: [sqlite3_mutex_held()] and [sqlite3_mutex_notheld()].
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3_mutex_alloc(int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_free(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_try(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Verifcation Routines {F17080}
**
** The sqlite3_mutex_held() and sqlite3_mutex_notheld() routines
** are intended for use inside assert() statements. {F17081} The SQLite core
** never uses these routines except inside an assert() and applications
** are advised to follow the lead of the core.  {F17082} The core only
** provides implementations for these routines when it is compiled
** with the SQLITE_DEBUG flag.  {U17087} External mutex implementations
** are only required to provide these routines if SQLITE_DEBUG is
** defined and if NDEBUG is not defined.
**
** {F17083} These routines should return true if the mutex in their argument
** is held or not held, respectively, by the calling thread. {END}
**
** {X17084} The implementation is not required to provided versions of these
** routines that actually work.
** If the implementation does not provide working
** versions of these routines, it should at least provide stubs
** that always return true so that one does not get spurious
** assertion failures. {END}
**
** {F17085} If the argument to sqlite3_mutex_held() is a NULL pointer then
** the routine should return 1.  {END} This seems counter-intuitive since
** clearly the mutex cannot be held if it does not exist.  But the
** the reason the mutex does not exist is because the build is not
** using mutexes.  And we do not want the assert() containing the
** call to sqlite3_mutex_held() to fail, so a non-zero return is
** the appropriate thing to do.  {F17086} The sqlite3_mutex_notheld() 
** interface should also return 1 when given a NULL pointer.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Types {F17001}
**
** {F17002} The [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()] interface takes a single argument
** which is one of these integer constants. {END}
*/
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST             0
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE        1
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER    2
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM       3  /* sqlite3_malloc() */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM2      4  /* sqlite3_release_memory() */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG      5  /* sqlite3_random() */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU       6  /* lru page list */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Low-Level Control Of Database Files {F11300}
**
** {F11301} The [sqlite3_file_control()] interface makes a direct call to the
** xFileControl method for the [sqlite3_io_methods] object associated
** with a particular database identified by the second argument. {F11302} The
** name of the database is the name assigned to the database by the
** <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> SQL command that opened the
** database. {F11303} To control the main database file, use the name "main"
** or a NULL pointer. {F11304} The third and fourth parameters to this routine
** are passed directly through to the second and third parameters of
** the xFileControl method.  {F11305} The return value of the xFileControl
** method becomes the return value of this routine.
**
** {F11306} If the second parameter (zDbName) does not match the name of any
** open database file, then SQLITE_ERROR is returned. {F11307} This error
** code is not remembered and will not be recalled by [sqlite3_errcode()]
** or [sqlite3_errmsg()]. {U11308} The underlying xFileControl method might
** also return SQLITE_ERROR.  {U11309} There is no way to distinguish between
** an incorrect zDbName and an SQLITE_ERROR return from the underlying
** xFileControl method. {END}
**
** See also: [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE]
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_file_control(sqlite3*, const char *zDbName, int op, void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Testing Interface {F11400}
**
** The sqlite3_test_control() interface is used to read out internal
** state of SQLite and to inject faults into SQLite for testing
** purposes.  The first parameter a operation code that determines
** the number, meaning, and operation of all subsequent parameters.
**
** This interface is not for use by applications.  It exists solely
** for verifying the correct operation of the SQLite library.  Depending
** on how the SQLite library is compiled, this interface might not exist.
**
** The details of the operation codes, their meanings, the parameters
** they take, and what they do are all subject to change without notice.
** Unlike most of the SQLite API, this function is not guaranteed to
** operate consistently from one release to the next.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_test_control(int op, ...);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Testing Interface Operation Codes {F11410}
**
** These constants are the valid operation code parameters used
** as the first argument to [sqlite3_test_control()].
**
** These parameters and their meansing are subject to change
** without notice.  These values are for testing purposes only.
** Applications should not use any of these parameters or the
** [sqlite3_test_control()] interface.
*/
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FAULT_CONFIG             1
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FAULT_FAILURES           2
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FAULT_BENIGN_FAILURES    3
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FAULT_PENDING            4





/*
** Undo the hack that converts floating point types to integer for
** builds on processors without floating point support.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
# undef double
#endif

#if 0
}  /* End of the 'extern "C"' block */
#endif
#endif

/************** End of sqlite3.h *********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include hash.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Begin file hash.h ********************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 22
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This is the header file for the generic hash-table implemenation
** used in SQLite.
**
** $Id: hash.h,v 1.11 2007/09/04 14:31:47 danielk1977 Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE_HASH_H_
#define _SQLITE_HASH_H_

/* Forward declarations of structures. */
typedef struct Hash Hash;
typedef struct HashElem HashElem;

/* A complete hash table is an instance of the following structure.
** The internals of this structure are intended to be opaque -- client
** code should not attempt to access or modify the fields of this structure
** directly.  Change this structure only by using the routines below.
** However, many of the "procedures" and "functions" for modifying and
** accessing this structure are really macros, so we can't really make
** this structure opaque.
*/
struct Hash {
  char keyClass;          /* SQLITE_HASH_INT, _POINTER, _STRING, _BINARY */
  char copyKey;           /* True if copy of key made on insert */
  int count;              /* Number of entries in this table */
  int htsize;             /* Number of buckets in the hash table */
  HashElem *first;        /* The first element of the array */
  struct _ht {            /* the hash table */
    int count;               /* Number of entries with this hash */
    HashElem *chain;         /* Pointer to first entry with this hash */
  } *ht;
};

/* Each element in the hash table is an instance of the following 
** structure.  All elements are stored on a single doubly-linked list.
**
** Again, this structure is intended to be opaque, but it can't really
** be opaque because it is used by macros.
*/
struct HashElem {
  HashElem *next, *prev;   /* Next and previous elements in the table */
  void *data;              /* Data associated with this element */
  void *pKey; int nKey;    /* Key associated with this element */
};

/*
** There are 4 different modes of operation for a hash table:
**
**   SQLITE_HASH_INT         nKey is used as the key and pKey is ignored.
**
**   SQLITE_HASH_POINTER     pKey is used as the key and nKey is ignored.
**
**   SQLITE_HASH_STRING      pKey points to a string that is nKey bytes long
**                           (including the null-terminator, if any).  Case
**                           is ignored in comparisons.
**
**   SQLITE_HASH_BINARY      pKey points to binary data nKey bytes long. 
**                           memcmp() is used to compare keys.
**
** A copy of the key is made for SQLITE_HASH_STRING and SQLITE_HASH_BINARY
** if the copyKey parameter to HashInit is 1.  
*/
/* #define SQLITE_HASH_INT       1 // NOT USED */
/* #define SQLITE_HASH_POINTER   2 // NOT USED */
#define SQLITE_HASH_STRING    3
#define SQLITE_HASH_BINARY    4

/*
** Access routines.  To delete, insert a NULL pointer.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashInit(Hash*, int keytype, int copyKey);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HashInsert(Hash*, const void *pKey, int nKey, void *pData);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HashFind(const Hash*, const void *pKey, int nKey);
SQLITE_PRIVATE HashElem *sqlite3HashFindElem(const Hash*, const void *pKey, int nKey);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashClear(Hash*);

/*
** Macros for looping over all elements of a hash table.  The idiom is
** like this:
**
**   Hash h;
**   HashElem *p;
**   ...
**   for(p=sqliteHashFirst(&h); p; p=sqliteHashNext(p)){
**     SomeStructure *pData = sqliteHashData(p);
**     // do something with pData
**   }
*/
#define sqliteHashFirst(H)  ((H)->first)
#define sqliteHashNext(E)   ((E)->next)
#define sqliteHashData(E)   ((E)->data)
#define sqliteHashKey(E)    ((E)->pKey)
#define sqliteHashKeysize(E) ((E)->nKey)

/*
** Number of entries in a hash table
*/
#define sqliteHashCount(H)  ((H)->count)

#endif /* _SQLITE_HASH_H_ */

/************** End of hash.h ************************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include parse.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file parse.h *******************************************/
#define TK_SEMI                            1
#define TK_EXPLAIN                         2
#define TK_QUERY                           3
#define TK_PLAN                            4
#define TK_BEGIN                           5
#define TK_TRANSACTION                     6
#define TK_DEFERRED                        7
#define TK_IMMEDIATE                       8
#define TK_EXCLUSIVE                       9
#define TK_COMMIT                         10
#define TK_END                            11
#define TK_ROLLBACK                       12
#define TK_CREATE                         13
#define TK_TABLE                          14
#define TK_IF                             15
#define TK_NOT                            16
#define TK_EXISTS                         17
#define TK_TEMP                           18
#define TK_LP                             19
#define TK_RP                             20
#define TK_AS                             21
#define TK_COMMA                          22
#define TK_ID                             23
#define TK_ABORT                          24
#define TK_AFTER                          25
#define TK_ANALYZE                        26
#define TK_ASC                            27
#define TK_ATTACH                         28
#define TK_BEFORE                         29
#define TK_CASCADE                        30
#define TK_CAST                           31
#define TK_CONFLICT                       32
#define TK_DATABASE                       33
#define TK_DESC                           34
#define TK_DETACH                         35
#define TK_EACH                           36
#define TK_FAIL                           37
#define TK_FOR                            38
#define TK_IGNORE                         39
#define TK_INITIALLY                      40
#define TK_INSTEAD                        41
#define TK_LIKE_KW                        42
#define TK_MATCH                          43
#define TK_KEY                            44
#define TK_OF                             45
#define TK_OFFSET                         46
#define TK_PRAGMA                         47
#define TK_RAISE                          48
#define TK_REPLACE                        49
#define TK_RESTRICT                       50
#define TK_ROW                            51
#define TK_TRIGGER                        52
#define TK_VACUUM                         53
#define TK_VIEW                           54
#define TK_VIRTUAL                        55
#define TK_REINDEX                        56
#define TK_RENAME                         57
#define TK_CTIME_KW                       58
#define TK_ANY                            59
#define TK_OR                             60
#define TK_AND                            61
#define TK_IS                             62
#define TK_BETWEEN                        63
#define TK_IN                             64
#define TK_ISNULL                         65
#define TK_NOTNULL                        66
#define TK_NE                             67
#define TK_EQ                             68
#define TK_GT                             69
#define TK_LE                             70
#define TK_LT                             71
#define TK_GE                             72
#define TK_ESCAPE                         73
#define TK_BITAND                         74
#define TK_BITOR                          75
#define TK_LSHIFT                         76
#define TK_RSHIFT                         77
#define TK_PLUS                           78
#define TK_MINUS                          79
#define TK_STAR                           80
#define TK_SLASH                          81
#define TK_REM                            82
#define TK_CONCAT                         83
#define TK_COLLATE                        84
#define TK_UMINUS                         85
#define TK_UPLUS                          86
#define TK_BITNOT                         87
#define TK_STRING                         88
#define TK_JOIN_KW                        89
#define TK_CONSTRAINT                     90
#define TK_DEFAULT                        91
#define TK_NULL                           92
#define TK_PRIMARY                        93
#define TK_UNIQUE                         94
#define TK_CHECK                          95
#define TK_REFERENCES                     96
#define TK_AUTOINCR                       97
#define TK_ON                             98
#define TK_DELETE                         99
#define TK_UPDATE                         100
#define TK_INSERT                         101
#define TK_SET                            102
#define TK_DEFERRABLE                     103
#define TK_FOREIGN                        104
#define TK_DROP                           105
#define TK_UNION                          106
#define TK_ALL                            107
#define TK_EXCEPT                         108
#define TK_INTERSECT                      109
#define TK_SELECT                         110
#define TK_DISTINCT                       111
#define TK_DOT                            112
#define TK_FROM                           113
#define TK_JOIN                           114
#define TK_USING                          115
#define TK_ORDER                          116
#define TK_BY                             117
#define TK_GROUP                          118
#define TK_HAVING                         119
#define TK_LIMIT                          120
#define TK_WHERE                          121
#define TK_INTO                           122
#define TK_VALUES                         123
#define TK_INTEGER                        124
#define TK_FLOAT                          125
#define TK_BLOB                           126
#define TK_REGISTER                       127
#define TK_VARIABLE                       128
#define TK_CASE                           129
#define TK_WHEN                           130
#define TK_THEN                           131
#define TK_ELSE                           132
#define TK_INDEX                          133
#define TK_ALTER                          134
#define TK_TO                             135
#define TK_ADD                            136
#define TK_COLUMNKW                       137
#define TK_TO_TEXT                        138
#define TK_TO_BLOB                        139
#define TK_TO_NUMERIC                     140
#define TK_TO_INT                         141
#define TK_TO_REAL                        142
#define TK_END_OF_FILE                    143
#define TK_ILLEGAL                        144
#define TK_SPACE                          145
#define TK_UNCLOSED_STRING                146
#define TK_COMMENT                        147
#define TK_FUNCTION                       148
#define TK_COLUMN                         149
#define TK_AGG_FUNCTION                   150
#define TK_AGG_COLUMN                     151
#define TK_CONST_FUNC                     152

/************** End of parse.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <stddef.h>

#define sqlite3_isnan(X)  ((X)!=(X))

/*
** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
** substitute integer for floating-point
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
# define double sqlite_int64
# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE sqlite_int64
# ifndef SQLITE_BIG_DBL
#   define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (0x7fffffffffffffff)
# endif
# define SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS 1
# define SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE 1
# undef SQLITE_MIXED_ENDIAN_64BIT_FLOAT
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_BIG_DBL
# define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (1e99)
#endif

/*
** OMIT_TEMPDB is set to 1 if SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB is defined, or 0
** afterward. Having this macro allows us to cause the C compiler 
** to omit code used by TEMP tables without messy #ifndef statements.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 1
#else
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 0
#endif

/*
** If the following macro is set to 1, then NULL values are considered
** distinct when determining whether or not two entries are the same
** in a UNIQUE index.  This is the way PostgreSQL, Oracle, DB2, MySQL,
** OCELOT, and Firebird all work.  The SQL92 spec explicitly says this
** is the way things are suppose to work.
**
** If the following macro is set to 0, the NULLs are indistinct for
** a UNIQUE index.  In this mode, you can only have a single NULL entry
** for a column declared UNIQUE.  This is the way Informix and SQL Server
** work.
*/
#define NULL_DISTINCT_FOR_UNIQUE 1

/*
** The "file format" number is an integer that is incremented whenever
** the VDBE-level file format changes.  The following macros define the
** the default file format for new databases and the maximum file format
** that the library can read.
*/
#define SQLITE_MAX_FILE_FORMAT 4
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_FILE_FORMAT
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_FILE_FORMAT 1
#endif

/*
** Provide a default value for TEMP_STORE in case it is not specified
** on the command-line
*/
#ifndef TEMP_STORE
# define TEMP_STORE 1
#endif

/*
** GCC does not define the offsetof() macro so we'll have to do it
** ourselves.
*/
#ifndef offsetof
#define offsetof(STRUCTURE,FIELD) ((int)((char*)&((STRUCTURE*)0)->FIELD))
#endif

/*
** Check to see if this machine uses EBCDIC.  (Yes, believe it or
** not, there are still machines out there that use EBCDIC.)
*/
#if 'A' == '\301'
# define SQLITE_EBCDIC 1
#else
# define SQLITE_ASCII 1
#endif

/*
** Integers of known sizes.  These typedefs might change for architectures
** where the sizes very.  Preprocessor macros are available so that the
** types can be conveniently redefined at compile-type.  Like this:
**
**         cc '-DUINTPTR_TYPE=long long int' ...
*/
#ifndef UINT32_TYPE
# define UINT32_TYPE unsigned int
#endif
#ifndef UINT16_TYPE
# define UINT16_TYPE unsigned short int
#endif
#ifndef INT16_TYPE
# define INT16_TYPE short int
#endif
#ifndef UINT8_TYPE
# define UINT8_TYPE unsigned char
#endif
#ifndef INT8_TYPE
# define INT8_TYPE signed char
#endif
#ifndef LONGDOUBLE_TYPE
# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE long double
#endif
typedef sqlite_int64 i64;          /* 8-byte signed integer */
typedef sqlite_uint64 u64;         /* 8-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT32_TYPE u32;           /* 4-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT16_TYPE u16;           /* 2-byte unsigned integer */
typedef INT16_TYPE i16;            /* 2-byte signed integer */
typedef UINT8_TYPE u8;             /* 1-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT8_TYPE i8;             /* 1-byte signed integer */

/*
** Macros to determine whether the machine is big or little endian,
** evaluated at runtime.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_AMALGAMATION
SQLITE_PRIVATE const int sqlite3One;
#else
SQLITE_PRIVATE const int sqlite3one;
#endif
#if defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86)
# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN    0
# define SQLITE_LITTLEENDIAN 1
# define SQLITE_UTF16NATIVE  SQLITE_UTF16LE
#else
# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN    (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==0)
# define SQLITE_LITTLEENDIAN (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==1)
# define SQLITE_UTF16NATIVE (SQLITE_BIGENDIAN?SQLITE_UTF16BE:SQLITE_UTF16LE)
#endif

/*
** An instance of the following structure is used to store the busy-handler
** callback for a given sqlite handle. 
**
** The sqlite.busyHandler member of the sqlite struct contains the busy
** callback for the database handle. Each pager opened via the sqlite
** handle is passed a pointer to sqlite.busyHandler. The busy-handler
** callback is currently invoked only from within pager.c.
*/
typedef struct BusyHandler BusyHandler;
struct BusyHandler {
  int (*xFunc)(void *,int);  /* The busy callback */
  void *pArg;                /* First arg to busy callback */
  int nBusy;                 /* Incremented with each busy call */
};

/*
** Name of the master database table.  The master database table
** is a special table that holds the names and attributes of all
** user tables and indices.
*/
#define MASTER_NAME       "sqlite_master"
#define TEMP_MASTER_NAME  "sqlite_temp_master"

/*
** The root-page of the master database table.
*/
#define MASTER_ROOT       1

/*
** The name of the schema table.
*/
#define SCHEMA_TABLE(x)  ((!OMIT_TEMPDB)&&(x==1)?TEMP_MASTER_NAME:MASTER_NAME)

/*
** A convenience macro that returns the number of elements in
** an array.
*/
#define ArraySize(X)    (sizeof(X)/sizeof(X[0]))

/*
** Forward references to structures
*/
typedef struct AggInfo AggInfo;
typedef struct AuthContext AuthContext;
typedef struct CollSeq CollSeq;
typedef struct Column Column;
typedef struct Db Db;
typedef struct Schema Schema;
typedef struct Expr Expr;
typedef struct ExprList ExprList;
typedef struct FKey FKey;
typedef struct FuncDef FuncDef;
typedef struct IdList IdList;
typedef struct Index Index;
typedef struct KeyClass KeyClass;
typedef struct KeyInfo KeyInfo;
typedef struct Module Module;
typedef struct NameContext NameContext;
typedef struct Parse Parse;
typedef struct Select Select;
typedef struct SrcList SrcList;
typedef struct StrAccum StrAccum;
typedef struct Table Table;
typedef struct TableLock TableLock;
typedef struct Token Token;
typedef struct TriggerStack TriggerStack;
typedef struct TriggerStep TriggerStep;
typedef struct Trigger Trigger;
typedef struct WhereInfo WhereInfo;
typedef struct WhereLevel WhereLevel;

/*
** Defer sourcing vdbe.h and btree.h until after the "u8" and 
** "BusyHandler" typedefs. vdbe.h also requires a few of the opaque
** pointer types (i.e. FuncDef) defined above.
*/
/************** Include btree.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file btree.h *******************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite B-Tree file
** subsystem.  See comments in the source code for a detailed description
** of what each interface routine does.
**
** @(#) $Id: btree.h,v 1.94 2007/12/07 18:55:28 drh Exp $
*/
#ifndef _BTREE_H_
#define _BTREE_H_

/* TODO: This definition is just included so other modules compile. It
** needs to be revisited.
*/
#define SQLITE_N_BTREE_META 10

/*
** If defined as non-zero, auto-vacuum is enabled by default. Otherwise
** it must be turned on for each database using "PRAGMA auto_vacuum = 1".
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_AUTOVACUUM
  #define SQLITE_DEFAULT_AUTOVACUUM 0
#endif

#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_NONE 0        /* Do not do auto-vacuum */
#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_FULL 1        /* Do full auto-vacuum */
#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_INCR 2        /* Incremental vacuum */

/*
** Forward declarations of structure
*/
typedef struct Btree Btree;
typedef struct BtCursor BtCursor;
typedef struct BtShared BtShared;
typedef struct BtreeMutexArray BtreeMutexArray;

/*
** This structure records all of the Btrees that need to hold
** a mutex before we enter sqlite3VdbeExec().  The Btrees are
** are placed in aBtree[] in order of aBtree[]->pBt.  That way,
** we can always lock and unlock them all quickly.
*/
struct BtreeMutexArray {
  int nMutex;
  Btree *aBtree[SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+1];
};


SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeOpen(
  const char *zFilename,   /* Name of database file to open */
  sqlite3 *db,             /* Associated database connection */
  Btree **,                /* Return open Btree* here */
  int flags,               /* Flags */
  int vfsFlags             /* Flags passed through to VFS open */
);

/* The flags parameter to sqlite3BtreeOpen can be the bitwise or of the
** following values.
**
** NOTE:  These values must match the corresponding PAGER_ values in
** pager.h.
*/
#define BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL  1  /* Do not use journal.  No argument */
#define BTREE_NO_READLOCK   2  /* Omit readlocks on readonly files */
#define BTREE_MEMORY        4  /* In-memory DB.  No argument */
#define BTREE_READONLY      8  /* Open the database in read-only mode */
#define BTREE_READWRITE    16  /* Open for both reading and writing */
#define BTREE_CREATE       32  /* Create the database if it does not exist */

/* Additional values for the 4th argument of sqlite3BtreeOpen that
** are not associated with PAGER_ values.
*/
#define BTREE_PRIVATE      64  /* Never share with other connections */

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeClose(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetCacheSize(Btree*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetSafetyLevel(Btree*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSyncDisabled(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetPageSize(Btree*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetPageSize(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeMaxPageCount(Btree*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetReserve(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetAutoVacuum(Btree *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetAutoVacuum(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeBeginTrans(Btree*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitPhaseOne(Btree*, const char *zMaster);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitPhaseTwo(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommit(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeRollback(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeBeginStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeRollbackStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCreateTable(Btree*, int*, int flags);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInTrans(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInReadTrans(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3BtreeSchema(Btree *, int, void(*)(void *));
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSchemaLocked(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeLockTable(Btree *, int, u8);

SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetFilename(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetDirname(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetJournalname(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCopyFile(Btree *, Btree *);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIncrVacuum(Btree *);

/* The flags parameter to sqlite3BtreeCreateTable can be the bitwise OR
** of the following flags:
*/
#define BTREE_INTKEY     1    /* Table has only 64-bit signed integer keys */
#define BTREE_ZERODATA   2    /* Table has keys only - no data */
#define BTREE_LEAFDATA   4    /* Data stored in leaves only.  Implies INTKEY */

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDropTable(Btree*, int, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeClearTable(Btree*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetMeta(Btree*, int idx, u32 *pValue);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeUpdateMeta(Btree*, int idx, u32 value);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeTripAllCursors(Btree*, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursor(
  Btree*,                              /* BTree containing table to open */
  int iTable,                          /* Index of root page */
  int wrFlag,                          /* 1 for writing.  0 for read-only */
  int(*)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*),  /* Key comparison function */
  void*,                               /* First argument to compare function */
  BtCursor **ppCursor                  /* Returned cursor */
);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCloseCursor(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeMoveto(BtCursor*,const void *pKey,i64 nKey,int bias,int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDelete(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeInsert(BtCursor*, const void *pKey, i64 nKey,
                                  const void *pData, int nData,
                                  int nZero, int bias);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFirst(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeLast(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeNext(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeEof(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFlags(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePrevious(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeKeySize(BtCursor*, i64 *pSize);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeKey(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3 *sqlite3BtreeCursorDb(const BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3BtreeKeyFetch(BtCursor*, int *pAmt);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3BtreeDataFetch(BtCursor*, int *pAmt);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDataSize(BtCursor*, u32 *pSize);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(Btree*, int *aRoot, int nRoot, int, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE struct Pager *sqlite3BtreePager(Btree*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePutData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCacheOverflow(BtCursor *);

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorInfo(BtCursor*, int*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorList(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePageDump(Btree*, int, int recursive);
#endif

/*
** If we are not using shared cache, then there is no need to
** use mutexes to access the BtShared structures.  So make the
** Enter and Leave procedures no-ops.
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeEnter(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeLeave(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeEnterCursor(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeLeaveCursor(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3BtreeHoldsAllMutexes(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayEnter(BtreeMutexArray*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayLeave(BtreeMutexArray*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayInsert(BtreeMutexArray*, Btree*);
#else
# define sqlite3BtreeEnter(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeLeave(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(X) 1
# define sqlite3BtreeEnterCursor(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeLeaveCursor(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeHoldsAllMutexes(X) 1
# define sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayEnter(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayLeave(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayInsert(X,Y)
#endif


#endif /* _BTREE_H_ */

/************** End of btree.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include vdbe.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Begin file vdbe.h ********************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** Header file for the Virtual DataBase Engine (VDBE)
**
** This header defines the interface to the virtual database engine
** or VDBE.  The VDBE implements an abstract machine that runs a
** simple program to access and modify the underlying database.
**
** $Id: vdbe.h,v 1.125 2008/01/17 17:27:31 drh Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE_VDBE_H_
#define _SQLITE_VDBE_H_

/*
** A single VDBE is an opaque structure named "Vdbe".  Only routines
** in the source file sqliteVdbe.c are allowed to see the insides
** of this structure.
*/
typedef struct Vdbe Vdbe;

/*
** The names of the following types declared in vdbeInt.h are required
** for the VdbeOp definition.
*/
typedef struct VdbeFunc VdbeFunc;
typedef struct Mem Mem;

/*
** A single instruction of the virtual machine has an opcode
** and as many as three operands.  The instruction is recorded
** as an instance of the following structure:
*/
struct VdbeOp {
  u8 opcode;          /* What operation to perform */
  signed char p4type; /* One of the P4_xxx constants for p4 */
  u8 flags;           /* Flags for internal use */
  u8 p5;              /* Fifth parameter is an unsigned character */
  int p1;             /* First operand */
  int p2;             /* Second parameter (often the jump destination) */
  int p3;             /* The third parameter */
  union {             /* forth parameter */
    int i;                 /* Integer value if p4type==P4_INT32 */
    void *p;               /* Generic pointer */
    char *z;               /* Pointer to data for string (char array) types */
    i64 *pI64;             /* Used when p4type is P4_INT64 */
    double *pReal;         /* Used when p4type is P4_REAL */
    FuncDef *pFunc;        /* Used when p4type is P4_FUNCDEF */
    VdbeFunc *pVdbeFunc;   /* Used when p4type is P4_VDBEFUNC */
    CollSeq *pColl;        /* Used when p4type is P4_COLLSEQ */
    Mem *pMem;             /* Used when p4type is P4_MEM */
    sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;   /* Used when p4type is P4_VTAB */
    KeyInfo *pKeyInfo;     /* Used when p4type is P4_KEYINFO */
  } p4;
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  char *zComment;     /* Comment to improve readability */
#endif
#ifdef VDBE_PROFILE
  int cnt;            /* Number of times this instruction was executed */
  long long cycles;   /* Total time spend executing this instruction */
#endif
};
typedef struct VdbeOp VdbeOp;

/*
** A smaller version of VdbeOp used for the VdbeAddOpList() function because
** it takes up less space.
*/
struct VdbeOpList {
  u8 opcode;          /* What operation to perform */
  signed char p1;     /* First operand */
  signed char p2;     /* Second parameter (often the jump destination) */
  signed char p3;     /* Third parameter */
};
typedef struct VdbeOpList VdbeOpList;

/*
** Allowed values of VdbeOp.p3type
*/
#define P4_NOTUSED    0   /* The P4 parameter is not used */
#define P4_DYNAMIC  (-1)  /* Pointer to a string obtained from sqliteMalloc() */
#define P4_STATIC   (-2)  /* Pointer to a static string */
#define P4_COLLSEQ  (-4)  /* P4 is a pointer to a CollSeq structure */
#define P4_FUNCDEF  (-5)  /* P4 is a pointer to a FuncDef structure */
#define P4_KEYINFO  (-6)  /* P4 is a pointer to a KeyInfo structure */
#define P4_VDBEFUNC (-7)  /* P4 is a pointer to a VdbeFunc structure */
#define P4_MEM      (-8)  /* P4 is a pointer to a Mem*    structure */
#define P4_TRANSIENT (-9) /* P4 is a pointer to a transient string */
#define P4_VTAB     (-10) /* P4 is a pointer to an sqlite3_vtab structure */
#define P4_MPRINTF  (-11) /* P4 is a string obtained from sqlite3_mprintf() */
#define P4_REAL     (-12) /* P4 is a 64-bit floating point value */
#define P4_INT64    (-13) /* P4 is a 64-bit signed integer */
#define P4_INT32    (-14) /* P4 is a 32-bit signed integer */

/* When adding a P4 argument using P4_KEYINFO, a copy of the KeyInfo structure
** is made.  That copy is freed when the Vdbe is finalized.  But if the
** argument is P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF, the passed in pointer is used.  It still
** gets freed when the Vdbe is finalized so it still should be obtained
** from a single sqliteMalloc().  But no copy is made and the calling
** function should *not* try to free the KeyInfo.
*/
#define P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF (-9)

/*
** The Vdbe.aColName array contains 5n Mem structures, where n is the 
** number of columns of data returned by the statement.
*/
#define COLNAME_NAME     0
#define COLNAME_DECLTYPE 1
#define COLNAME_DATABASE 2
#define COLNAME_TABLE    3
#define COLNAME_COLUMN   4
#define COLNAME_N        5      /* Number of COLNAME_xxx symbols */

/*
** The following macro converts a relative address in the p2 field
** of a VdbeOp structure into a negative number so that 
** sqlite3VdbeAddOpList() knows that the address is relative.  Calling
** the macro again restores the address.
*/
#define ADDR(X)  (-1-(X))

/*
** The makefile scans the vdbe.c source file and creates the "opcodes.h"
** header file that defines a number for each opcode used by the VDBE.
*/
/************** Include opcodes.h in the middle of vdbe.h ********************/
/************** Begin file opcodes.h *****************************************/
/* Automatically generated.  Do not edit */
/* See the mkopcodeh.awk script for details */
#define OP_VNext                                1
#define OP_Column                               2
#define OP_SetCookie                            3
#define OP_Real                               125   /* same as TK_FLOAT    */
#define OP_Sequence                             4
#define OP_MoveGt                               5
#define OP_Ge                                  72   /* same as TK_GE       */
#define OP_RowKey                               6
#define OP_SCopy                                7
#define OP_Eq                                  68   /* same as TK_EQ       */
#define OP_OpenWrite                            8
#define OP_NotNull                             66   /* same as TK_NOTNULL  */
#define OP_If                                   9
#define OP_ToInt                              141   /* same as TK_TO_INT   */
#define OP_String8                             88   /* same as TK_STRING   */
#define OP_VRowid                              10
#define OP_CollSeq                             11
#define OP_OpenRead                            12
#define OP_Expire                              13
#define OP_AutoCommit                          14
#define OP_Gt                                  69   /* same as TK_GT       */
#define OP_IntegrityCk                         15
#define OP_Sort                                17
#define OP_Copy                                18
#define OP_Trace                               19
#define OP_Function                            20
#define OP_IfNeg                               21
#define OP_And                                 61   /* same as TK_AND      */
#define OP_Subtract                            79   /* same as TK_MINUS    */
#define OP_Noop                                22
#define OP_Return                              23
#define OP_Remainder                           82   /* same as TK_REM      */
#define OP_NewRowid                            24
#define OP_Multiply                            80   /* same as TK_STAR     */
#define OP_Variable                            25
#define OP_String                              26
#define OP_RealAffinity                        27
#define OP_VRename                             28
#define OP_ParseSchema                         29
#define OP_VOpen                               30
#define OP_Close                               31
#define OP_CreateIndex                         32
#define OP_IsUnique                            33
#define OP_NotFound                            34
#define OP_Int64                               35
#define OP_MustBeInt                           36
#define OP_Halt                                37
#define OP_Rowid                               38
#define OP_IdxLT                               39
#define OP_AddImm                              40
#define OP_Statement                           41
#define OP_RowData                             42
#define OP_MemMax                              43
#define OP_Or                                  60   /* same as TK_OR       */
#define OP_NotExists                           44
#define OP_Gosub                               45
#define OP_Divide                              81   /* same as TK_SLASH    */
#define OP_Integer                             46
#define OP_ToNumeric                          140   /* same as TK_TO_NUMERIC*/
#define OP_Prev                                47
#define OP_Concat                              83   /* same as TK_CONCAT   */
#define OP_BitAnd                              74   /* same as TK_BITAND   */
#define OP_VColumn                             48
#define OP_CreateTable                         49
#define OP_Last                                50
#define OP_IsNull                              65   /* same as TK_ISNULL   */
#define OP_IncrVacuum                          51
#define OP_IdxRowid                            52
#define OP_ShiftRight                          77   /* same as TK_RSHIFT   */
#define OP_ResetCount                          53
#define OP_FifoWrite                           54
#define OP_ContextPush                         55
#define OP_DropTrigger                         56
#define OP_DropIndex                           57
#define OP_IdxGE                               58
#define OP_IdxDelete                           59
#define OP_Vacuum                              62
#define OP_MoveLe                              63
#define OP_IfNot                               64
#define OP_DropTable                           73
#define OP_MakeRecord                          84
#define OP_ToBlob                             139   /* same as TK_TO_BLOB  */
#define OP_ResultRow                           85
#define OP_Delete                              86
#define OP_AggFinal                            89
#define OP_ShiftLeft                           76   /* same as TK_LSHIFT   */
#define OP_Goto                                90
#define OP_TableLock                           91
#define OP_FifoRead                            92
#define OP_Clear                               93
#define OP_MoveLt                              94
#define OP_Le                                  70   /* same as TK_LE       */
#define OP_VerifyCookie                        95
#define OP_AggStep                             96
#define OP_ToText                             138   /* same as TK_TO_TEXT  */
#define OP_Not                                 16   /* same as TK_NOT      */
#define OP_ToReal                             142   /* same as TK_TO_REAL  */
#define OP_SetNumColumns                       97
#define OP_Transaction                         98
#define OP_VFilter                             99
#define OP_Ne                                  67   /* same as TK_NE       */
#define OP_VDestroy                           100
#define OP_ContextPop                         101
#define OP_BitOr                               75   /* same as TK_BITOR    */
#define OP_Next                               102
#define OP_IdxInsert                          103
#define OP_Lt                                  71   /* same as TK_LT       */
#define OP_Insert                             104
#define OP_Destroy                            105
#define OP_ReadCookie                         106
#define OP_ForceInt                           107
#define OP_LoadAnalysis                       108
#define OP_Explain                            109
#define OP_OpenPseudo                         110
#define OP_OpenEphemeral                      111
#define OP_Null                               112
#define OP_Move                               113
#define OP_Blob                               114
#define OP_Add                                 78   /* same as TK_PLUS     */
#define OP_Rewind                             115
#define OP_MoveGe                             116
#define OP_VBegin                             117
#define OP_VUpdate                            118
#define OP_IfZero                             119
#define OP_BitNot                              87   /* same as TK_BITNOT   */
#define OP_VCreate                            120
#define OP_Found                              121
#define OP_IfPos                              122
#define OP_NullRow                            123

/* The following opcode values are never used */
#define OP_NotUsed_124                        124
#define OP_NotUsed_126                        126
#define OP_NotUsed_127                        127
#define OP_NotUsed_128                        128
#define OP_NotUsed_129                        129
#define OP_NotUsed_130                        130
#define OP_NotUsed_131                        131
#define OP_NotUsed_132                        132
#define OP_NotUsed_133                        133
#define OP_NotUsed_134                        134
#define OP_NotUsed_135                        135
#define OP_NotUsed_136                        136
#define OP_NotUsed_137                        137


/* Properties such as "out2" or "jump" that are specified in
** comments following the "case" for each opcode in the vdbe.c
** are encoded into bitvectors as follows:
*/
#define OPFLG_JUMP            0x0001  /* jump:  P2 holds jmp target */
#define OPFLG_OUT2_PRERELEASE 0x0002  /* out2-prerelease: */
#define OPFLG_IN1             0x0004  /* in1:   P1 is an input */
#define OPFLG_IN2             0x0008  /* in2:   P2 is an input */
#define OPFLG_IN3             0x0010  /* in3:   P3 is an input */
#define OPFLG_OUT3            0x0020  /* out3:  P3 is an output */
#define OPFLG_INITIALIZER {\
/*   0 */ 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x10, 0x02, 0x11, 0x02, 0x00,\
/*   8 */ 0x00, 0x05, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
/*  16 */ 0x04, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x05, 0x00, 0x00,\
/*  24 */ 0x02, 0x02, 0x02, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
/*  32 */ 0x02, 0x11, 0x11, 0x02, 0x05, 0x00, 0x02, 0x11,\
/*  40 */ 0x04, 0x00, 0x02, 0x0c, 0x11, 0x01, 0x02, 0x01,\
/*  48 */ 0x00, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01, 0x02, 0x00, 0x04, 0x00,\
/*  56 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x11, 0x08, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x00, 0x11,\
/*  64 */ 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x15, 0x15, 0x15, 0x15, 0x15,\
/*  72 */ 0x15, 0x00, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c,\
/*  80 */ 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x04,\
/*  88 */ 0x02, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x11, 0x00,\
/*  96 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x08,\
/* 104 */ 0x00, 0x02, 0x02, 0x05, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
/* 112 */ 0x02, 0x00, 0x02, 0x01, 0x11, 0x00, 0x00, 0x05,\
/* 120 */ 0x00, 0x11, 0x05, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00,\
/* 128 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
/* 136 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x04, 0x04, 0x04, 0x04,}

/************** End of opcodes.h *********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in vdbe.h ***********************/

/*
** Prototypes for the VDBE interface.  See comments on the implementation
** for a description of what each of these routines does.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE Vdbe *sqlite3VdbeCreate(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(Vdbe*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(Vdbe*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(Vdbe*,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int,const char *zP4,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOpList(Vdbe*, int nOp, VdbeOpList const *aOp);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(Vdbe*, int addr, int P1);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(Vdbe*, int addr, int P2);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(Vdbe*, int addr, int P3);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(Vdbe*, u8 P5);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(Vdbe*, int addr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(Vdbe*, int addr, int N);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(Vdbe*, int addr, const char *zP4, int N);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeUsesBtree(Vdbe*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeGetOp(Vdbe*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeDelete(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMakeReady(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeFinalize(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(Vdbe*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(Vdbe*);
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeTrace(Vdbe*,FILE*);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResetStepResult(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeReset(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(Vdbe*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSetColName(Vdbe*, int, int, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeCountChanges(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3 *sqlite3VdbeDb(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetSql(Vdbe*, const char *z, int n);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSwap(Vdbe*,Vdbe*);

#ifndef NDEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeComment(Vdbe*, const char*, ...);
# define VdbeComment(X)  sqlite3VdbeComment X
#else
# define VdbeComment(X)
#endif

#endif

/************** End of vdbe.h ************************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include pager.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file pager.h *******************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite page cache
** subsystem.  The page cache subsystem reads and writes a file a page
** at a time and provides a journal for rollback.
**
** @(#) $Id: pager.h,v 1.68 2007/11/28 16:19:56 drh Exp $
*/

#ifndef _PAGER_H_
#define _PAGER_H_

/*
** The type used to represent a page number.  The first page in a file
** is called page 1.  0 is used to represent "not a page".
*/
typedef unsigned int Pgno;

/*
** Each open file is managed by a separate instance of the "Pager" structure.
*/
typedef struct Pager Pager;

/*
** Handle type for pages.
*/
typedef struct PgHdr DbPage;

/*
** Allowed values for the flags parameter to sqlite3PagerOpen().
**
** NOTE: This values must match the corresponding BTREE_ values in btree.h.
*/
#define PAGER_OMIT_JOURNAL  0x0001    /* Do not use a rollback journal */
#define PAGER_NO_READLOCK   0x0002    /* Omit readlocks on readonly files */

/*
** Valid values for the second argument to sqlite3PagerLockingMode().
*/
#define PAGER_LOCKINGMODE_QUERY      -1
#define PAGER_LOCKINGMODE_NORMAL      0
#define PAGER_LOCKINGMODE_EXCLUSIVE   1

/*
** See source code comments for a detailed description of the following
** routines:
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, Pager **ppPager, const char*, int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetBusyhandler(Pager*, BusyHandler *pBusyHandler);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetDestructor(Pager*, void(*)(DbPage*,int));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetReiniter(Pager*, void(*)(DbPage*,int));
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSetPagesize(Pager*, u16*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMaxPageCount(Pager*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerReadFileheader(Pager*, int, unsigned char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetCachesize(Pager*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerClose(Pager *pPager);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerAcquire(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno, DbPage **ppPage, int clrFlag);
#define sqlite3PagerGet(A,B,C) sqlite3PagerAcquire(A,B,C,0)
SQLITE_PRIVATE DbPage *sqlite3PagerLookup(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRef(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerUnref(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerWrite(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerOverwrite(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerPagecount(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerTruncate(Pager*,Pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerBegin(DbPage*, int exFlag);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCommitPhaseOne(Pager*,const char *zMaster, Pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCommitPhaseTwo(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRollback(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerIsreadonly(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerStmtBegin(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerStmtCommit(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerStmtRollback(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerDontRollback(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerDontWrite(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRefcount(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetSafetyLevel(Pager*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3PagerVfs(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_file *sqlite3PagerFile(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerDirname(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerJournalname(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerNosync(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMovepage(Pager*,DbPage*,Pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerGetData(DbPage *); 
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerGetExtra(DbPage *); 
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerLockingMode(Pager *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerTempSpace(Pager*);

#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_DISKIO)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3PagerReleaseMemory(int);
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_HAS_CODEC
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3PagerSetCodec(Pager*,void*(*)(void*,void*,Pgno,int),void*);
#endif

#if !defined(NDEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_TEST)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   Pgno sqlite3PagerPagenumber(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3PagerIswriteable(DbPage*);
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int *sqlite3PagerStats(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3PagerRefdump(Pager*);
  int pager3_refinfo_enable;
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
void disable_simulated_io_errors(void);
void enable_simulated_io_errors(void);
#else
# define disable_simulated_io_errors()
# define enable_simulated_io_errors()
#endif

#endif /* _PAGER_H_ */

/************** End of pager.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/

/************** Include os.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ********************/
/************** Begin file os.h **********************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 16
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
******************************************************************************
**
** This header file (together with is companion C source-code file
** "os.c") attempt to abstract the underlying operating system so that
** the SQLite library will work on both POSIX and windows systems.
**
** This header file is #include-ed by sqliteInt.h and thus ends up
** being included by every source file.
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE_OS_H_
#define _SQLITE_OS_H_

/*
** Figure out if we are dealing with Unix, Windows, or some other
** operating system.  After the following block of preprocess macros,
** all of OS_UNIX, OS_WIN, OS_OS2, and OS_OTHER will defined to either
** 1 or 0.  One of the four will be 1.  The other three will be 0.
*/
#if defined(OS_OTHER)
# if OS_OTHER==1
#   undef OS_UNIX
#   define OS_UNIX 0
#   undef OS_WIN
#   define OS_WIN 0
#   undef OS_OS2
#   define OS_OS2 0
# else
#   undef OS_OTHER
# endif
#endif
#if !defined(OS_UNIX) && !defined(OS_OTHER)
# define OS_OTHER 0
# ifndef OS_WIN
#   if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32) || defined(__CYGWIN__) || defined(__MINGW32__) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
#     define OS_WIN 1
#     define OS_UNIX 0
#     define OS_OS2 0
#   elif defined(__EMX__) || defined(_OS2) || defined(OS2) || defined(_OS2_) || defined(__OS2__)
#     define OS_WIN 0
#     define OS_UNIX 0
#     define OS_OS2 1
#   else
#     define OS_WIN 0
#     define OS_UNIX 1
#     define OS_OS2 0
#  endif
# else
#  define OS_UNIX 0
#  define OS_OS2 0
# endif
#else
# ifndef OS_WIN
#  define OS_WIN 0
# endif
#endif



/*
** Define the maximum size of a temporary filename
*/
#if OS_WIN
# include <windows.h>
# define SQLITE_TEMPNAME_SIZE (MAX_PATH+50)
#elif OS_OS2
# if (__GNUC__ > 3 || __GNUC__ == 3 && __GNUC_MINOR__ >= 3) && defined(OS2_HIGH_MEMORY)
#  include <os2safe.h> /* has to be included before os2.h for linking to work */
# endif
# define INCL_DOSDATETIME
# define INCL_DOSFILEMGR
# define INCL_DOSERRORS
# define INCL_DOSMISC
# define INCL_DOSPROCESS
# define INCL_DOSMODULEMGR
# define INCL_DOSSEMAPHORES
# include <os2.h>
# define SQLITE_TEMPNAME_SIZE (CCHMAXPATHCOMP)
#else
# define SQLITE_TEMPNAME_SIZE 200
#endif

/* If the SET_FULLSYNC macro is not defined above, then make it
** a no-op
*/
#ifndef SET_FULLSYNC
# define SET_FULLSYNC(x,y)
#endif

/*
** The default size of a disk sector
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_SECTOR_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_SECTOR_SIZE 512
#endif

/*
** Temporary files are named starting with this prefix followed by 16 random
** alphanumeric characters, and no file extension. They are stored in the
** OS's standard temporary file directory, and are deleted prior to exit.
** If sqlite is being embedded in another program, you may wish to change the
** prefix to reflect your program's name, so that if your program exits
** prematurely, old temporary files can be easily identified. This can be done
** using -DSQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX=myprefix_ on the compiler command line.
**
** 2006-10-31:  The default prefix used to be "sqlite_".  But then
** Mcafee started using SQLite in their anti-virus product and it
** started putting files with the "sqlite" name in the c:/temp folder.
** This annoyed many windows users.  Those users would then do a 
** Google search for "sqlite", find the telephone numbers of the
** developers and call to wake them up at night and complain.
** For this reason, the default name prefix is changed to be "sqlite" 
** spelled backwards.  So the temp files are still identified, but
** anybody smart enough to figure out the code is also likely smart
** enough to know that calling the developer will not help get rid
** of the file.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX
# define SQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX "etilqs_"
#endif

/*
** The following values may be passed as the second argument to
** sqlite3OsLock(). The various locks exhibit the following semantics:
**
** SHARED:    Any number of processes may hold a SHARED lock simultaneously.
** RESERVED:  A single process may hold a RESERVED lock on a file at
**            any time. Other processes may hold and obtain new SHARED locks.
** PENDING:   A single process may hold a PENDING lock on a file at
**            any one time. Existing SHARED locks may persist, but no new
**            SHARED locks may be obtained by other processes.
** EXCLUSIVE: An EXCLUSIVE lock precludes all other locks.
**
** PENDING_LOCK may not be passed directly to sqlite3OsLock(). Instead, a
** process that requests an EXCLUSIVE lock may actually obtain a PENDING
** lock. This can be upgraded to an EXCLUSIVE lock by a subsequent call to
** sqlite3OsLock().
*/
#define NO_LOCK         0
#define SHARED_LOCK     1
#define RESERVED_LOCK   2
#define PENDING_LOCK    3
#define EXCLUSIVE_LOCK  4

/*
** File Locking Notes:  (Mostly about windows but also some info for Unix)
**
** We cannot use LockFileEx() or UnlockFileEx() on Win95/98/ME because
** those functions are not available.  So we use only LockFile() and
** UnlockFile().
**
** LockFile() prevents not just writing but also reading by other processes.
** A SHARED_LOCK is obtained by locking a single randomly-chosen 
** byte out of a specific range of bytes. The lock byte is obtained at 
** random so two separate readers can probably access the file at the 
** same time, unless they are unlucky and choose the same lock byte.
** An EXCLUSIVE_LOCK is obtained by locking all bytes in the range.
** There can only be one writer.  A RESERVED_LOCK is obtained by locking
** a single byte of the file that is designated as the reserved lock byte.
** A PENDING_LOCK is obtained by locking a designated byte different from
** the RESERVED_LOCK byte.
**
** On WinNT/2K/XP systems, LockFileEx() and UnlockFileEx() are available,
** which means we can use reader/writer locks.  When reader/writer locks
** are used, the lock is placed on the same range of bytes that is used
** for probabilistic locking in Win95/98/ME.  Hence, the locking scheme
** will support two or more Win95 readers or two or more WinNT readers.
** But a single Win95 reader will lock out all WinNT readers and a single
** WinNT reader will lock out all other Win95 readers.
**
** The following #defines specify the range of bytes used for locking.
** SHARED_SIZE is the number of bytes available in the pool from which
** a random byte is selected for a shared lock.  The pool of bytes for
** shared locks begins at SHARED_FIRST. 
**
** These #defines are available in sqlite_aux.h so that adaptors for
** connecting SQLite to other operating systems can use the same byte
** ranges for locking.  In particular, the same locking strategy and
** byte ranges are used for Unix.  This leaves open the possiblity of having
** clients on win95, winNT, and unix all talking to the same shared file
** and all locking correctly.  To do so would require that samba (or whatever
** tool is being used for file sharing) implements locks correctly between
** windows and unix.  I'm guessing that isn't likely to happen, but by
** using the same locking range we are at least open to the possibility.
**
** Locking in windows is manditory.  For this reason, we cannot store
** actual data in the bytes used for locking.  The pager never allocates
** the pages involved in locking therefore.  SHARED_SIZE is selected so
** that all locks will fit on a single page even at the minimum page size.
** PENDING_BYTE defines the beginning of the locks.  By default PENDING_BYTE
** is set high so that we don't have to allocate an unused page except
** for very large databases.  But one should test the page skipping logic 
** by setting PENDING_BYTE low and running the entire regression suite.
**
** Changing the value of PENDING_BYTE results in a subtly incompatible
** file format.  Depending on how it is changed, you might not notice
** the incompatibility right away, even running a full regression test.
** The default location of PENDING_BYTE is the first byte past the
** 1GB boundary.
**
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_TEST
#define PENDING_BYTE      0x40000000  /* First byte past the 1GB boundary */
#else
SQLITE_API extern unsigned int sqlite3_pending_byte;
#define PENDING_BYTE sqlite3_pending_byte
#endif

#define RESERVED_BYTE     (PENDING_BYTE+1)
#define SHARED_FIRST      (PENDING_BYTE+2)
#define SHARED_SIZE       510

/* 
** Functions for accessing sqlite3_file methods 
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsClose(sqlite3_file*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRead(sqlite3_file*, void*, int amt, i64 offset);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsWrite(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int amt, i64 offset);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsTruncate(sqlite3_file*, i64 size);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSync(sqlite3_file*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileSize(sqlite3_file*, i64 *pSize);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsLock(sqlite3_file*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsUnlock(sqlite3_file*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCheckReservedLock(sqlite3_file *id);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileControl(sqlite3_file*,int,void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSectorSize(sqlite3_file *id);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDeviceCharacteristics(sqlite3_file *id);

/* 
** Functions for accessing sqlite3_vfs methods 
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file*, int, int *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDelete(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsAccess(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsGetTempname(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFullPathname(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlError(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlSym(sqlite3_vfs *, void *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlClose(sqlite3_vfs *, void *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRandomness(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSleep(sqlite3_vfs *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCurrentTime(sqlite3_vfs *, double*);

/*
** Convenience functions for opening and closing files using 
** sqlite3_malloc() to obtain space for the file-handle structure.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpenMalloc(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file **, int,int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCloseFree(sqlite3_file *);

/*
** Each OS-specific backend defines an instance of the following
** structure for returning a pointer to its sqlite3_vfs.  If OS_OTHER
** is defined (meaning that the application-defined OS interface layer
** is used) then there is no default VFS.   The application must
** register one or more VFS structures using sqlite3_vfs_register()
** before attempting to use SQLite.
*/
#if OS_UNIX || OS_WIN || OS_OS2
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3OsDefaultVfs(void);
#else
# define sqlite3OsDefaultVfs(X) 0
#endif

#endif /* _SQLITE_OS_H_ */

/************** End of os.h **************************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include mutex.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file mutex.h *******************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 28
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
**
** This file contains the common header for all mutex implementations.
** The sqliteInt.h header #includes this file so that it is available
** to all source files.  We break it out in an effort to keep the code
** better organized.
**
** NOTE:  source files should *not* #include this header file directly.
** Source files should #include the sqliteInt.h file and let that file
** include this one indirectly.
**
** $Id: mutex.h,v 1.2 2007/08/30 14:10:30 drh Exp $
*/


#ifdef SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF
/*
** If SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF is defined, then this whole module is
** omitted and equivalent functionality must be provided by the
** application that links against the SQLite library.
*/
#else
/*
** Figure out what version of the code to use.  The choices are
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP         For single-threaded applications that
**                             do not desire error checking.
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP_DEBUG   For single-threaded applications with
**                             error checking to help verify that mutexes
**                             are being used correctly even though they
**                             are not needed.  Used when SQLITE_DEBUG is
**                             defined on single-threaded builds.
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREADS     For multi-threaded applications on Unix.
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_W32          For multi-threaded applications on Win32.
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2          For multi-threaded applications on OS/2.
*/
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP 1   /* The default */
#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) && !SQLITE_THREADSAFE
# undef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
# define SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP_DEBUG
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE && OS_UNIX
# undef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
# define SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREADS
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE && OS_WIN
# undef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
# define SQLITE_MUTEX_W32
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE && OS_OS2
# undef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
# define SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
/*
** If this is a no-op implementation, implement everything as macros.
*/
#define sqlite3_mutex_alloc(X)    ((sqlite3_mutex*)8)
#define sqlite3_mutex_free(X)
#define sqlite3_mutex_enter(X)
#define sqlite3_mutex_try(X)      SQLITE_OK
#define sqlite3_mutex_leave(X)
#define sqlite3_mutex_held(X)     1
#define sqlite3_mutex_notheld(X)  1
#endif

#endif /* SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF */

/************** End of mutex.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/

/*
** Each database file to be accessed by the system is an instance
** of the following structure.  There are normally two of these structures
** in the sqlite.aDb[] array.  aDb[0] is the main database file and
** aDb[1] is the database file used to hold temporary tables.  Additional
** databases may be attached.
*/
struct Db {
  char *zName;         /* Name of this database */
  Btree *pBt;          /* The B*Tree structure for this database file */
  u8 inTrans;          /* 0: not writable.  1: Transaction.  2: Checkpoint */
  u8 safety_level;     /* How aggressive at synching data to disk */
  void *pAux;               /* Auxiliary data.  Usually NULL */
  void (*xFreeAux)(void*);  /* Routine to free pAux */
  Schema *pSchema;     /* Pointer to database schema (possibly shared) */
};

/*
** An instance of the following structure stores a database schema.
**
** If there are no virtual tables configured in this schema, the
** Schema.db variable is set to NULL. After the first virtual table
** has been added, it is set to point to the database connection 
** used to create the connection. Once a virtual table has been
** added to the Schema structure and the Schema.db variable populated, 
** only that database connection may use the Schema to prepare 
** statements.
*/
struct Schema {
  int schema_cookie;   /* Database schema version number for this file */
  Hash tblHash;        /* All tables indexed by name */
  Hash idxHash;        /* All (named) indices indexed by name */
  Hash trigHash;       /* All triggers indexed by name */
  Hash aFKey;          /* Foreign keys indexed by to-table */
  Table *pSeqTab;      /* The sqlite_sequence table used by AUTOINCREMENT */
  u8 file_format;      /* Schema format version for this file */
  u8 enc;              /* Text encoding used by this database */
  u16 flags;           /* Flags associated with this schema */
  int cache_size;      /* Number of pages to use in the cache */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  sqlite3 *db;         /* "Owner" connection. See comment above */
#endif
};

/*
** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Db.flags field.
*/
#define DbHasProperty(D,I,P)     (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags&(P))==(P))
#define DbHasAnyProperty(D,I,P)  (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags&(P))!=0)
#define DbSetProperty(D,I,P)     (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags|=(P)
#define DbClearProperty(D,I,P)   (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags&=~(P)

/*
** Allowed values for the DB.flags field.
**
** The DB_SchemaLoaded flag is set after the database schema has been
** read into internal hash tables.
**
** DB_UnresetViews means that one or more views have column names that
** have been filled out.  If the schema changes, these column names might
** changes and so the view will need to be reset.
*/
#define DB_SchemaLoaded    0x0001  /* The schema has been loaded */
#define DB_UnresetViews    0x0002  /* Some views have defined column names */
#define DB_Empty           0x0004  /* The file is empty (length 0 bytes) */


/*
** Each database is an instance of the following structure.
**
** The sqlite.lastRowid records the last insert rowid generated by an
** insert statement.  Inserts on views do not affect its value.  Each
** trigger has its own context, so that lastRowid can be updated inside
** triggers as usual.  The previous value will be restored once the trigger
** exits.  Upon entering a before or instead of trigger, lastRowid is no
** longer (since after version 2.8.12) reset to -1.
**
** The sqlite.nChange does not count changes within triggers and keeps no
** context.  It is reset at start of sqlite3_exec.
** The sqlite.lsChange represents the number of changes made by the last
** insert, update, or delete statement.  It remains constant throughout the
** length of a statement and is then updated by OP_SetCounts.  It keeps a
** context stack just like lastRowid so that the count of changes
** within a trigger is not seen outside the trigger.  Changes to views do not
** affect the value of lsChange.
** The sqlite.csChange keeps track of the number of current changes (since
** the last statement) and is used to update sqlite_lsChange.
**
** The member variables sqlite.errCode, sqlite.zErrMsg and sqlite.zErrMsg16
** store the most recent error code and, if applicable, string. The
** internal function sqlite3Error() is used to set these variables
** consistently.
*/
struct sqlite3 {
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs;            /* OS Interface */
  int nDb;                      /* Number of backends currently in use */
  Db *aDb;                      /* All backends */
  int flags;                    /* Miscellanous flags. See below */
  int openFlags;                /* Flags passed to sqlite3_vfs.xOpen() */
  int errCode;                  /* Most recent error code (SQLITE_*) */
  int errMask;                  /* & result codes with this before returning */
  u8 autoCommit;                /* The auto-commit flag. */
  u8 temp_store;                /* 1: file 2: memory 0: default */
  u8 mallocFailed;              /* True if we have seen a malloc failure */
  signed char nextAutovac;      /* Autovac setting after VACUUM if >=0 */
  int nTable;                   /* Number of tables in the database */
  CollSeq *pDfltColl;           /* The default collating sequence (BINARY) */
  i64 lastRowid;                /* ROWID of most recent insert (see above) */
  i64 priorNewRowid;            /* Last randomly generated ROWID */
  int magic;                    /* Magic number for detect library misuse */
  int nChange;                  /* Value returned by sqlite3_changes() */
  int nTotalChange;             /* Value returned by sqlite3_total_changes() */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;         /* Connection mutex */
  struct sqlite3InitInfo {      /* Information used during initialization */
    int iDb;                    /* When back is being initialized */
    int newTnum;                /* Rootpage of table being initialized */
    u8 busy;                    /* TRUE if currently initializing */
  } init;
  int nExtension;               /* Number of loaded extensions */
  void **aExtension;            /* Array of shared libraray handles */
  struct Vdbe *pVdbe;           /* List of active virtual machines */
  int activeVdbeCnt;            /* Number of vdbes currently executing */
  void (*xTrace)(void*,const char*);        /* Trace function */
  void *pTraceArg;                          /* Argument to the trace function */
  void (*xProfile)(void*,const char*,u64);  /* Profiling function */
  void *pProfileArg;                        /* Argument to profile function */
  void *pCommitArg;                 /* Argument to xCommitCallback() */   
  int (*xCommitCallback)(void*);    /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pRollbackArg;               /* Argument to xRollbackCallback() */   
  void (*xRollbackCallback)(void*); /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pUpdateArg;
  void (*xUpdateCallback)(void*,int, const char*,const char*,sqlite_int64);
  void(*xCollNeeded)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*);
  void(*xCollNeeded16)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*);
  void *pCollNeededArg;
  sqlite3_value *pErr;          /* Most recent error message */
  char *zErrMsg;                /* Most recent error message (UTF-8 encoded) */
  char *zErrMsg16;              /* Most recent error message (UTF-16 encoded) */
  union {
    int isInterrupted;          /* True if sqlite3_interrupt has been called */
    double notUsed1;            /* Spacer */
  } u1;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
  int (*xAuth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,const char*);
                                /* Access authorization function */
  void *pAuthArg;               /* 1st argument to the access auth function */
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  int (*xProgress)(void *);     /* The progress callback */
  void *pProgressArg;           /* Argument to the progress callback */
  int nProgressOps;             /* Number of opcodes for progress callback */
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  Hash aModule;                 /* populated by sqlite3_create_module() */
  Table *pVTab;                 /* vtab with active Connect/Create method */
  sqlite3_vtab **aVTrans;       /* Virtual tables with open transactions */
  int nVTrans;                  /* Allocated size of aVTrans */
#endif
  Hash aFunc;                   /* All functions that can be in SQL exprs */
  Hash aCollSeq;                /* All collating sequences */
  BusyHandler busyHandler;      /* Busy callback */
  int busyTimeout;              /* Busy handler timeout, in msec */
  Db aDbStatic[2];              /* Static space for the 2 default backends */
#ifdef SQLITE_SSE
  sqlite3_stmt *pFetch;         /* Used by SSE to fetch stored statements */
#endif
  u8 dfltLockMode;              /* Default locking-mode for attached dbs */
};

/*
** A macro to discover the encoding of a database.
*/
#define ENC(db) ((db)->aDb[0].pSchema->enc)

/*
** Possible values for the sqlite.flags and or Db.flags fields.
**
** On sqlite.flags, the SQLITE_InTrans value means that we have
** executed a BEGIN.  On Db.flags, SQLITE_InTrans means a statement
** transaction is active on that particular database file.
*/
#define SQLITE_VdbeTrace      0x00000001  /* True to trace VDBE execution */
#define SQLITE_InTrans        0x00000008  /* True if in a transaction */
#define SQLITE_InternChanges  0x00000010  /* Uncommitted Hash table changes */
#define SQLITE_FullColNames   0x00000020  /* Show full column names on SELECT */
#define SQLITE_ShortColNames  0x00000040  /* Show short columns names */
#define SQLITE_CountRows      0x00000080  /* Count rows changed by INSERT, */
                                          /*   DELETE, or UPDATE and return */
                                          /*   the count using a callback. */
#define SQLITE_NullCallback   0x00000100  /* Invoke the callback once if the */
                                          /*   result set is empty */
#define SQLITE_SqlTrace       0x00000200  /* Debug print SQL as it executes */
#define SQLITE_VdbeListing    0x00000400  /* Debug listings of VDBE programs */
#define SQLITE_WriteSchema    0x00000800  /* OK to update SQLITE_MASTER */
#define SQLITE_NoReadlock     0x00001000  /* Readlocks are omitted when 
                                          ** accessing read-only databases */
#define SQLITE_IgnoreChecks   0x00002000  /* Do not enforce check constraints */
#define SQLITE_ReadUncommitted 0x00004000 /* For shared-cache mode */
#define SQLITE_LegacyFileFmt  0x00008000  /* Create new databases in format 1 */
#define SQLITE_FullFSync      0x00010000  /* Use full fsync on the backend */
#define SQLITE_LoadExtension  0x00020000  /* Enable load_extension */

#define SQLITE_RecoveryMode   0x00040000  /* Ignore schema errors */
#define SQLITE_SharedCache    0x00080000  /* Cache sharing is enabled */
#define SQLITE_Vtab           0x00100000  /* There exists a virtual table */

/*
** Possible values for the sqlite.magic field.
** The numbers are obtained at random and have no special meaning, other
** than being distinct from one another.
*/
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN     0xa029a697  /* Database is open */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_CLOSED   0x9f3c2d33  /* Database is closed */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_SICK     0x4b771290  /* Error and awaiting close */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY     0xf03b7906  /* Database currently in use */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_ERROR    0xb5357930  /* An SQLITE_MISUSE error occurred */

/*
** Each SQL function is defined by an instance of the following
** structure.  A pointer to this structure is stored in the sqlite.aFunc
** hash table.  When multiple functions have the same name, the hash table
** points to a linked list of these structures.
*/
struct FuncDef {
  i16 nArg;            /* Number of arguments.  -1 means unlimited */
  u8 iPrefEnc;         /* Preferred text encoding (SQLITE_UTF8, 16LE, 16BE) */
  u8 needCollSeq;      /* True if sqlite3GetFuncCollSeq() might be called */
  u8 flags;            /* Some combination of SQLITE_FUNC_* */
  void *pUserData;     /* User data parameter */
  FuncDef *pNext;      /* Next function with same name */
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**); /* Regular function */
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**); /* Aggregate step */
  void (*xFinalize)(sqlite3_context*);                /* Aggregate finializer */
  char zName[1];       /* SQL name of the function.  MUST BE LAST */
};

/*
** Each SQLite module (virtual table definition) is defined by an
** instance of the following structure, stored in the sqlite3.aModule
** hash table.
*/
struct Module {
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;       /* Callback pointers */
  const char *zName;                   /* Name passed to create_module() */
  void *pAux;                          /* pAux passed to create_module() */
  void (*xDestroy)(void *);            /* Module destructor function */
};

/*
** Possible values for FuncDef.flags
*/
#define SQLITE_FUNC_LIKE   0x01  /* Candidate for the LIKE optimization */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_CASE   0x02  /* Case-sensitive LIKE-type function */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_EPHEM  0x04  /* Ephermeral.  Delete with VDBE */

/*
** information about each column of an SQL table is held in an instance
** of this structure.
*/
struct Column {
  char *zName;     /* Name of this column */
  Expr *pDflt;     /* Default value of this column */
  char *zType;     /* Data type for this column */
  char *zColl;     /* Collating sequence.  If NULL, use the default */
  u8 notNull;      /* True if there is a NOT NULL constraint */
  u8 isPrimKey;    /* True if this column is part of the PRIMARY KEY */
  char affinity;   /* One of the SQLITE_AFF_... values */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  u8 isHidden;     /* True if this column is 'hidden' */
#endif
};

/*
** A "Collating Sequence" is defined by an instance of the following
** structure. Conceptually, a collating sequence consists of a name and
** a comparison routine that defines the order of that sequence.
**
** There may two seperate implementations of the collation function, one
** that processes text in UTF-8 encoding (CollSeq.xCmp) and another that
** processes text encoded in UTF-16 (CollSeq.xCmp16), using the machine
** native byte order. When a collation sequence is invoked, SQLite selects
** the version that will require the least expensive encoding
** translations, if any.
**
** The CollSeq.pUser member variable is an extra parameter that passed in
** as the first argument to the UTF-8 comparison function, xCmp.
** CollSeq.pUser16 is the equivalent for the UTF-16 comparison function,
** xCmp16.
**
** If both CollSeq.xCmp and CollSeq.xCmp16 are NULL, it means that the
** collating sequence is undefined.  Indices built on an undefined
** collating sequence may not be read or written.
*/
struct CollSeq {
  char *zName;          /* Name of the collating sequence, UTF-8 encoded */
  u8 enc;               /* Text encoding handled by xCmp() */
  u8 type;              /* One of the SQLITE_COLL_... values below */
  void *pUser;          /* First argument to xCmp() */
  int (*xCmp)(void*,int, const void*, int, const void*);
  void (*xDel)(void*);  /* Destructor for pUser */
};

/*
** Allowed values of CollSeq flags:
*/
#define SQLITE_COLL_BINARY  1  /* The default memcmp() collating sequence */
#define SQLITE_COLL_NOCASE  2  /* The built-in NOCASE collating sequence */
#define SQLITE_COLL_REVERSE 3  /* The built-in REVERSE collating sequence */
#define SQLITE_COLL_USER    0  /* Any other user-defined collating sequence */

/*
** A sort order can be either ASC or DESC.
*/
#define SQLITE_SO_ASC       0  /* Sort in ascending order */
#define SQLITE_SO_DESC      1  /* Sort in ascending order */

/*
** Column affinity types.
**
** These used to have mnemonic name like 'i' for SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER and
** 't' for SQLITE_AFF_TEXT.  But we can save a little space and improve
** the speed a little by number the values consecutively.  
**
** But rather than start with 0 or 1, we begin with 'a'.  That way,
** when multiple affinity types are concatenated into a string and
** used as the P4 operand, they will be more readable.
**
** Note also that the numeric types are grouped together so that testing
** for a numeric type is a single comparison.
*/
#define SQLITE_AFF_TEXT     'a'
#define SQLITE_AFF_NONE     'b'
#define SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC  'c'
#define SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER  'd'
#define SQLITE_AFF_REAL     'e'

#define sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(X)  ((X)>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC)

/*
** The SQLITE_AFF_MASK values masks off the significant bits of an
** affinity value. 
*/
#define SQLITE_AFF_MASK     0x67

/*
** Additional bit values that can be ORed with an affinity without
** changing the affinity.
*/
#define SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL   0x08  /* jumps if either operand is NULL */
#define SQLITE_NULLEQUAL    0x10  /* compare NULLs equal */
#define SQLITE_STOREP2      0x80  /* Store result in reg[P2] rather than jump */

/*
** Each SQL table is represented in memory by an instance of the
** following structure.
**
** Table.zName is the name of the table.  The case of the original
** CREATE TABLE statement is stored, but case is not significant for
** comparisons.
**
** Table.nCol is the number of columns in this table.  Table.aCol is a
** pointer to an array of Column structures, one for each column.
**
** If the table has an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, then Table.iPKey is the index of
** the column that is that key.   Otherwise Table.iPKey is negative.  Note
** that the datatype of the PRIMARY KEY must be INTEGER for this field to
** be set.  An INTEGER PRIMARY KEY is used as the rowid for each row of
** the table.  If a table has no INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, then a random rowid
** is generated for each row of the table.  Table.hasPrimKey is true if
** the table has any PRIMARY KEY, INTEGER or otherwise.
**
** Table.tnum is the page number for the root BTree page of the table in the
** database file.  If Table.iDb is the index of the database table backend
** in sqlite.aDb[].  0 is for the main database and 1 is for the file that
** holds temporary tables and indices.  If Table.isEphem
** is true, then the table is stored in a file that is automatically deleted
** when the VDBE cursor to the table is closed.  In this case Table.tnum 
** refers VDBE cursor number that holds the table open, not to the root
** page number.  Transient tables are used to hold the results of a
** sub-query that appears instead of a real table name in the FROM clause 
** of a SELECT statement.
*/
struct Table {
  char *zName;     /* Name of the table */
  int nCol;        /* Number of columns in this table */
  Column *aCol;    /* Information about each column */
  int iPKey;       /* If not less then 0, use aCol[iPKey] as the primary key */
  Index *pIndex;   /* List of SQL indexes on this table. */
  int tnum;        /* Root BTree node for this table (see note above) */
  Select *pSelect; /* NULL for tables.  Points to definition if a view. */
  int nRef;          /* Number of pointers to this Table */
  Trigger *pTrigger; /* List of SQL triggers on this table */
  FKey *pFKey;       /* Linked list of all foreign keys in this table */
  char *zColAff;     /* String defining the affinity of each column */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK
  Expr *pCheck;      /* The AND of all CHECK constraints */
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_ALTERTABLE
  int addColOffset;  /* Offset in CREATE TABLE statement to add a new column */
#endif
  u8 readOnly;     /* True if this table should not be written by the user */
  u8 isEphem;      /* True if created using OP_OpenEphermeral */
  u8 hasPrimKey;   /* True if there exists a primary key */
  u8 keyConf;      /* What to do in case of uniqueness conflict on iPKey */
  u8 autoInc;      /* True if the integer primary key is autoincrement */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  u8 isVirtual;             /* True if this is a virtual table */
  u8 isCommit;              /* True once the CREATE TABLE has been committed */
  Module *pMod;             /* Pointer to the implementation of the module */
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Pointer to the module instance */
  int nModuleArg;           /* Number of arguments to the module */
  char **azModuleArg;       /* Text of all module args. [0] is module name */
#endif
  Schema *pSchema;          /* Schema that contains this table */
};

/*
** Test to see whether or not a table is a virtual table.  This is
** done as a macro so that it will be optimized out when virtual
** table support is omitted from the build.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
#  define IsVirtual(X)      ((X)->isVirtual)
#  define IsHiddenColumn(X) ((X)->isHidden)
#else
#  define IsVirtual(X)      0
#  define IsHiddenColumn(X) 0
#endif

/*
** Each foreign key constraint is an instance of the following structure.
**
** A foreign key is associated with two tables.  The "from" table is
** the table that contains the REFERENCES clause that creates the foreign
** key.  The "to" table is the table that is named in the REFERENCES clause.
** Consider this example:
**
**     CREATE TABLE ex1(
**       a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
**       b INTEGER CONSTRAINT fk1 REFERENCES ex2(x)
**     );
**
** For foreign key "fk1", the from-table is "ex1" and the to-table is "ex2".
**
** Each REFERENCES clause generates an instance of the following structure
** which is attached to the from-table.  The to-table need not exist when
** the from-table is created.  The existance of the to-table is not checked
** until an attempt is made to insert data into the from-table.
**
** The sqlite.aFKey hash table stores pointers to this structure
** given the name of a to-table.  For each to-table, all foreign keys
** associated with that table are on a linked list using the FKey.pNextTo
** field.
*/
struct FKey {
  Table *pFrom;     /* The table that constains the REFERENCES clause */
  FKey *pNextFrom;  /* Next foreign key in pFrom */
  char *zTo;        /* Name of table that the key points to */
  FKey *pNextTo;    /* Next foreign key that points to zTo */
  int nCol;         /* Number of columns in this key */
  struct sColMap {  /* Mapping of columns in pFrom to columns in zTo */
    int iFrom;         /* Index of column in pFrom */
    char *zCol;        /* Name of column in zTo.  If 0 use PRIMARY KEY */
  } *aCol;          /* One entry for each of nCol column s */
  u8 isDeferred;    /* True if constraint checking is deferred till COMMIT */
  u8 updateConf;    /* How to resolve conflicts that occur on UPDATE */
  u8 deleteConf;    /* How to resolve conflicts that occur on DELETE */
  u8 insertConf;    /* How to resolve conflicts that occur on INSERT */
};

/*
** SQLite supports many different ways to resolve a constraint
** error.  ROLLBACK processing means that a constraint violation
** causes the operation in process to fail and for the current transaction
** to be rolled back.  ABORT processing means the operation in process
** fails and any prior changes from that one operation are backed out,
** but the transaction is not rolled back.  FAIL processing means that
** the operation in progress stops and returns an error code.  But prior
** changes due to the same operation are not backed out and no rollback
** occurs.  IGNORE means that the particular row that caused the constraint
** error is not inserted or updated.  Processing continues and no error
** is returned.  REPLACE means that preexisting database rows that caused
** a UNIQUE constraint violation are removed so that the new insert or
** update can proceed.  Processing continues and no error is reported.
**
** RESTRICT, SETNULL, and CASCADE actions apply only to foreign keys.
** RESTRICT is the same as ABORT for IMMEDIATE foreign keys and the
** same as ROLLBACK for DEFERRED keys.  SETNULL means that the foreign
** key is set to NULL.  CASCADE means that a DELETE or UPDATE of the
** referenced table row is propagated into the row that holds the
** foreign key.
** 
** The following symbolic values are used to record which type
** of action to take.
*/
#define OE_None     0   /* There is no constraint to check */
#define OE_Rollback 1   /* Fail the operation and rollback the transaction */
#define OE_Abort    2   /* Back out changes but do no rollback transaction */
#define OE_Fail     3   /* Stop the operation but leave all prior changes */
#define OE_Ignore   4   /* Ignore the error. Do not do the INSERT or UPDATE */
#define OE_Replace  5   /* Delete existing record, then do INSERT or UPDATE */

#define OE_Restrict 6   /* OE_Abort for IMMEDIATE, OE_Rollback for DEFERRED */
#define OE_SetNull  7   /* Set the foreign key value to NULL */
#define OE_SetDflt  8   /* Set the foreign key value to its default */
#define OE_Cascade  9   /* Cascade the changes */

#define OE_Default  99  /* Do whatever the default action is */


/*
** An instance of the following structure is passed as the first
** argument to sqlite3VdbeKeyCompare and is used to control the 
** comparison of the two index keys.
**
** If the KeyInfo.incrKey value is true and the comparison would
** otherwise be equal, then return a result as if the second key
** were larger.
*/
struct KeyInfo {
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The database connection */
  u8 enc;             /* Text encoding - one of the TEXT_Utf* values */
  u8 incrKey;         /* Increase 2nd key by epsilon before comparison */
  u8 prefixIsEqual;   /* Treat a prefix as equal */
  int nField;         /* Number of entries in aColl[] */
  u8 *aSortOrder;     /* If defined an aSortOrder[i] is true, sort DESC */
  CollSeq *aColl[1];  /* Collating sequence for each term of the key */
};

/*
** Each SQL index is represented in memory by an
** instance of the following structure.
**
** The columns of the table that are to be indexed are described
** by the aiColumn[] field of this structure.  For example, suppose
** we have the following table and index:
**
**     CREATE TABLE Ex1(c1 int, c2 int, c3 text);
**     CREATE INDEX Ex2 ON Ex1(c3,c1);
**
** In the Table structure describing Ex1, nCol==3 because there are
** three columns in the table.  In the Index structure describing
** Ex2, nColumn==2 since 2 of the 3 columns of Ex1 are indexed.
** The value of aiColumn is {2, 0}.  aiColumn[0]==2 because the 
** first column to be indexed (c3) has an index of 2 in Ex1.aCol[].
** The second column to be indexed (c1) has an index of 0 in
** Ex1.aCol[], hence Ex2.aiColumn[1]==0.
**
** The Index.onError field determines whether or not the indexed columns
** must be unique and what to do if they are not.  When Index.onError=OE_None,
** it means this is not a unique index.  Otherwise it is a unique index
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution 
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
*/
struct Index {
  char *zName;     /* Name of this index */
  int nColumn;     /* Number of columns in the table used by this index */
  int *aiColumn;   /* Which columns are used by this index.  1st is 0 */
  unsigned *aiRowEst; /* Result of ANALYZE: Est. rows selected by each column */
  Table *pTable;   /* The SQL table being indexed */
  int tnum;        /* Page containing root of this index in database file */
  u8 onError;      /* OE_Abort, OE_Ignore, OE_Replace, or OE_None */
  u8 autoIndex;    /* True if is automatically created (ex: by UNIQUE) */
  char *zColAff;   /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  Index *pNext;    /* The next index associated with the same table */
  Schema *pSchema; /* Schema containing this index */
  u8 *aSortOrder;  /* Array of size Index.nColumn. True==DESC, False==ASC */
  char **azColl;   /* Array of collation sequence names for index */
};

/*
** Each token coming out of the lexer is an instance of
** this structure.  Tokens are also used as part of an expression.
**
** Note if Token.z==0 then Token.dyn and Token.n are undefined and
** may contain random values.  Do not make any assuptions about Token.dyn
** and Token.n when Token.z==0.
*/
struct Token {
  const unsigned char *z; /* Text of the token.  Not NULL-terminated! */
  unsigned dyn  : 1;      /* True for malloced memory, false for static */
  unsigned n    : 31;     /* Number of characters in this token */
};

/*
** An instance of this structure contains information needed to generate
** code for a SELECT that contains aggregate functions.
**
** If Expr.op==TK_AGG_COLUMN or TK_AGG_FUNCTION then Expr.pAggInfo is a
** pointer to this structure.  The Expr.iColumn field is the index in
** AggInfo.aCol[] or AggInfo.aFunc[] of information needed to generate
** code for that node.
**
** AggInfo.pGroupBy and AggInfo.aFunc.pExpr point to fields within the
** original Select structure that describes the SELECT statement.  These
** fields do not need to be freed when deallocating the AggInfo structure.
*/
struct AggInfo {
  u8 directMode;          /* Direct rendering mode means take data directly
                          ** from source tables rather than from accumulators */
  u8 useSortingIdx;       /* In direct mode, reference the sorting index rather
                          ** than the source table */
  int sortingIdx;         /* Cursor number of the sorting index */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;     /* The group by clause */
  int nSortingColumn;     /* Number of columns in the sorting index */
  struct AggInfo_col {    /* For each column used in source tables */
    Table *pTab;             /* Source table */
    int iTable;              /* Cursor number of the source table */
    int iColumn;             /* Column number within the source table */
    int iSorterColumn;       /* Column number in the sorting index */
    int iMem;                /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
    Expr *pExpr;             /* The original expression */
  } *aCol;
  int nColumn;            /* Number of used entries in aCol[] */
  int nColumnAlloc;       /* Number of slots allocated for aCol[] */
  int nAccumulator;       /* Number of columns that show through to the output.
                          ** Additional columns are used only as parameters to
                          ** aggregate functions */
  struct AggInfo_func {   /* For each aggregate function */
    Expr *pExpr;             /* Expression encoding the function */
    FuncDef *pFunc;          /* The aggregate function implementation */
    int iMem;                /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
    int iDistinct;           /* Ephermeral table used to enforce DISTINCT */
  } *aFunc;
  int nFunc;              /* Number of entries in aFunc[] */
  int nFuncAlloc;         /* Number of slots allocated for aFunc[] */
};

/*
** Each node of an expression in the parse tree is an instance
** of this structure.
**
** Expr.op is the opcode.  The integer parser token codes are reused
** as opcodes here.  For example, the parser defines TK_GE to be an integer
** code representing the ">=" operator.  This same integer code is reused
** to represent the greater-than-or-equal-to operator in the expression
** tree.
**
** Expr.pRight and Expr.pLeft are subexpressions.  Expr.pList is a list
** of argument if the expression is a function.
**
** Expr.token is the operator token for this node.  For some expressions
** that have subexpressions, Expr.token can be the complete text that gave
** rise to the Expr.  In the latter case, the token is marked as being
** a compound token.
**
** An expression of the form ID or ID.ID refers to a column in a table.
** For such expressions, Expr.op is set to TK_COLUMN and Expr.iTable is
** the integer cursor number of a VDBE cursor pointing to that table and
** Expr.iColumn is the column number for the specific column.  If the
** expression is used as a result in an aggregate SELECT, then the
** value is also stored in the Expr.iAgg column in the aggregate so that
** it can be accessed after all aggregates are computed.
**
** If the expression is a function, the Expr.iTable is an integer code
** representing which function.  If the expression is an unbound variable
** marker (a question mark character '?' in the original SQL) then the
** Expr.iTable holds the index number for that variable.
**
** If the expression is a subquery then Expr.iColumn holds an integer
** register number containing the result of the subquery.  If the
** subquery gives a constant result, then iTable is -1.  If the subquery
** gives a different answer at different times during statement processing
** then iTable is the address of a subroutine that computes the subquery.
**
** The Expr.pSelect field points to a SELECT statement.  The SELECT might
** be the right operand of an IN operator.  Or, if a scalar SELECT appears
** in an expression the opcode is TK_SELECT and Expr.pSelect is the only
** operand.
**
** If the Expr is of type OP_Column, and the table it is selecting from
** is a disk table or the "old.*" pseudo-table, then pTab points to the
** corresponding table definition.
*/
struct Expr {
  u8 op;                 /* Operation performed by this node */
  char affinity;         /* The affinity of the column or 0 if not a column */
  u16 flags;             /* Various flags.  See below */
  CollSeq *pColl;        /* The collation type of the column or 0 */
  Expr *pLeft, *pRight;  /* Left and right subnodes */
  ExprList *pList;       /* A list of expressions used as function arguments
                         ** or in "<expr> IN (<expr-list)" */
  Token token;           /* An operand token */
  Token span;            /* Complete text of the expression */
  int iTable, iColumn;   /* When op==TK_COLUMN, then this expr node means the
                         ** iColumn-th field of the iTable-th table. */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;     /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */
  int iAgg;              /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
  int iRightJoinTable;   /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
  Select *pSelect;       /* When the expression is a sub-select.  Also the
                         ** right side of "<expr> IN (<select>)" */
  Table *pTab;           /* Table for OP_Column expressions. */
/*  Schema *pSchema; */
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST) || SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
  int nHeight;           /* Height of the tree headed by this node */
#endif
};

/*
** The following are the meanings of bits in the Expr.flags field.
*/
#define EP_FromJoin     0x01  /* Originated in ON or USING clause of a join */
#define EP_Agg          0x02  /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
#define EP_Resolved     0x04  /* IDs have been resolved to COLUMNs */
#define EP_Error        0x08  /* Expression contains one or more errors */
#define EP_Distinct     0x10  /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
#define EP_VarSelect    0x20  /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
#define EP_Dequoted     0x40  /* True if the string has been dequoted */
#define EP_InfixFunc    0x80  /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
#define EP_ExpCollate  0x100  /* Collating sequence specified explicitly */

/*
** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Expr.flags field.
*/
#define ExprHasProperty(E,P)     (((E)->flags&(P))==(P))
#define ExprHasAnyProperty(E,P)  (((E)->flags&(P))!=0)
#define ExprSetProperty(E,P)     (E)->flags|=(P)
#define ExprClearProperty(E,P)   (E)->flags&=~(P)

/*
** A list of expressions.  Each expression may optionally have a
** name.  An expr/name combination can be used in several ways, such
** as the list of "expr AS ID" fields following a "SELECT" or in the
** list of "ID = expr" items in an UPDATE.  A list of expressions can
** also be used as the argument to a function, in which case the a.zName
** field is not used.
*/
struct ExprList {
  int nExpr;             /* Number of expressions on the list */
  int nAlloc;            /* Number of entries allocated below */
  int iECursor;          /* VDBE Cursor associated with this ExprList */
  struct ExprList_item {
    Expr *pExpr;           /* The list of expressions */
    char *zName;           /* Token associated with this expression */
    u8 sortOrder;          /* 1 for DESC or 0 for ASC */
    u8 isAgg;              /* True if this is an aggregate like count(*) */
    u8 done;               /* A flag to indicate when processing is finished */
  } *a;                  /* One entry for each expression */
};

/*
** An instance of this structure can hold a simple list of identifiers,
** such as the list "a,b,c" in the following statements:
**
**      INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) VALUES ...;
**      CREATE INDEX idx ON t(a,b,c);
**      CREATE TRIGGER trig BEFORE UPDATE ON t(a,b,c) ...;
**
** The IdList.a.idx field is used when the IdList represents the list of
** column names after a table name in an INSERT statement.  In the statement
**
**     INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) ...
**
** If "a" is the k-th column of table "t", then IdList.a[0].idx==k.
*/
struct IdList {
  struct IdList_item {
    char *zName;      /* Name of the identifier */
    int idx;          /* Index in some Table.aCol[] of a column named zName */
  } *a;
  int nId;         /* Number of identifiers on the list */
  int nAlloc;      /* Number of entries allocated for a[] below */
};

/*
** The bitmask datatype defined below is used for various optimizations.
**
** Changing this from a 64-bit to a 32-bit type limits the number of
** tables in a join to 32 instead of 64.  But it also reduces the size
** of the library by 738 bytes on ix86.
*/
typedef u64 Bitmask;

/*
** The following structure describes the FROM clause of a SELECT statement.
** Each table or subquery in the FROM clause is a separate element of
** the SrcList.a[] array.
**
** With the addition of multiple database support, the following structure
** can also be used to describe a particular table such as the table that
** is modified by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statement.  In standard SQL,
** such a table must be a simple name: ID.  But in SQLite, the table can
** now be identified by a database name, a dot, then the table name: ID.ID.
**
** The jointype starts out showing the join type between the current table
** and the next table on the list.  The parser builds the list this way.
** But sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType() later shifts the jointypes so that each
** jointype expresses the join between the table and the previous table.
*/
struct SrcList {
  i16 nSrc;        /* Number of tables or subqueries in the FROM clause */
  i16 nAlloc;      /* Number of entries allocated in a[] below */
  struct SrcList_item {
    char *zDatabase;  /* Name of database holding this table */
    char *zName;      /* Name of the table */
    char *zAlias;     /* The "B" part of a "A AS B" phrase.  zName is the "A" */
    Table *pTab;      /* An SQL table corresponding to zName */
    Select *pSelect;  /* A SELECT statement used in place of a table name */
    u8 isPopulated;   /* Temporary table associated with SELECT is populated */
    u8 jointype;      /* Type of join between this able and the previous */
    int iCursor;      /* The VDBE cursor number used to access this table */
    Expr *pOn;        /* The ON clause of a join */
    IdList *pUsing;   /* The USING clause of a join */
    Bitmask colUsed;  /* Bit N (1<<N) set if column N or pTab is used */
  } a[1];             /* One entry for each identifier on the list */
};

/*
** Permitted values of the SrcList.a.jointype field
*/
#define JT_INNER     0x0001    /* Any kind of inner or cross join */
#define JT_CROSS     0x0002    /* Explicit use of the CROSS keyword */
#define JT_NATURAL   0x0004    /* True for a "natural" join */
#define JT_LEFT      0x0008    /* Left outer join */
#define JT_RIGHT     0x0010    /* Right outer join */
#define JT_OUTER     0x0020    /* The "OUTER" keyword is present */
#define JT_ERROR     0x0040    /* unknown or unsupported join type */

/*
** For each nested loop in a WHERE clause implementation, the WhereInfo
** structure contains a single instance of this structure.  This structure
** is intended to be private the the where.c module and should not be
** access or modified by other modules.
**
** The pIdxInfo and pBestIdx fields are used to help pick the best
** index on a virtual table.  The pIdxInfo pointer contains indexing
** information for the i-th table in the FROM clause before reordering.
** All the pIdxInfo pointers are freed by whereInfoFree() in where.c.
** The pBestIdx pointer is a copy of pIdxInfo for the i-th table after
** FROM clause ordering.  This is a little confusing so I will repeat
** it in different words.  WhereInfo.a[i].pIdxInfo is index information 
** for WhereInfo.pTabList.a[i].  WhereInfo.a[i].pBestInfo is the
** index information for the i-th loop of the join.  pBestInfo is always
** either NULL or a copy of some pIdxInfo.  So for cleanup it is 
** sufficient to free all of the pIdxInfo pointers.
** 
*/
struct WhereLevel {
  int iFrom;            /* Which entry in the FROM clause */
  int flags;            /* Flags associated with this level */
  int iMem;             /* First memory cell used by this level */
  int iLeftJoin;        /* Memory cell used to implement LEFT OUTER JOIN */
  Index *pIdx;          /* Index used.  NULL if no index */
  int iTabCur;          /* The VDBE cursor used to access the table */
  int iIdxCur;          /* The VDBE cursor used to acesss pIdx */
  int brk;              /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int nxt;              /* Jump here to start the next IN combination */
  int cont;             /* Jump here to continue with the next loop cycle */
  int top;              /* First instruction of interior of the loop */
  int op, p1, p2;       /* Opcode used to terminate the loop */
  int nEq;              /* Number of == or IN constraints on this loop */
  int nIn;              /* Number of IN operators constraining this loop */
  struct InLoop {
    int iCur;              /* The VDBE cursor used by this IN operator */
    int topAddr;           /* Top of the IN loop */
  } *aInLoop;           /* Information about each nested IN operator */
  sqlite3_index_info *pBestIdx;  /* Index information for this level */

  /* The following field is really not part of the current level.  But
  ** we need a place to cache index information for each table in the
  ** FROM clause and the WhereLevel structure is a convenient place.
  */
  sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo;  /* Index info for n-th source table */
};

#define ORDERBY_NORMAL 0
#define ORDERBY_MIN    1
#define ORDERBY_MAX    2

/*
** The WHERE clause processing routine has two halves.  The
** first part does the start of the WHERE loop and the second
** half does the tail of the WHERE loop.  An instance of
** this structure is returned by the first half and passed
** into the second half to give some continuity.
*/
struct WhereInfo {
  Parse *pParse;
  SrcList *pTabList;   /* List of tables in the join */
  int iTop;            /* The very beginning of the WHERE loop */
  int iContinue;       /* Jump here to continue with next record */
  int iBreak;          /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int nLevel;          /* Number of nested loop */
  sqlite3_index_info **apInfo;  /* Array of pointers to index info structures */
  WhereLevel a[1];     /* Information about each nest loop in the WHERE */
};

/*
** A NameContext defines a context in which to resolve table and column
** names.  The context consists of a list of tables (the pSrcList) field and
** a list of named expression (pEList).  The named expression list may
** be NULL.  The pSrc corresponds to the FROM clause of a SELECT or
** to the table being operated on by INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE.  The
** pEList corresponds to the result set of a SELECT and is NULL for
** other statements.
**
** NameContexts can be nested.  When resolving names, the inner-most 
** context is searched first.  If no match is found, the next outer
** context is checked.  If there is still no match, the next context
** is checked.  This process continues until either a match is found
** or all contexts are check.  When a match is found, the nRef member of
** the context containing the match is incremented. 
**
** Each subquery gets a new NameContext.  The pNext field points to the
** NameContext in the parent query.  Thus the process of scanning the
** NameContext list corresponds to searching through successively outer
** subqueries looking for a match.
*/
struct NameContext {
  Parse *pParse;       /* The parser */
  SrcList *pSrcList;   /* One or more tables used to resolve names */
  ExprList *pEList;    /* Optional list of named expressions */
  int nRef;            /* Number of names resolved by this context */
  int nErr;            /* Number of errors encountered while resolving names */
  u8 allowAgg;         /* Aggregate functions allowed here */
  u8 hasAgg;           /* True if aggregates are seen */
  u8 isCheck;          /* True if resolving names in a CHECK constraint */
  int nDepth;          /* Depth of subquery recursion. 1 for no recursion */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;   /* Information about aggregates at this level */
  NameContext *pNext;  /* Next outer name context.  NULL for outermost */
};

/*
** An instance of the following structure contains all information
** needed to generate code for a single SELECT statement.
**
** nLimit is set to -1 if there is no LIMIT clause.  nOffset is set to 0.
** If there is a LIMIT clause, the parser sets nLimit to the value of the
** limit and nOffset to the value of the offset (or 0 if there is not
** offset).  But later on, nLimit and nOffset become the memory locations
** in the VDBE that record the limit and offset counters.
**
** addrOpenEphm[] entries contain the address of OP_OpenEphemeral opcodes.
** These addresses must be stored so that we can go back and fill in
** the P4_KEYINFO and P2 parameters later.  Neither the KeyInfo nor
** the number of columns in P2 can be computed at the same time
** as the OP_OpenEphm instruction is coded because not
** enough information about the compound query is known at that point.
** The KeyInfo for addrOpenTran[0] and [1] contains collating sequences
** for the result set.  The KeyInfo for addrOpenTran[2] contains collating
** sequences for the ORDER BY clause.
*/
struct Select {
  ExprList *pEList;      /* The fields of the result */
  u8 op;                 /* One of: TK_UNION TK_ALL TK_INTERSECT TK_EXCEPT */
  u8 isDistinct;         /* True if the DISTINCT keyword is present */
  u8 isResolved;         /* True once sqlite3SelectResolve() has run. */
  u8 isAgg;              /* True if this is an aggregate query */
  u8 usesEphm;           /* True if uses an OpenEphemeral opcode */
  u8 disallowOrderBy;    /* Do not allow an ORDER BY to be attached if TRUE */
  char affinity;         /* MakeRecord with this affinity for SRT_Set */
  SrcList *pSrc;         /* The FROM clause */
  Expr *pWhere;          /* The WHERE clause */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;    /* The GROUP BY clause */
  Expr *pHaving;         /* The HAVING clause */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;    /* The ORDER BY clause */
  Select *pPrior;        /* Prior select in a compound select statement */
  Select *pNext;         /* Next select to the left in a compound */
  Select *pRightmost;    /* Right-most select in a compound select statement */
  Expr *pLimit;          /* LIMIT expression. NULL means not used. */
  Expr *pOffset;         /* OFFSET expression. NULL means not used. */
  int iLimit, iOffset;   /* Memory registers holding LIMIT & OFFSET counters */
  int addrOpenEphm[3];   /* OP_OpenEphem opcodes related to this select */
};

/*
** The results of a select can be distributed in several ways.
*/
#define SRT_Union        1  /* Store result as keys in an index */
#define SRT_Except       2  /* Remove result from a UNION index */
#define SRT_Exists       3  /* Store 1 if the result is not empty */
#define SRT_Discard      4  /* Do not save the results anywhere */

/* The ORDER BY clause is ignored for all of the above */
#define IgnorableOrderby(X) ((X->eDest)<=SRT_Discard)

#define SRT_Callback     5  /* Invoke a callback with each row of result */
#define SRT_Mem          6  /* Store result in a memory cell */
#define SRT_Set          7  /* Store non-null results as keys in an index */
#define SRT_Table        8  /* Store result as data with an automatic rowid */
#define SRT_EphemTab     9  /* Create transient tab and store like SRT_Table */
#define SRT_Subroutine  10  /* Call a subroutine to handle results */

/*
** A structure used to customize the behaviour of sqlite3Select(). See
** comments above sqlite3Select() for details.
*/
typedef struct SelectDest SelectDest;
struct SelectDest {
  u8 eDest;         /* How to dispose of the results */
  u8 affinity;      /* Affinity used when eDest==SRT_Set */
  int iParm;        /* A parameter used by the eDest disposal method */
  int iMem;         /* Base register where results are written */
};

/*
** An SQL parser context.  A copy of this structure is passed through
** the parser and down into all the parser action routine in order to
** carry around information that is global to the entire parse.
**
** The structure is divided into two parts.  When the parser and code
** generate call themselves recursively, the first part of the structure
** is constant but the second part is reset at the beginning and end of
** each recursion.
**
** The nTableLock and aTableLock variables are only used if the shared-cache 
** feature is enabled (if sqlite3Tsd()->useSharedData is true). They are
** used to store the set of table-locks required by the statement being
** compiled. Function sqlite3TableLock() is used to add entries to the
** list.
*/
struct Parse {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* The main database structure */
  int rc;              /* Return code from execution */
  char *zErrMsg;       /* An error message */
  Vdbe *pVdbe;         /* An engine for executing database bytecode */
  u8 colNamesSet;      /* TRUE after OP_ColumnName has been issued to pVdbe */
  u8 nameClash;        /* A permanent table name clashes with temp table name */
  u8 checkSchema;      /* Causes schema cookie check after an error */
  u8 nested;           /* Number of nested calls to the parser/code generator */
  u8 parseError;       /* True after a parsing error.  Ticket #1794 */
  u8 nTempReg;         /* Number of temporary registers in aTempReg[] */
  u8 nTempInUse;       /* Number of aTempReg[] currently checked out */
  int aTempReg[8];     /* Holding area for temporary registers */
  int nRangeReg;       /* Size of the temporary register block */
  int iRangeReg;       /* First register in temporary register block */
  int nErr;            /* Number of errors seen */
  int nTab;            /* Number of previously allocated VDBE cursors */
  int nMem;            /* Number of memory cells used so far */
  int nSet;            /* Number of sets used so far */
  int ckBase;          /* Base register of data during check constraints */
  u32 writeMask;       /* Start a write transaction on these databases */
  u32 cookieMask;      /* Bitmask of schema verified databases */
  int cookieGoto;      /* Address of OP_Goto to cookie verifier subroutine */
  int cookieValue[SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+2];  /* Values of cookies to verify */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE
  int nTableLock;        /* Number of locks in aTableLock */
  TableLock *aTableLock; /* Required table locks for shared-cache mode */
#endif

  /* Above is constant between recursions.  Below is reset before and after
  ** each recursion */

  int regRowid;        /* Register holding rowid of CREATE TABLE entry */
  int regRoot;         /* Register holding root page number for new objects */
  int nVar;            /* Number of '?' variables seen in the SQL so far */
  int nVarExpr;        /* Number of used slots in apVarExpr[] */
  int nVarExprAlloc;   /* Number of allocated slots in apVarExpr[] */
  Expr **apVarExpr;    /* Pointers to :aaa and $aaaa wildcard expressions */
  u8 explain;          /* True if the EXPLAIN flag is found on the query */
  Token sErrToken;     /* The token at which the error occurred */
  Token sNameToken;    /* Token with unqualified schema object name */
  Token sLastToken;    /* The last token parsed */
  const char *zSql;    /* All SQL text */
  const char *zTail;   /* All SQL text past the last semicolon parsed */
  Table *pNewTable;    /* A table being constructed by CREATE TABLE */
  Trigger *pNewTrigger;     /* Trigger under construct by a CREATE TRIGGER */
  TriggerStack *trigStack;  /* Trigger actions being coded */
  const char *zAuthContext; /* The 6th parameter to db->xAuth callbacks */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  Token sArg;                /* Complete text of a module argument */
  u8 declareVtab;            /* True if inside sqlite3_declare_vtab() */
  Table *pVirtualLock;       /* Require virtual table lock on this table */
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST) || SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
  int nHeight;            /* Expression tree height of current sub-select */
#endif
};

#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB 0
#else
  #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB (pParse->declareVtab)
#endif

/*
** An instance of the following structure can be declared on a stack and used
** to save the Parse.zAuthContext value so that it can be restored later.
*/
struct AuthContext {
  const char *zAuthContext;   /* Put saved Parse.zAuthContext here */
  Parse *pParse;              /* The Parse structure */
};

/*
** Bitfield flags for P2 value in OP_Insert and OP_Delete
*/
#define OPFLAG_NCHANGE   1    /* Set to update db->nChange */
#define OPFLAG_LASTROWID 2    /* Set to update db->lastRowid */
#define OPFLAG_ISUPDATE  4    /* This OP_Insert is an sql UPDATE */
#define OPFLAG_APPEND    8    /* This is likely to be an append */

/*
 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger. 
 *
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the 
 *    database). This allows Trigger structures to be retrieved by name.
 * 2. All triggers associated with a single table form a linked list, using the
 *    pNext member of struct Trigger. A pointer to the first element of the
 *    linked list is stored as the "pTrigger" member of the associated
 *    struct Table.
 *
 * The "step_list" member points to the first element of a linked list
 * containing the SQL statements specified as the trigger program.
 */
struct Trigger {
  char *name;             /* The name of the trigger                        */
  char *table;            /* The table or view to which the trigger applies */
  u8 op;                  /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT         */
  u8 tr_tm;               /* One of TRIGGER_BEFORE, TRIGGER_AFTER */
  Expr *pWhen;            /* The WHEN clause of the expresion (may be NULL) */
  IdList *pColumns;       /* If this is an UPDATE OF <column-list> trigger,
                             the <column-list> is stored here */
  Token nameToken;        /* Token containing zName. Use during parsing only */
  Schema *pSchema;        /* Schema containing the trigger */
  Schema *pTabSchema;     /* Schema containing the table */
  TriggerStep *step_list; /* Link list of trigger program steps             */
  Trigger *pNext;         /* Next trigger associated with the table */
};

/*
** A trigger is either a BEFORE or an AFTER trigger.  The following constants
** determine which. 
**
** If there are multiple triggers, you might of some BEFORE and some AFTER.
** In that cases, the constants below can be ORed together.
*/
#define TRIGGER_BEFORE  1
#define TRIGGER_AFTER   2

/*
 * An instance of struct TriggerStep is used to store a single SQL statement
 * that is a part of a trigger-program. 
 *
 * Instances of struct TriggerStep are stored in a singly linked list (linked
 * using the "pNext" member) referenced by the "step_list" member of the 
 * associated struct Trigger instance. The first element of the linked list is
 * the first step of the trigger-program.
 * 
 * The "op" member indicates whether this is a "DELETE", "INSERT", "UPDATE" or
 * "SELECT" statement. The meanings of the other members is determined by the 
 * value of "op" as follows:
 *
 * (op == TK_INSERT)
 * orconf    -> stores the ON CONFLICT algorithm
 * pSelect   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... SELECT ... statement, then
 *              this stores a pointer to the SELECT statement. Otherwise NULL.
 * target    -> A token holding the name of the table to insert into.
 * pExprList -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... VALUES ... statement, then
 *              this stores values to be inserted. Otherwise NULL.
 * pIdList   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... (<column-names>) VALUES ... 
 *              statement, then this stores the column-names to be
 *              inserted into.
 *
 * (op == TK_DELETE)
 * target    -> A token holding the name of the table to delete from.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the DELETE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * 
 * (op == TK_UPDATE)
 * target    -> A token holding the name of the table to update rows of.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the UPDATE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * pExprList -> A list of the columns to update and the expressions to update
 *              them to. See sqlite3Update() documentation of "pChanges"
 *              argument.
 * 
 */
struct TriggerStep {
  int op;              /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT, TK_SELECT */
  int orconf;          /* OE_Rollback etc. */
  Trigger *pTrig;      /* The trigger that this step is a part of */

  Select *pSelect;     /* Valid for SELECT and sometimes 
                          INSERT steps (when pExprList == 0) */
  Token target;        /* Valid for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT steps */
  Expr *pWhere;        /* Valid for DELETE, UPDATE steps */
  ExprList *pExprList; /* Valid for UPDATE statements and sometimes 
                           INSERT steps (when pSelect == 0)         */
  IdList *pIdList;     /* Valid for INSERT statements only */
  TriggerStep *pNext;  /* Next in the link-list */
  TriggerStep *pLast;  /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */
};

/*
 * An instance of struct TriggerStack stores information required during code
 * generation of a single trigger program. While the trigger program is being
 * coded, its associated TriggerStack instance is pointed to by the
 * "pTriggerStack" member of the Parse structure.
 *
 * The pTab member points to the table that triggers are being coded on. The 
 * newIdx member contains the index of the vdbe cursor that points at the temp
 * table that stores the new.* references. If new.* references are not valid
 * for the trigger being coded (for example an ON DELETE trigger), then newIdx
 * is set to -1. The oldIdx member is analogous to newIdx, for old.* references.
 *
 * The ON CONFLICT policy to be used for the trigger program steps is stored 
 * as the orconf member. If this is OE_Default, then the ON CONFLICT clause 
 * specified for individual triggers steps is used.
 *
 * struct TriggerStack has a "pNext" member, to allow linked lists to be
 * constructed. When coding nested triggers (triggers fired by other triggers)
 * each nested trigger stores its parent trigger's TriggerStack as the "pNext" 
 * pointer. Once the nested trigger has been coded, the pNext value is restored
 * to the pTriggerStack member of the Parse stucture and coding of the parent
 * trigger continues.
 *
 * Before a nested trigger is coded, the linked list pointed to by the 
 * pTriggerStack is scanned to ensure that the trigger is not about to be coded
 * recursively. If this condition is detected, the nested trigger is not coded.
 */
struct TriggerStack {
  Table *pTab;         /* Table that triggers are currently being coded on */
  int newIdx;          /* Index of vdbe cursor to "new" temp table */
  int oldIdx;          /* Index of vdbe cursor to "old" temp table */
  u32 newColMask;
  u32 oldColMask;
  int orconf;          /* Current orconf policy */
  int ignoreJump;      /* where to jump to for a RAISE(IGNORE) */
  Trigger *pTrigger;   /* The trigger currently being coded */
  TriggerStack *pNext; /* Next trigger down on the trigger stack */
};

/*
** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
** explicit.  
*/
typedef struct DbFixer DbFixer;
struct DbFixer {
  Parse *pParse;      /* The parsing context.  Error messages written here */
  const char *zDb;    /* Make sure all objects are contained in this database */
  const char *zType;  /* Type of the container - used for error messages */
  const Token *pName; /* Name of the container - used for error messages */
};

/*
** An objected used to accumulate the text of a string where we
** do not necessarily know how big the string will be in the end.
*/
struct StrAccum {
  char *zBase;     /* A base allocation.  Not from malloc. */
  char *zText;     /* The string collected so far */
  int  nChar;      /* Length of the string so far */
  int  nAlloc;     /* Amount of space allocated in zText */
  u8   mallocFailed;   /* Becomes true if any memory allocation fails */
  u8   useMalloc;      /* True if zText is enlargable using realloc */
  u8   tooBig;         /* Becomes true if string size exceeds limits */
};

/*
** A pointer to this structure is used to communicate information
** from sqlite3Init and OP_ParseSchema into the sqlite3InitCallback.
*/
typedef struct {
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The database being initialized */
  int iDb;            /* 0 for main database.  1 for TEMP, 2.. for ATTACHed */
  char **pzErrMsg;    /* Error message stored here */
  int rc;             /* Result code stored here */
} InitData;

/*
** Assuming zIn points to the first byte of a UTF-8 character,
** advance zIn to point to the first byte of the next UTF-8 character.
*/
#define SQLITE_SKIP_UTF8(zIn) {                        \
  if( (*(zIn++))>=0xc0 ){                              \
    while( (*zIn & 0xc0)==0x80 ){ zIn++; }             \
  }                                                    \
}

/*
** The SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT macro can be either a constant (for production
** builds) or a function call (for debugging).  If it is a function call,
** it allows the operator to set a breakpoint at the spot where database
** corruption is first detected.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3Corrupt(void);
# define SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT sqlite3Corrupt()
# define DEBUGONLY(X)        X
#else
# define SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT SQLITE_CORRUPT
# define DEBUGONLY(X)
#endif

/*
** Internal function prototypes
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StrICmp(const char *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StrNICmp(const char *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsNumber(const char*, int*, u8);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3MallocZero(unsigned);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocZero(sqlite3*, unsigned);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocRaw(sqlite3*, unsigned);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrDup(const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrNDup(const char*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrDup(sqlite3*,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrNDup(sqlite3*,const char*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(sqlite3 *, void *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbRealloc(sqlite3 *, void *, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3MPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, va_list);
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST) || defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char*, ...);
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void *sqlite3TextToPtr(const char*);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SetString(char **, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorMsg(Parse*, const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorClear(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Dequote(char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DequoteExpr(sqlite3*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3KeywordCode(const unsigned char*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RunParser(Parse*, const char*, char **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FinishCoding(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetTempReg(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(Parse*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetTempRange(Parse*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(Parse*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3Expr(sqlite3*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3PExpr(Parse*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3RegisterExpr(Parse*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(sqlite3*,Expr*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprSpan(Expr*,Token*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprDelete(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListDelete(ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Init(sqlite3*, char**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3InitCallback(void*, int, char**, char**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Pragma(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResetInternalSchema(sqlite3*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginParse(Parse*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CommitInternalChanges(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(Parse*,char*,Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenMasterTable(Parse *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StartTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddColumn(Parse*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddNotNull(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddColumnType(Parse*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Select*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateView(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,Select*,int,int);

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(Parse*,Table*);
#else
# define sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(A,B) 0
#endif

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropTable(Parse*, SrcList*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteTable(Table*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*, Select*, IdList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ArrayAllocate(sqlite3*,void*,int,int,int*,int*,int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListAppend(sqlite3*, IdList*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IdListIndex(IdList*,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppend(sqlite3*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*, Token*,
                                      Select*, Expr*, IdList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListAssignCursors(Parse*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3IdListDelete(IdList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListDelete(SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateIndex(Parse*,Token*,Token*,SrcList*,ExprList*,int,Token*,
                        Token*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(Parse*, Select*, SelectDest*, Select*, int, int*, char *aff);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
                         Expr*,ExprList*,int,Expr*,Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDelete(Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectMask(Parse *, Select *, u32);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3SrcListLookup(Parse*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsReadOnly(Parse*, Table*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenTable(Parse*, int iCur, int iDb, Table*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE WhereInfo *sqlite3WhereBegin(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*, ExprList**, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WhereEnd(WhereInfo*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(Vdbe*, Table*, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCode(Parse*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(Parse*, Expr*, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeAndCache(Parse*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(Parse*, ExprList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprIfTrue(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprIfFalse(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3FindTable(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3LocateTable(Parse*,int isView,const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Index *sqlite3FindIndex(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTable(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteIndex(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Vacuum(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RunVacuum(char**, sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3NameFromToken(sqlite3*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCompare(Expr*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprResolveNames(NameContext *, Expr *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggregates(NameContext*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggList(NameContext*,ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Vdbe *sqlite3GetVdbe(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3CreateIdExpr(Parse *, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Randomness(int, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RollbackAll(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginTransaction(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CommitTransaction(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RollbackTransaction(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstant(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstantNotJoin(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstantOrFunction(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsInteger(Expr*, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsRowid(const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(Parse*, Table*, int, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(Parse*, Index*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(Parse*,Table*,int,int,
                                     int*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CompleteInsertion(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(Parse*, Table*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(Parse*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprDup(sqlite3*,Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TokenCopy(sqlite3*,Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListDup(sqlite3*,ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListDup(sqlite3*,SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListDup(sqlite3*,IdList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectDup(sqlite3*,Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3FindFunction(sqlite3*,const char*,int,int,u8,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterBuiltinFunctions(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions(sqlite3*);
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3SafetyOn(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3SafetyOff(sqlite3*);
#else
# define sqlite3SafetyOn(A) 0
# define sqlite3SafetyOff(A) 0
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SafetyCheckOk(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SafetyCheckSickOrOk(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ChangeCookie(Parse*, int);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BeginTrigger(Parse*, Token*,Token*,int,int,IdList*,SrcList*,
                           Expr*,int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3FinishTrigger(Parse*, TriggerStep*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DropTrigger(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(Parse*, Trigger*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3TriggersExist(Parse*, Table*, int, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(Parse*, int, ExprList*, int, Table *, int, int, 
                           int, int, u32*, u32*);
  void sqliteViewTriggers(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(TriggerStep*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(sqlite3*,Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(sqlite3*,Token*, IdList*,
                                        ExprList*,Select*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(sqlite3*,Token*,ExprList*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(sqlite3*,Token*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DeleteTrigger(Trigger*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
#else
# define sqlite3TriggersExist(A,B,C,D,E,F) 0
# define sqlite3DeleteTrigger(A)
# define sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(A,B)
# define sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(A,B,C)
# define sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K) 0
#endif

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3JoinType(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateForeignKey(Parse*, ExprList*, Token*, ExprList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeferForeignKey(Parse*, int);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AuthRead(Parse*,Expr*,Schema*,SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3AuthCheck(Parse*,int, const char*, const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AuthContextPush(Parse*, AuthContext*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AuthContextPop(AuthContext*);
#else
# define sqlite3AuthRead(a,b,c,d)
# define sqlite3AuthCheck(a,b,c,d,e)    SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3AuthContextPush(a,b,c)
# define sqlite3AuthContextPop(a)  ((void)(a))
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Attach(Parse*, Expr*, Expr*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Detach(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFactory(const sqlite3 *db, const char *zFilename,
                       int omitJournal, int nCache, int flags, Btree **ppBtree);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixInit(DbFixer*, Parse*, int, const char*, const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSrcList(DbFixer*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSelect(DbFixer*, Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixExpr(DbFixer*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixExprList(DbFixer*, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixTriggerStep(DbFixer*, TriggerStep*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AtoF(const char *z, double*);
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int,char*,const char*,...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetInt32(const char *, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FitsIn64Bits(const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf16ByteLen(const void *pData, int nChar);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8CharLen(const char *pData, int nByte);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8Read(const u8*, const u8*, const u8**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PutVarint(unsigned char *, u64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetVarint(const unsigned char *, u64 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetVarint32(const unsigned char *, u32 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VarintLen(u64 v);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(Vdbe *, Index *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TableAffinityStr(Vdbe *, Table *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3CompareAffinity(Expr *pExpr, char aff2);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(Expr *pExpr, char idx_affinity);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Atoi64(const char*, i64*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Error(sqlite3*, int, const char*,...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HexToBlob(sqlite3*, const char *z, int n);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TwoPartName(Parse *, Token *, Token *, Token **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3ErrStr(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ReadSchema(Parse *pParse);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3FindCollSeq(sqlite3*,u8 enc, const char *,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3LocateCollSeq(Parse *pParse, const char *zName, int nName);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSetColl(Parse *pParse, Expr *, Token *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckCollSeq(Parse *, CollSeq *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckObjectName(Parse *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(sqlite3 *, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3ValueText(sqlite3_value*, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ValueBytes(sqlite3_value*, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueSetStr(sqlite3_value*, int, const void *,u8, 
                        void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueFree(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_value *sqlite3ValueNew(sqlite3 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3Utf16to8(sqlite3 *, const void*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ValueFromExpr(sqlite3 *, Expr *, u8, u8, sqlite3_value **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(sqlite3_value *, u8, u8);
#ifndef SQLITE_AMALGAMATION
SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3UpperToLower[];
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RootPageMoved(Db*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterFunctions(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse *, Expr *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SelectResolve(Parse *, Select *, NameContext *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ColumnDefault(Vdbe *, Table *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterFinishAddColumn(Parse *, Token *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterBeginAddColumn(Parse *, SrcList *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3GetCollSeq(sqlite3*, CollSeq *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3AffinityType(const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Analyze(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3InvokeBusyHandler(BusyHandler*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindDb(sqlite3*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AnalysisLoad(sqlite3*,int iDB);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DefaultRowEst(Index*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterLikeFunctions(sqlite3*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsLikeFunction(sqlite3*,Expr*,int*,char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AttachFunctions(sqlite3 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MinimumFileFormat(Parse*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SchemaFree(void *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Schema *sqlite3SchemaGet(sqlite3 *, Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SchemaToIndex(sqlite3 *db, Schema *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(Parse *, Index *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CreateFunc(sqlite3 *, const char *, int, int, void *, 
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **),
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **), void (*)(sqlite3_context*));
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OpenTempDatabase(Parse *);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum*,const char*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest*,int,int);

/*
** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(size_t));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Parser(void*, int, Token, Parse*);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3CloseExtensions(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3AutoLoadExtensions(sqlite3*);
#else
# define sqlite3CloseExtensions(X)
# define sqlite3AutoLoadExtensions(X)  SQLITE_OK
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3TableLock(Parse *, int, int, u8, const char *);
#else
  #define sqlite3TableLock(v,w,x,y,z)
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3Utf8To8(unsigned char*);
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
#  define sqlite3VtabClear(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabSync(X,Y) (Y)
#  define sqlite3VtabRollback(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabCommit(X)
#else
SQLITE_PRIVATE    void sqlite3VtabClear(Table*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE    int sqlite3VtabSync(sqlite3 *db, int rc);
SQLITE_PRIVATE    int sqlite3VtabRollback(sqlite3 *db);
SQLITE_PRIVATE    int sqlite3VtabCommit(sqlite3 *db);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabLock(sqlite3_vtab*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabUnlock(sqlite3*, sqlite3_vtab*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabBeginParse(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabFinishParse(Parse*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabArgInit(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabArgExtend(Parse*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallCreate(sqlite3*, int, const char *, char **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallConnect(Parse*, Table*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallDestroy(sqlite3*, int, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabBegin(sqlite3 *, sqlite3_vtab *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3VtabOverloadFunction(sqlite3 *,FuncDef*, int nArg, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3InvalidFunction(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Reprepare(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(Parse*, ExprList*, int, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(Parse *, Expr *, Expr *);


/*
** Available fault injectors.  Should be numbered beginning with 0.
*/
#define SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_MALLOC     0
#define SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_COUNT      1

/*
** The interface to the fault injector subsystem.  If the fault injector
** mechanism is disabled at compile-time then set up macros so that no
** unnecessary code is generated.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FAULTINJECTOR
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3FaultConfig(int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3FaultFailures(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3FaultBenignFailures(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3FaultPending(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3FaultBenign(int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3FaultStep(int);
#else
# define sqlite3FaultConfig(A,B,C)
# define sqlite3FaultFailures(A)         0
# define sqlite3FaultBenignFailures(A)   0
# define sqlite3FaultPending(A)          (-1)
# define sqlite3FaultBenign(A,B)
# define sqlite3FaultStep(A)             0
#endif
  
  

#define IN_INDEX_ROWID           1
#define IN_INDEX_EPH             2
#define IN_INDEX_INDEX           3
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindInIndex(Parse *, Expr *, int);

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_ATOMIC_WRITE
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3JournalOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file *, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3JournalSize(sqlite3_vfs *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3JournalCreate(sqlite3_file *);
#else
  #define sqlite3JournalSize(pVfs) ((pVfs)->szOsFile)
#endif

#if defined(SQLITE_TEST) || SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3ExprSetHeight(Expr *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3SelectExprHeight(Select *);
#else
  #define sqlite3ExprSetHeight(x)
#endif

SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3Get4byte(const u8*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Put4byte(u8*, u32);

#ifdef SQLITE_SSE
#include "sseInt.h"
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3ParserTrace(FILE*, char *);
#endif

/*
** If the SQLITE_ENABLE IOTRACE exists then the global variable
** sqlite3_io_trace is a pointer to a printf-like routine used to
** print I/O tracing messages. 
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_IOTRACE
# define IOTRACE(A)  if( sqlite3_io_trace ){ sqlite3_io_trace A; }
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeIOTraceSql(Vdbe*);
#else
# define IOTRACE(A)
# define sqlite3VdbeIOTraceSql(X)
#endif
SQLITE_EXTERN void (*sqlite3_io_trace)(const char*,...);

#endif

/************** End of sqliteInt.h *******************************************/
/************** Begin file date.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2003 October 31
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement date and time
** functions for SQLite.  
**
** There is only one exported symbol in this file - the function
** sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions() found at the bottom of the file.
** All other code has file scope.
**
** $Id: date.c,v 1.75 2008/01/17 22:27:54 drh Exp $
**
** SQLite processes all times and dates as Julian Day numbers.  The
** dates and times are stored as the number of days since noon
** in Greenwich on November 24, 4714 B.C. according to the Gregorian
** calendar system. 
**
** 1970-01-01 00:00:00 is JD 2440587.5
** 2000-01-01 00:00:00 is JD 2451544.5
**
** This implemention requires years to be expressed as a 4-digit number
** which means that only dates between 0000-01-01 and 9999-12-31 can
** be represented, even though julian day numbers allow a much wider
** range of dates.
**
** The Gregorian calendar system is used for all dates and times,
** even those that predate the Gregorian calendar.  Historians usually
** use the Julian calendar for dates prior to 1582-10-15 and for some
** dates afterwards, depending on locale.  Beware of this difference.
**
** The conversion algorithms are implemented based on descriptions
** in the following text:
**
**      Jean Meeus
**      Astronomical Algorithms, 2nd Edition, 1998
**      ISBM 0-943396-61-1
**      Willmann-Bell, Inc
**      Richmond, Virginia (USA)
*/
#include <ctype.h>
#include <time.h>

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS

/*
** A structure for holding a single date and time.
*/
typedef struct DateTime DateTime;
struct DateTime {
  double rJD;      /* The julian day number */
  int Y, M, D;     /* Year, month, and day */
  int h, m;        /* Hour and minutes */
  int tz;          /* Timezone offset in minutes */
  double s;        /* Seconds */
  char validYMD;   /* True if Y,M,D are valid */
  char validHMS;   /* True if h,m,s are valid */
  char validJD;    /* True if rJD is valid */
  char validTZ;    /* True if tz is valid */
};


/*
** Convert zDate into one or more integers.  Additional arguments
** come in groups of 5 as follows:
**
**       N       number of digits in the integer
**       min     minimum allowed value of the integer
**       max     maximum allowed value of the integer
**       nextC   first character after the integer
**       pVal    where to write the integers value.
**
** Conversions continue until one with nextC==0 is encountered.
** The function returns the number of successful conversions.
*/
static int getDigits(const char *zDate, ...){
  va_list ap;
  int val;
  int N;
  int min;
  int max;
  int nextC;
  int *pVal;
  int cnt = 0;
  va_start(ap, zDate);
  do{
    N = va_arg(ap, int);
    min = va_arg(ap, int);
    max = va_arg(ap, int);
    nextC = va_arg(ap, int);
    pVal = va_arg(ap, int*);
    val = 0;
    while( N-- ){
      if( !isdigit(*(u8*)zDate) ){
        goto end_getDigits;
      }
      val = val*10 + *zDate - '0';
      zDate++;
    }
    if( val<min || val>max || (nextC!=0 && nextC!=*zDate) ){
      goto end_getDigits;
    }
    *pVal = val;
    zDate++;
    cnt++;
  }while( nextC );
end_getDigits:
  va_end(ap);
  return cnt;
}

/*
** Read text from z[] and convert into a floating point number.  Return
** the number of digits converted.
*/
#define getValue sqlite3AtoF

/*
** Parse a timezone extension on the end of a date-time.
** The extension is of the form:
**
**        (+/-)HH:MM
**
** If the parse is successful, write the number of minutes
** of change in *pnMin and return 0.  If a parser error occurs,
** return 0.
**
** A missing specifier is not considered an error.
*/
static int parseTimezone(const char *zDate, DateTime *p){
  int sgn = 0;
  int nHr, nMn;
  while( isspace(*(u8*)zDate) ){ zDate++; }
  p->tz = 0;
  if( *zDate=='-' ){
    sgn = -1;
  }else if( *zDate=='+' ){
    sgn = +1;
  }else{
    return *zDate!=0;
  }
  zDate++;
  if( getDigits(zDate, 2, 0, 14, ':', &nHr, 2, 0, 59, 0, &nMn)!=2 ){
    return 1;
  }
  zDate += 5;
  p->tz = sgn*(nMn + nHr*60);
  while( isspace(*(u8*)zDate) ){ zDate++; }
  return *zDate!=0;
}

/*
** Parse times of the form HH:MM or HH:MM:SS or HH:MM:SS.FFFF.
** The HH, MM, and SS must each be exactly 2 digits.  The
** fractional seconds FFFF can be one or more digits.
**
** Return 1 if there is a parsing error and 0 on success.
*/
static int parseHhMmSs(const char *zDate, DateTime *p){
  int h, m, s;
  double ms = 0.0;
  if( getDigits(zDate, 2, 0, 24, ':', &h, 2, 0, 59, 0, &m)!=2 ){
    return 1;
  }
  zDate += 5;
  if( *zDate==':' ){
    zDate++;
    if( getDigits(zDate, 2, 0, 59, 0, &s)!=1 ){
      return 1;
    }
    zDate += 2;
    if( *zDate=='.' && isdigit((u8)zDate[1]) ){
      double rScale = 1.0;
      zDate++;
      while( isdigit(*(u8*)zDate) ){
        ms = ms*10.0 + *zDate - '0';
        rScale *= 10.0;
        zDate++;
      }
      ms /= rScale;
    }
  }else{
    s = 0;
  }
  p->validJD = 0;
  p->validHMS = 1;
  p->h = h;
  p->m = m;
  p->s = s + ms;
  if( parseTimezone(zDate, p) ) return 1;
  p->validTZ = p->tz!=0;
  return 0;
}

/*
** Convert from YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS to julian day.  We always assume
** that the YYYY-MM-DD is according to the Gregorian calendar.
**
** Reference:  Meeus page 61
*/
static void computeJD(DateTime *p){
  int Y, M, D, A, B, X1, X2;

  if( p->validJD ) return;
  if( p->validYMD ){
    Y = p->Y;
    M = p->M;
    D = p->D;
  }else{
    Y = 2000;  /* If no YMD specified, assume 2000-Jan-01 */
    M = 1;
    D = 1;
  }
  if( M<=2 ){
    Y--;
    M += 12;
  }
  A = Y/100;
  B = 2 - A + (A/4);
  X1 = 365.25*(Y+4716);
  X2 = 30.6001*(M+1);
  p->rJD = X1 + X2 + D + B - 1524.5;
  p->validJD = 1;
  if( p->validHMS ){
    p->rJD += (p->h*3600.0 + p->m*60.0 + p->s)/86400.0;
    if( p->validTZ ){
      p->rJD -= p->tz*60/86400.0;
      p->validYMD = 0;
      p->validHMS = 0;
      p->validTZ = 0;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Parse dates of the form
**
**     YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.FFF
**     YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
**     YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM
**     YYYY-MM-DD
**
** Write the result into the DateTime structure and return 0
** on success and 1 if the input string is not a well-formed
** date.
*/
static int parseYyyyMmDd(const char *zDate, DateTime *p){
  int Y, M, D, neg;

  if( zDate[0]=='-' ){
    zDate++;
    neg = 1;
  }else{
    neg = 0;
  }
  if( getDigits(zDate,4,0,9999,'-',&Y,2,1,12,'-',&M,2,1,31,0,&D)!=3 ){
    return 1;
  }
  zDate += 10;
  while( isspace(*(u8*)zDate) || 'T'==*(u8*)zDate ){ zDate++; }
  if( parseHhMmSs(zDate, p)==0 ){
    /* We got the time */
  }else if( *zDate==0 ){
    p->validHMS = 0;
  }else{
    return 1;
  }
  p->validJD = 0;
  p->validYMD = 1;
  p->Y = neg ? -Y : Y;
  p->M = M;
  p->D = D;
  if( p->validTZ ){
    computeJD(p);
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** Attempt to parse the given string into a Julian Day Number.  Return
** the number of errors.
**
** The following are acceptable forms for the input string:
**
**      YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.FFF  +/-HH:MM
**      DDDD.DD 
**      now
**
** In the first form, the +/-HH:MM is always optional.  The fractional
** seconds extension (the ".FFF") is optional.  The seconds portion
** (":SS.FFF") is option.  The year and date can be omitted as long
** as there is a time string.  The time string can be omitted as long
** as there is a year and date.
*/
static int parseDateOrTime(
  sqlite3_context *context, 
  const char *zDate, 
  DateTime *p
){
  memset(p, 0, sizeof(*p));
  if( parseYyyyMmDd(zDate,p)==0 ){
    return 0;
  }else if( parseHhMmSs(zDate, p)==0 ){
    return 0;
  }else if( sqlite3StrICmp(zDate,"now")==0){
    double r;
    sqlite3OsCurrentTime((sqlite3_vfs *)sqlite3_user_data(context), &r);
    p->rJD = r;
    p->validJD = 1;
    return 0;
  }else if( sqlite3IsNumber(zDate, 0, SQLITE_UTF8) ){
    getValue(zDate, &p->rJD);
    p->validJD = 1;
    return 0;
  }
  return 1;
}

/*
** Compute the Year, Month, and Day from the julian day number.
*/
static void computeYMD(DateTime *p){
  int Z, A, B, C, D, E, X1;
  if( p->validYMD ) return;
  if( !p->validJD ){
    p->Y = 2000;
    p->M = 1;
    p->D = 1;
  }else{
    Z = p->rJD + 0.5;
    A = (Z - 1867216.25)/36524.25;
    A = Z + 1 + A - (A/4);
    B = A + 1524;
    C = (B - 122.1)/365.25;
    D = 365.25*C;
    E = (B-D)/30.6001;
    X1 = 30.6001*E;
    p->D = B - D - X1;
    p->M = E<14 ? E-1 : E-13;
    p->Y = p->M>2 ? C - 4716 : C - 4715;
  }
  p->validYMD = 1;
}

/*
** Compute the Hour, Minute, and Seconds from the julian day number.
*/
static void computeHMS(DateTime *p){
  int Z, s;
  if( p->validHMS ) return;
  computeJD(p);
  Z = p->rJD + 0.5;
  s = (p->rJD + 0.5 - Z)*86400000.0 + 0.5;
  p->s = 0.001*s;
  s = p->s;
  p->s -= s;
  p->h = s/3600;
  s -= p->h*3600;
  p->m = s/60;
  p->s += s - p->m*60;
  p->validHMS = 1;
}

/*
** Compute both YMD and HMS
*/
static void computeYMD_HMS(DateTime *p){
  computeYMD(p);
  computeHMS(p);
}

/*
** Clear the YMD and HMS and the TZ
*/
static void clearYMD_HMS_TZ(DateTime *p){
  p->validYMD = 0;
  p->validHMS = 0;
  p->validTZ = 0;
}

/*
** Compute the difference (in days) between localtime and UTC (a.k.a. GMT)
** for the time value p where p is in UTC.
*/
static double localtimeOffset(DateTime *p){
  DateTime x, y;
  time_t t;
  x = *p;
  computeYMD_HMS(&x);
  if( x.Y<1971 || x.Y>=2038 ){
    x.Y = 2000;
    x.M = 1;
    x.D = 1;
    x.h = 0;
    x.m = 0;
    x.s = 0.0;
  } else {
    int s = x.s + 0.5;
    x.s = s;
  }
  x.tz = 0;
  x.validJD = 0;
  computeJD(&x);
  t = (x.rJD-2440587.5)*86400.0 + 0.5;
#ifdef HAVE_LOCALTIME_R
  {
    struct tm sLocal;
    localtime_r(&t, &sLocal);
    y.Y = sLocal.tm_year + 1900;
    y.M = sLocal.tm_mon + 1;
    y.D = sLocal.tm_mday;
    y.h = sLocal.tm_hour;
    y.m = sLocal.tm_min;
    y.s = sLocal.tm_sec;
  }
#else
  {
    struct tm *pTm;
    sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER));
    pTm = localtime(&t);
    y.Y = pTm->tm_year + 1900;
    y.M = pTm->tm_mon + 1;
    y.D = pTm->tm_mday;
    y.h = pTm->tm_hour;
    y.m = pTm->tm_min;
    y.s = pTm->tm_sec;
    sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER));
  }
#endif
  y.validYMD = 1;
  y.validHMS = 1;
  y.validJD = 0;
  y.validTZ = 0;
  computeJD(&y);
  return y.rJD - x.rJD;
}

/*
** Process a modifier to a date-time stamp.  The modifiers are
** as follows:
**
**     NNN days
**     NNN hours
**     NNN minutes
**     NNN.NNNN seconds
**     NNN months
**     NNN years
**     start of month
**     start of year
**     start of week
**     start of day
**     weekday N
**     unixepoch
**     localtime
**     utc
**
** Return 0 on success and 1 if there is any kind of error.
*/
static int parseModifier(const char *zMod, DateTime *p){
  int rc = 1;
  int n;
  double r;
  char *z, zBuf[30];
  z = zBuf;
  for(n=0; n<sizeof(zBuf)-1 && zMod[n]; n++){
    z[n] = tolower(zMod[n]);
  }
  z[n] = 0;
  switch( z[0] ){
    case 'l': {
      /*    localtime
      **
      ** Assuming the current time value is UTC (a.k.a. GMT), shift it to
      ** show local time.
      */
      if( strcmp(z, "localtime")==0 ){
        computeJD(p);
        p->rJD += localtimeOffset(p);
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        rc = 0;
      }
      break;
    }
    case 'u': {
      /*
      **    unixepoch
      **
      ** Treat the current value of p->rJD as the number of
      ** seconds since 1970.  Convert to a real julian day number.
      */
      if( strcmp(z, "unixepoch")==0 && p->validJD ){
        p->rJD = p->rJD/86400.0 + 2440587.5;
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        rc = 0;
      }else if( strcmp(z, "utc")==0 ){
        double c1;
        computeJD(p);
        c1 = localtimeOffset(p);
        p->rJD -= c1;
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        p->rJD += c1 - localtimeOffset(p);
        rc = 0;
      }
      break;
    }
    case 'w': {
      /*
      **    weekday N
      **
      ** Move the date to the same time on the next occurrence of
      ** weekday N where 0==Sunday, 1==Monday, and so forth.  If the
      ** date is already on the appropriate weekday, this is a no-op.
      */
      if( strncmp(z, "weekday ", 8)==0 && getValue(&z[8],&r)>0
                 && (n=r)==r && n>=0 && r<7 ){
        int Z;
        computeYMD_HMS(p);
        p->validTZ = 0;
        p->validJD = 0;
        computeJD(p);
        Z = p->rJD + 1.5;
        Z %= 7;
        if( Z>n ) Z -= 7;
        p->rJD += n - Z;
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        rc = 0;
      }
      break;
    }
    case 's': {
      /*
      **    start of TTTTT
      **
      ** Move the date backwards to the beginning of the current day,
      ** or month or year.
      */
      if( strncmp(z, "start of ", 9)!=0 ) break;
      z += 9;
      computeYMD(p);
      p->validHMS = 1;
      p->h = p->m = 0;
      p->s = 0.0;
      p->validTZ = 0;
      p->validJD = 0;
      if( strcmp(z,"month")==0 ){
        p->D = 1;
        rc = 0;
      }else if( strcmp(z,"year")==0 ){
        computeYMD(p);
        p->M = 1;
        p->D = 1;
        rc = 0;
      }else if( strcmp(z,"day")==0 ){
        rc = 0;
      }
      break;
    }
    case '+':
    case '-':
    case '0':
    case '1':
    case '2':
    case '3':
    case '4':
    case '5':
    case '6':
    case '7':
    case '8':
    case '9': {
      n = getValue(z, &r);
      assert( n>=1 );
      if( z[n]==':' ){
        /* A modifier of the form (+|-)HH:MM:SS.FFF adds (or subtracts) the
        ** specified number of hours, minutes, seconds, and fractional seconds
        ** to the time.  The ".FFF" may be omitted.  The ":SS.FFF" may be
        ** omitted.
        */
        const char *z2 = z;
        DateTime tx;
        int day;
        if( !isdigit(*(u8*)z2) ) z2++;
        memset(&tx, 0, sizeof(tx));
        if( parseHhMmSs(z2, &tx) ) break;
        computeJD(&tx);
        tx.rJD -= 0.5;
        day = (int)tx.rJD;
        tx.rJD -= day;
        if( z[0]=='-' ) tx.rJD = -tx.rJD;
        computeJD(p);
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        p->rJD += tx.rJD;
        rc = 0;
        break;
      }
      z += n;
      while( isspace(*(u8*)z) ) z++;
      n = strlen(z);
      if( n>10 || n<3 ) break;
      if( z[n-1]=='s' ){ z[n-1] = 0; n--; }
      computeJD(p);
      rc = 0;
      if( n==3 && strcmp(z,"day")==0 ){
        p->rJD += r;
      }else if( n==4 && strcmp(z,"hour")==0 ){
        p->rJD += r/24.0;
      }else if( n==6 && strcmp(z,"minute")==0 ){
        p->rJD += r/(24.0*60.0);
      }else if( n==6 && strcmp(z,"second")==0 ){
        p->rJD += r/(24.0*60.0*60.0);
      }else if( n==5 && strcmp(z,"month")==0 ){
        int x, y;
        computeYMD_HMS(p);
        p->M += r;
        x = p->M>0 ? (p->M-1)/12 : (p->M-12)/12;
        p->Y += x;
        p->M -= x*12;
        p->validJD = 0;
        computeJD(p);
        y = r;
        if( y!=r ){
          p->rJD += (r - y)*30.0;
        }
      }else if( n==4 && strcmp(z,"year")==0 ){
        computeYMD_HMS(p);
        p->Y += r;
        p->validJD = 0;
        computeJD(p);
      }else{
        rc = 1;
      }
      clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
      break;
    }
    default: {
      break;
    }
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Process time function arguments.  argv[0] is a date-time stamp.
** argv[1] and following are modifiers.  Parse them all and write
** the resulting time into the DateTime structure p.  Return 0
** on success and 1 if there are any errors.
**
** If there are zero parameters (if even argv[0] is undefined)
** then assume a default value of "now" for argv[0].
*/
static int isDate(
  sqlite3_context *context, 
  int argc, 
  sqlite3_value **argv, 
  DateTime *p
){
  int i;
  const unsigned char *z;
  static const unsigned char zDflt[] = "now";
  if( argc==0 ){
    z = zDflt;
  }else{
    z = sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
  }
  if( !z || parseDateOrTime(context, (char*)z, p) ){
    return 1;
  }
  for(i=1; i<argc; i++){
    if( (z = sqlite3_value_text(argv[i]))==0 || parseModifier((char*)z, p) ){
      return 1;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}


/*
** The following routines implement the various date and time functions
** of SQLite.
*/

/*
**    julianday( TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return the julian day number of the date specified in the arguments
*/
static void juliandayFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  if( isDate(context, argc, argv, &x)==0 ){
    computeJD(&x);
    sqlite3_result_double(context, x.rJD);
  }
}

/*
**    datetime( TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
*/
static void datetimeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  if( isDate(context, argc, argv, &x)==0 ){
    char zBuf[100];
    computeYMD_HMS(&x);
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zBuf), zBuf, "%04d-%02d-%02d %02d:%02d:%02d",
                     x.Y, x.M, x.D, x.h, x.m, (int)(x.s));
    sqlite3_result_text(context, zBuf, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  }
}

/*
**    time( TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return HH:MM:SS
*/
static void timeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  if( isDate(context, argc, argv, &x)==0 ){
    char zBuf[100];
    computeHMS(&x);
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zBuf), zBuf, "%02d:%02d:%02d", x.h, x.m, (int)x.s);
    sqlite3_result_text(context, zBuf, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  }
}

/*
**    date( TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return YYYY-MM-DD
*/
static void dateFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  if( isDate(context, argc, argv, &x)==0 ){
    char zBuf[100];
    computeYMD(&x);
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zBuf), zBuf, "%04d-%02d-%02d", x.Y, x.M, x.D);
    sqlite3_result_text(context, zBuf, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  }
}

/*
**    strftime( FORMAT, TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return a string described by FORMAT.  Conversions as follows:
**
**   %d  day of month
**   %f  ** fractional seconds  SS.SSS
**   %H  hour 00-24
**   %j  day of year 000-366
**   %J  ** Julian day number
**   %m  month 01-12
**   %M  minute 00-59
**   %s  seconds since 1970-01-01
**   %S  seconds 00-59
**   %w  day of week 0-6  sunday==0
**   %W  week of year 00-53
**   %Y  year 0000-9999
**   %%  %
*/
static void strftimeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  u64 n;
  int i, j;
  char *z;
  const char *zFmt = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
  char zBuf[100];
  if( zFmt==0 || isDate(context, argc-1, argv+1, &x) ) return;
  for(i=0, n=1; zFmt[i]; i++, n++){
    if( zFmt[i]=='%' ){
      switch( zFmt[i+1] ){
        case 'd':
        case 'H':
        case 'm':
        case 'M':
        case 'S':
        case 'W':
          n++;
          /* fall thru */
        case 'w':
        case '%':
          break;
        case 'f':
          n += 8;
          break;
        case 'j':
          n += 3;
          break;
        case 'Y':
          n += 8;
          break;
        case 's':
        case 'J':
          n += 50;
          break;
        default:
          return;  /* ERROR.  return a NULL */
      }
      i++;
    }
  }
  if( n<sizeof(zBuf) ){
    z = zBuf;
  }else if( n>SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH ){
    sqlite3_result_error_toobig(context);
    return;
  }else{
    z = sqlite3_malloc( n );
    if( z==0 ){
      sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
      return;
    }
  }
  computeJD(&x);
  computeYMD_HMS(&x);
  for(i=j=0; zFmt[i]; i++){
    if( zFmt[i]!='%' ){
      z[j++] = zFmt[i];
    }else{
      i++;
      switch( zFmt[i] ){
        case 'd':  sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",x.D); j+=2; break;
        case 'f': {
          double s = x.s;
          if( s>59.999 ) s = 59.999;
          sqlite3_snprintf(7, &z[j],"%06.3f", s);
          j += strlen(&z[j]);
          break;
        }
        case 'H':  sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",x.h); j+=2; break;
        case 'W': /* Fall thru */
        case 'j': {
          int nDay;             /* Number of days since 1st day of year */
          DateTime y = x;
          y.validJD = 0;
          y.M = 1;
          y.D = 1;
          computeJD(&y);
          nDay = x.rJD - y.rJD + 0.5;
          if( zFmt[i]=='W' ){
            int wd;   /* 0=Monday, 1=Tuesday, ... 6=Sunday */
            wd = ((int)(x.rJD+0.5)) % 7;
            sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",(nDay+7-wd)/7);
            j += 2;
          }else{
            sqlite3_snprintf(4, &z[j],"%03d",nDay+1);
            j += 3;
          }
          break;
        }
        case 'J': {
          sqlite3_snprintf(20, &z[j],"%.16g",x.rJD);
          j+=strlen(&z[j]);
          break;
        }
        case 'm':  sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",x.M); j+=2; break;
        case 'M':  sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",x.m); j+=2; break;
        case 's': {
          sqlite3_snprintf(30,&z[j],"%d",
                           (int)((x.rJD-2440587.5)*86400.0 + 0.5));
          j += strlen(&z[j]);
          break;
        }
        case 'S':  sqlite3_snprintf(3,&z[j],"%02d",(int)x.s); j+=2; break;
        case 'w':  z[j++] = (((int)(x.rJD+1.5)) % 7) + '0'; break;
        case 'Y':  sqlite3_snprintf(5,&z[j],"%04d",x.Y); j+=strlen(&z[j]);break;
        default:   z[j++] = '%'; break;
      }
    }
  }
  z[j] = 0;
  sqlite3_result_text(context, z, -1,
                      z==zBuf ? SQLITE_TRANSIENT : sqlite3_free);
}

/*
** current_time()
**
** This function returns the same value as time('now').
*/
static void ctimeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  timeFunc(context, 0, 0);
}

/*
** current_date()
**
** This function returns the same value as date('now').
*/
static void cdateFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  dateFunc(context, 0, 0);
}

/*
** current_timestamp()
**
** This function returns the same value as datetime('now').
*/
static void ctimestampFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  datetimeFunc(context, 0, 0);
}
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS) */

#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS
/*
** If the library is compiled to omit the full-scale date and time
** handling (to get a smaller binary), the following minimal version
** of the functions current_time(), current_date() and current_timestamp()
** are included instead. This is to support column declarations that
** include "DEFAULT CURRENT_TIME" etc.
**
** This function uses the C-library functions time(), gmtime()
** and strftime(). The format string to pass to strftime() is supplied
** as the user-data for the function.
*/
static void currentTimeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  time_t t;
  char *zFormat = (char *)sqlite3_user_data(context);
  char zBuf[20];

  time(&t);
#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
  {
    extern int sqlite3_current_time;  /* See os_XXX.c */
    if( sqlite3_current_time ){
      t = sqlite3_current_time;
    }
  }
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_GMTIME_R
  {
    struct tm sNow;
    gmtime_r(&t, &sNow);
    strftime(zBuf, 20, zFormat, &sNow);
  }
#else
  {
    struct tm *pTm;
    sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER));
    pTm = gmtime(&t);
    strftime(zBuf, 20, zFormat, pTm);
    sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER));
  }
#endif

  sqlite3_result_text(context, zBuf, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
}
#endif

/*
** This function registered all of the above C functions as SQL
** functions.  This should be the only routine in this file with
** external linkage.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions(sqlite3 *db){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS
  static const struct {
     char *zName;
     int nArg;
     void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
  } aFuncs[] = {
    { "julianday", -1, juliandayFunc   },
    { "date",      -1, dateFunc        },
    { "time",      -1, timeFunc        },
    { "datetime",  -1, datetimeFunc    },
    { "strftime",  -1, strftimeFunc    },
    { "current_time",       0, ctimeFunc      },
    { "current_timestamp",  0, ctimestampFunc },
    { "current_date",       0, cdateFunc      },
  };
  int i;

  for(i=0; i<sizeof(aFuncs)/sizeof(aFuncs[0]); i++){
    sqlite3CreateFunc(db, aFuncs[i].zName, aFuncs[i].nArg,
        SQLITE_UTF8, (void *)(db->pVfs), aFuncs[i].xFunc, 0, 0);
  }
#else
  static const struct {
     char *zName;
     char *zFormat;
  } aFuncs[] = {
    { "current_time", "%H:%M:%S" },
    { "current_date", "%Y-%m-%d" },
    { "current_timestamp", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S" }
  };
  int i;

  for(i=0; i<sizeof(aFuncs)/sizeof(aFuncs[0]); i++){
    sqlite3CreateFunc(db, aFuncs[i].zName, 0, SQLITE_UTF8, 
        aFuncs[i].zFormat, currentTimeFunc, 0, 0);
  }
#endif
}

/************** End of date.c ************************************************/
/************** Begin file os.c **********************************************/
 /*
** 2005 November 29
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
******************************************************************************
**
** This file contains OS interface code that is common to all
** architectures.
*/
#define _SQLITE_OS_C_ 1
#undef _SQLITE_OS_C_

/*
** The default SQLite sqlite3_vfs implementations do not allocate
** memory (actually, os_unix.c allocates a small amount of memory
** from within OsOpen()), but some third-party implementations may.
** So we test the effects of a malloc() failing and the sqlite3OsXXX()
** function returning SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM using the DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST macro.
**
** The following functions are instrumented for malloc() failure 
** testing:
**
**     sqlite3OsOpen()
**     sqlite3OsRead()
**     sqlite3OsWrite()
**     sqlite3OsSync()
**     sqlite3OsLock()
**
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
  #define DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST if (1) {            \
    void *pTstAlloc = sqlite3_malloc(10);       \
    if (!pTstAlloc) return SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM;  \
    sqlite3_free(pTstAlloc);                    \
  }
#else
  #define DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST
#endif

/*
** The following routines are convenience wrappers around methods
** of the sqlite3_file object.  This is mostly just syntactic sugar. All
** of this would be completely automatic if SQLite were coded using
** C++ instead of plain old C.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsClose(sqlite3_file *pId){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  if( pId->pMethods ){
    rc = pId->pMethods->xClose(pId);
    pId->pMethods = 0;
  }
  return rc;
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRead(sqlite3_file *id, void *pBuf, int amt, i64 offset){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xRead(id, pBuf, amt, offset);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsWrite(sqlite3_file *id, const void *pBuf, int amt, i64 offset){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xWrite(id, pBuf, amt, offset);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsTruncate(sqlite3_file *id, i64 size){
  return id->pMethods->xTruncate(id, size);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSync(sqlite3_file *id, int flags){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xSync(id, flags);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileSize(sqlite3_file *id, i64 *pSize){
  return id->pMethods->xFileSize(id, pSize);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsLock(sqlite3_file *id, int lockType){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xLock(id, lockType);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsUnlock(sqlite3_file *id, int lockType){
  return id->pMethods->xUnlock(id, lockType);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCheckReservedLock(sqlite3_file *id){
  return id->pMethods->xCheckReservedLock(id);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileControl(sqlite3_file *id, int op, void *pArg){
  return id->pMethods->xFileControl(id,op,pArg);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSectorSize(sqlite3_file *id){
  int (*xSectorSize)(sqlite3_file*) = id->pMethods->xSectorSize;
  return (xSectorSize ? xSectorSize(id) : SQLITE_DEFAULT_SECTOR_SIZE);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDeviceCharacteristics(sqlite3_file *id){
  return id->pMethods->xDeviceCharacteristics(id);
}

/*
** The next group of routines are convenience wrappers around the
** VFS methods.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpen(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, 
  const char *zPath, 
  sqlite3_file *pFile, 
  int flags, 
  int *pFlagsOut
){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return pVfs->xOpen(pVfs, zPath, pFile, flags, pFlagsOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDelete(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, const char *zPath, int dirSync){
  return pVfs->xDelete(pVfs, zPath, dirSync);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsAccess(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, const char *zPath, int flags){
  return pVfs->xAccess(pVfs, zPath, flags);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsGetTempname(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int nBufOut, char *zBufOut){
  return pVfs->xGetTempname(pVfs, nBufOut, zBufOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFullPathname(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, 
  const char *zPath, 
  int nPathOut, 
  char *zPathOut
){
  return pVfs->xFullPathname(pVfs, zPath, nPathOut, zPathOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlOpen(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, const char *zPath){
  return pVfs->xDlOpen(pVfs, zPath);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlError(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int nByte, char *zBufOut){
  pVfs->xDlError(pVfs, nByte, zBufOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlSym(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, void *pHandle, const char *zSymbol){
  return pVfs->xDlSym(pVfs, pHandle, zSymbol);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlClose(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, void *pHandle){
  pVfs->xDlClose(pVfs, pHandle);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRandomness(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int nByte, char *zBufOut){
  return pVfs->xRandomness(pVfs, nByte, zBufOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSleep(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int nMicro){
  return pVfs->xSleep(pVfs, nMicro);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCurrentTime(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, double *pTimeOut){
  return pVfs->xCurrentTime(pVfs, pTimeOut);
}

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpenMalloc(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, 
  const char *zFile, 
  sqlite3_file **ppFile, 
  int flags,
  int *pOutFlags
){
  int rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  sqlite3_file *pFile;
  pFile = (sqlite3_file *)sqlite3_malloc(pVfs->szOsFile);
  if( pFile ){
    rc = sqlite3OsOpen(pVfs, zFile, pFile, flags, pOutFlags);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      sqlite3_free(pFile);
    }else{
      *ppFile = pFile;
    }
  }
  return rc;
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCloseFree(sqlite3_file *pFile){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  if( pFile ){
    rc = sqlite3OsClose(pFile);
    sqlite3_free(pFile);
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** The list of all registered VFS implementations.  This list is
** initialized to the single VFS returned by sqlite3OsDefaultVfs()
** upon the first call to sqlite3_vfs_find().
*/
static sqlite3_vfs *vfsList = 0;

/*
** Locate a VFS by name.  If no name is given, simply return the
** first VFS on the list.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3_vfs_find(const char *zVfs){
#ifndef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex = sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER);
#endif
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs = 0;
  static int isInit = 0;
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mutex);
  if( !isInit ){
    vfsList = sqlite3OsDefaultVfs();
    isInit = 1;
  }
  for(pVfs = vfsList; pVfs; pVfs=pVfs->pNext){
    if( zVfs==0 ) break;
    if( strcmp(zVfs, pVfs->zName)==0 ) break;
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mutex);
  return pVfs;
}

/*
** Unlink a VFS from the linked list
*/
static void vfsUnlink(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs){
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER)) );
  if( pVfs==0 ){
    /* No-op */
  }else if( vfsList==pVfs ){
    vfsList = pVfs->pNext;
  }else if( vfsList ){
    sqlite3_vfs *p = vfsList;
    while( p->pNext && p->pNext!=pVfs ){
      p = p->pNext;
    }
    if( p->pNext==pVfs ){
      p->pNext = pVfs->pNext;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Register a VFS with the system.  It is harmless to register the same
** VFS multiple times.  The new VFS becomes the default if makeDflt is
** true.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_register(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int makeDflt){
#ifndef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex = sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER);
#endif
  sqlite3_vfs_find(0);  /* Make sure we are initialized */
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mutex);
  vfsUnlink(pVfs);
  if( makeDflt || vfsList==0 ){
    pVfs->pNext = vfsList;
    vfsList = pVfs;
  }else{
    pVfs->pNext = vfsList->pNext;
    vfsList->pNext = pVfs;
  }
  assert(vfsList);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mutex);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Unregister a VFS so that it is no longer accessible.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_unregister(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs){
#ifndef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex = sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER);
#endif
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mutex);
  vfsUnlink(pVfs);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mutex);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/************** End of os.c **************************************************/
/************** Begin file fault.c *******************************************/
/*
** 2008 Jan 22
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains code to implement a fault-injector used for
** testing and verification of SQLite.
**
** Subsystems within SQLite can call sqlite3FaultStep() to see if
** they should simulate a fault.  sqlite3FaultStep() normally returns
** zero but will return non-zero if a fault should be simulated.
** Fault injectors can be used, for example, to simulate memory
** allocation failures or I/O errors.
**
** The fault injector is omitted from the code if SQLite is
** compiled with -DSQLITE_OMIT_FAULTINJECTOR=1.  There is a very
** small performance hit for leaving the fault injector in the code.
** Commerical products will probably want to omit the fault injector
** from production builds.  But safety-critical systems who work
** under the motto "fly what you test and test what you fly" may
** choose to leave the fault injector enabled even in production.
*/

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FAULTINJECTOR

/*
** There can be various kinds of faults.  For example, there can be
** a memory allocation failure.  Or an I/O failure.  For each different
** fault type, there is a separate FaultInjector structure to keep track
** of the status of that fault.
*/
static struct FaultInjector {
  int iCountdown;   /* Number of pending successes before we hit a failure */
  int nRepeat;      /* Number of times to repeat the failure */
  int nBenign;      /* Number of benign failures seen since last config */
  int nFail;        /* Number of failures seen since last config */
  u8 enable;        /* True if enabled */
  u8 benign;        /* Ture if next failure will be benign */
} aFault[SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_COUNT];

/*
** This routine configures and enables a fault injector.  After
** calling this routine, aFaultStep() will return false (zero)
** nDelay times, then it will return true nRepeat times,
** then it will again begin returning false.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FaultConfig(int id, int nDelay, int nRepeat){
  assert( id>=0 && id<SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_COUNT );
  aFault[id].iCountdown = nDelay;
  aFault[id].nRepeat = nRepeat;
  aFault[id].nBenign = 0;
  aFault[id].nFail = 0;
  aFault[id].enable = nDelay>=0;
  aFault[id].benign = 0;
}

/*
** Return the number of faults (both hard and benign faults) that have
** occurred since the injector was last configured.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FaultFailures(int id){
  assert( id>=0 && id<SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_COUNT );
  return aFault[id].nFail;
}

/*
** Return the number of benign faults that have occurred since the
** injector was last configured.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FaultBenignFailures(int id){
  assert( id>=0 && id<SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_COUNT );
  return aFault[id].nBenign;
}

/*
** Return the number of successes that will occur before the next failure.
** If no failures are scheduled, return -1.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FaultPending(int id){
  assert( id>=0 && id<SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_COUNT );
  if( aFault[id].enable ){
    return aFault[id].iCountdown;
  }else{
    return -1;
  }
}

/* 
** After this routine causes subsequent faults to be either benign
** or hard (not benign), according to the "enable" parameter.
**
** Most faults are hard.  In other words, most faults cause
** an error to be propagated back up to the application interface.
** However, sometimes a fault is easily recoverable.  For example,
** if a malloc fails while resizing a hash table, this is completely
** recoverable simply by not carrying out the resize.  The hash table
** will continue to function normally.  So a malloc failure during
** a hash table resize is a benign fault.  
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FaultBenign(int id, int enable){
  assert( id>=0 && id<SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_COUNT );
  aFault[id].benign = enable;
}

/*
** This routine exists as a place to set a breakpoint that will
** fire on any simulated fault.
*/
static void sqlite3Fault(void){
  static int cnt = 0;
  cnt++;
}


/*
** Check to see if a fault should be simulated.  Return true to simulate
** the fault.  Return false if the fault should not be simulated.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FaultStep(int id){
  assert( id>=0 && id<SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_COUNT );
  if( likely(!aFault[id].enable) ){
    return 0;
  }
  if( aFault[id].iCountdown>0 ){
    aFault[id].iCountdown--;
    return 0;
  }
  sqlite3Fault();
  aFault[id].nFail++;
  if( aFault[id].benign ){
    aFault[id].nBenign++;
  }
  aFault[id].nRepeat--;
  if( aFault[id].nRepeat<=0 ){
    aFault[id].enable = 0;
  }
  return 1;  
}

#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_FAULTINJECTOR */

/************** End of fault.c ***********************************************/
/************** Begin file mem1.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 14
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement a memory
** allocation subsystem for use by SQLite.  
**
** $Id: mem1.c,v 1.14 2007/11/29 18:36:49 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** This version of the memory allocator is the default.  It is
** used when no other memory allocator is specified using compile-time
** macros.
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_MEMDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE) \
     && !defined(SQLITE_MMAP_HEAP_SIZE)

/*
** We will eventually construct multiple memory allocation subsystems
** suitable for use in various contexts:
**
**    *  Normal multi-threaded builds
**    *  Normal single-threaded builds
**    *  Debugging builds
**
** This initial version is suitable for use in normal multi-threaded
** builds.  We envision that alternative versions will be stored in
** separate source files.  #ifdefs will be used to select the code from
** one of the various memN.c source files for use in any given build.
*/

/*
** All of the static variables used by this module are collected
** into a single structure named "mem".  This is to keep the
** static variables organized and to reduce namespace pollution
** when this module is combined with other in the amalgamation.
*/
static struct {
  /*
  ** The alarm callback and its arguments.  The mem.mutex lock will
  ** be held while the callback is running.  Recursive calls into
  ** the memory subsystem are allowed, but no new callbacks will be
  ** issued.  The alarmBusy variable is set to prevent recursive
  ** callbacks.
  */
  sqlite3_int64 alarmThreshold;
  void (*alarmCallback)(void*, sqlite3_int64,int);
  void *alarmArg;
  int alarmBusy;
  
  /*
  ** Mutex to control access to the memory allocation subsystem.
  */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;
  
  /*
  ** Current allocation and high-water mark.
  */
  sqlite3_int64 nowUsed;
  sqlite3_int64 mxUsed;
  
 
} mem;

/*
** Enter the mutex mem.mutex. Allocate it if it is not already allocated.
*/
static void enterMem(void){
  if( mem.mutex==0 ){
    mem.mutex = sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM);
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
}

/*
** Return the amount of memory currently checked out.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_used(void){
  sqlite3_int64 n;
  enterMem();
  n = mem.nowUsed;
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
  return n;
}

/*
** Return the maximum amount of memory that has ever been
** checked out since either the beginning of this process
** or since the most recent reset.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_highwater(int resetFlag){
  sqlite3_int64 n;
  enterMem();
  n = mem.mxUsed;
  if( resetFlag ){
    mem.mxUsed = mem.nowUsed;
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
  return n;
}

/*
** Change the alarm callback
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_memory_alarm(
  void(*xCallback)(void *pArg, sqlite3_int64 used,int N),
  void *pArg,
  sqlite3_int64 iThreshold
){
  enterMem();
  mem.alarmCallback = xCallback;
  mem.alarmArg = pArg;
  mem.alarmThreshold = iThreshold;
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Trigger the alarm 
*/
static void sqlite3MemsysAlarm(int nByte){
  void (*xCallback)(void*,sqlite3_int64,int);
  sqlite3_int64 nowUsed;
  void *pArg;
  if( mem.alarmCallback==0 || mem.alarmBusy  ) return;
  mem.alarmBusy = 1;
  xCallback = mem.alarmCallback;
  nowUsed = mem.nowUsed;
  pArg = mem.alarmArg;
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  xCallback(pArg, nowUsed, nByte);
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  mem.alarmBusy = 0;
}

/*
** Allocate nBytes of memory
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_malloc(int nBytes){
  sqlite3_int64 *p = 0;
  if( nBytes>0 ){
    enterMem();
    if( mem.alarmCallback!=0 && mem.nowUsed+nBytes>=mem.alarmThreshold ){
      sqlite3MemsysAlarm(nBytes);
    }
    p = malloc(nBytes+8);
    if( p==0 ){
      sqlite3MemsysAlarm(nBytes);
      p = malloc(nBytes+8);
    }
    if( p ){
      p[0] = nBytes;
      p++;
      mem.nowUsed += nBytes;
      if( mem.nowUsed>mem.mxUsed ){
        mem.mxUsed = mem.nowUsed;
      }
    }
    sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  }
  return (void*)p; 
}

/*
** Free memory.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free(void *pPrior){
  sqlite3_int64 *p;
  int nByte;
  if( pPrior==0 ){
    return;
  }
  assert( mem.mutex!=0 );
  p = pPrior;
  p--;
  nByte = (int)*p;
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  mem.nowUsed -= nByte;
  free(p);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
}

/*
** Change the size of an existing memory allocation
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_realloc(void *pPrior, int nBytes){
  int nOld;
  sqlite3_int64 *p;
  if( pPrior==0 ){
    return sqlite3_malloc(nBytes);
  }
  if( nBytes<=0 ){
    sqlite3_free(pPrior);
    return 0;
  }
  p = pPrior;
  p--;
  nOld = (int)p[0];
  assert( mem.mutex!=0 );
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  if( mem.nowUsed+nBytes-nOld>=mem.alarmThreshold ){
    sqlite3MemsysAlarm(nBytes-nOld);
  }
  p = realloc(p, nBytes+8);
  if( p==0 ){
    sqlite3MemsysAlarm(nBytes);
    p = pPrior;
    p--;
    p = realloc(p, nBytes+8);
  }
  if( p ){
    p[0] = nBytes;
    p++;
    mem.nowUsed += nBytes-nOld;
    if( mem.nowUsed>mem.mxUsed ){
      mem.mxUsed = mem.nowUsed;
    }
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  return (void*)p;
}

#endif /* !SQLITE_MEMDEBUG && !SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION */

/************** End of mem1.c ************************************************/
/************** Begin file mem2.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement a memory
** allocation subsystem for use by SQLite.  
**
** $Id: mem2.c,v 1.19 2008/01/22 21:30:53 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** This version of the memory allocator is used only if the
** SQLITE_MEMDEBUG macro is defined and SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION
** is not defined.
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_MEMDEBUG)

/*
** We will eventually construct multiple memory allocation subsystems
** suitable for use in various contexts:
**
**    *  Normal multi-threaded builds
**    *  Normal single-threaded builds
**    *  Debugging builds
**
** This version is suitable for use in debugging builds.
**
** Features:
**
**    * Every allocate has guards at both ends.
**    * New allocations are initialized with randomness
**    * Allocations are overwritten with randomness when freed
**    * Optional logs of malloc activity generated
**    * Summary of outstanding allocations with backtraces to the
**      point of allocation.
**    * The ability to simulate memory allocation failure
*/

/*
** The backtrace functionality is only available with GLIBC
*/
#ifdef __GLIBC__
  extern int backtrace(void**,int);
  extern void backtrace_symbols_fd(void*const*,int,int);
#else
# define backtrace(A,B) 0
# define backtrace_symbols_fd(A,B,C)
#endif

/*
** Each memory allocation looks like this:
**
**  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
**  | Title |  backtrace pointers |  MemBlockHdr |  allocation |  EndGuard |
**  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
**
** The application code sees only a pointer to the allocation.  We have
** to back up from the allocation pointer to find the MemBlockHdr.  The
** MemBlockHdr tells us the size of the allocation and the number of
** backtrace pointers.  There is also a guard word at the end of the
** MemBlockHdr.
*/
struct MemBlockHdr {
  struct MemBlockHdr *pNext, *pPrev;  /* Linked list of all unfreed memory */
  int iSize;                          /* Size of this allocation */
  char nBacktrace;                    /* Number of backtraces on this alloc */
  char nBacktraceSlots;               /* Available backtrace slots */
  short nTitle;                       /* Bytes of title; includes '\0' */
  int iForeGuard;                     /* Guard word for sanity */
};

/*
** Guard words
*/
#define FOREGUARD 0x80F5E153
#define REARGUARD 0xE4676B53

/*
** Number of malloc size increments to track.
*/
#define NCSIZE  1000

/*
** All of the static variables used by this module are collected
** into a single structure named "mem".  This is to keep the
** static variables organized and to reduce namespace pollution
** when this module is combined with other in the amalgamation.
*/
static struct {
  /*
  ** The alarm callback and its arguments.  The mem.mutex lock will
  ** be held while the callback is running.  Recursive calls into
  ** the memory subsystem are allowed, but no new callbacks will be
  ** issued.  The alarmBusy variable is set to prevent recursive
  ** callbacks.
  */
  sqlite3_int64 alarmThreshold;
  void (*alarmCallback)(void*, sqlite3_int64, int);
  void *alarmArg;
  int alarmBusy;
  
  /*
  ** Mutex to control access to the memory allocation subsystem.
  */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;
  
  /*
  ** Current allocation and high-water mark.
  */
  sqlite3_int64 nowUsed;
  sqlite3_int64 mxUsed;
  
  /*
  ** Head and tail of a linked list of all outstanding allocations
  */
  struct MemBlockHdr *pFirst;
  struct MemBlockHdr *pLast;
  
  /*
  ** The number of levels of backtrace to save in new allocations.
  */
  int nBacktrace;

  /*
  ** Title text to insert in front of each block
  */
  int nTitle;        /* Bytes of zTitle to save.  Includes '\0' and padding */
  char zTitle[100];  /* The title text */

  /* 
  ** sqlite3MallocDisallow() increments the following counter.
  ** sqlite3MallocAllow() decrements it.
  */
  int disallow; /* Do not allow memory allocation */

  /*
  ** Gather statistics on the sizes of memory allocations.
  ** sizeCnt[i] is the number of allocation attempts of i*8
  ** bytes.  i==NCSIZE is the number of allocation attempts for
  ** sizes more than NCSIZE*8 bytes.
  */
  int sizeCnt[NCSIZE];

} mem;


/*
** Enter the mutex mem.mutex. Allocate it if it is not already allocated.
*/
static void enterMem(void){
  if( mem.mutex==0 ){
    mem.mutex = sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM);
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
}

/*
** Return the amount of memory currently checked out.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_used(void){
  sqlite3_int64 n;
  enterMem();
  n = mem.nowUsed;
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
  return n;
}

/*
** Return the maximum amount of memory that has ever been
** checked out since either the beginning of this process
** or since the most recent reset.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_highwater(int resetFlag){
  sqlite3_int64 n;
  enterMem();
  n = mem.mxUsed;
  if( resetFlag ){
    mem.mxUsed = mem.nowUsed;
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
  return n;
}

/*
** Change the alarm callback
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_memory_alarm(
  void(*xCallback)(void *pArg, sqlite3_int64 used, int N),
  void *pArg,
  sqlite3_int64 iThreshold
){
  enterMem();
  mem.alarmCallback = xCallback;
  mem.alarmArg = pArg;
  mem.alarmThreshold = iThreshold;
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Trigger the alarm 
*/
static void sqlite3MemsysAlarm(int nByte){
  void (*xCallback)(void*,sqlite3_int64,int);
  sqlite3_int64 nowUsed;
  void *pArg;
  if( mem.alarmCallback==0 || mem.alarmBusy  ) return;
  mem.alarmBusy = 1;
  xCallback = mem.alarmCallback;
  nowUsed = mem.nowUsed;
  pArg = mem.alarmArg;
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  xCallback(pArg, nowUsed, nByte);
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  mem.alarmBusy = 0;
}

/*
** Given an allocation, find the MemBlockHdr for that allocation.
**
** This routine checks the guards at either end of the allocation and
** if they are incorrect it asserts.
*/
static struct MemBlockHdr *sqlite3MemsysGetHeader(void *pAllocation){
  struct MemBlockHdr *p;
  int *pInt;

  p = (struct MemBlockHdr*)pAllocation;
  p--;
  assert( p->iForeGuard==FOREGUARD );
  assert( (p->iSize & 3)==0 );
  pInt = (int*)pAllocation;
  assert( pInt[p->iSize/sizeof(int)]==REARGUARD );
  return p;
}

/*
** Allocate nByte bytes of memory.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_malloc(int nByte){
  struct MemBlockHdr *pHdr;
  void **pBt;
  char *z;
  int *pInt;
  void *p = 0;
  int totalSize;

  if( nByte>0 ){
    enterMem();
    assert( mem.disallow==0 );
    if( mem.alarmCallback!=0 && mem.nowUsed+nByte>=mem.alarmThreshold ){
      sqlite3MemsysAlarm(nByte);
    }
    nByte = (nByte+3)&~3;
    if( nByte/8>NCSIZE-1 ){
      mem.sizeCnt[NCSIZE-1]++;
    }else{
      mem.sizeCnt[nByte/8]++;
    }
    totalSize = nByte + sizeof(*pHdr) + sizeof(int) +
                 mem.nBacktrace*sizeof(void*) + mem.nTitle;
    if( sqlite3FaultStep(SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_MALLOC) ){
      p = 0;
    }else{
      p = malloc(totalSize);
      if( p==0 ){
        sqlite3MemsysAlarm(nByte);
        p = malloc(totalSize);
      }
    }
    if( p ){
      z = p;
      pBt = (void**)&z[mem.nTitle];
      pHdr = (struct MemBlockHdr*)&pBt[mem.nBacktrace];
      pHdr->pNext = 0;
      pHdr->pPrev = mem.pLast;
      if( mem.pLast ){
        mem.pLast->pNext = pHdr;
      }else{
        mem.pFirst = pHdr;
      }
      mem.pLast = pHdr;
      pHdr->iForeGuard = FOREGUARD;
      pHdr->nBacktraceSlots = mem.nBacktrace;
      pHdr->nTitle = mem.nTitle;
      if( mem.nBacktrace ){
        void *aAddr[40];
        pHdr->nBacktrace = backtrace(aAddr, mem.nBacktrace+1)-1;
        memcpy(pBt, &aAddr[1], pHdr->nBacktrace*sizeof(void*));
      }else{
        pHdr->nBacktrace = 0;
      }
      if( mem.nTitle ){
        memcpy(z, mem.zTitle, mem.nTitle);
      }
      pHdr->iSize = nByte;
      pInt = (int*)&pHdr[1];
      pInt[nByte/sizeof(int)] = REARGUARD;
      memset(pInt, 0x65, nByte);
      mem.nowUsed += nByte;
      if( mem.nowUsed>mem.mxUsed ){
        mem.mxUsed = mem.nowUsed;
      }
      p = (void*)pInt;
    }
    sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  }
  return p; 
}

/*
** Free memory.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free(void *pPrior){
  struct MemBlockHdr *pHdr;
  void **pBt;
  char *z;
  if( pPrior==0 ){
    return;
  }
  assert( mem.mutex!=0 );
  pHdr = sqlite3MemsysGetHeader(pPrior);
  pBt = (void**)pHdr;
  pBt -= pHdr->nBacktraceSlots;
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  mem.nowUsed -= pHdr->iSize;
  if( pHdr->pPrev ){
    assert( pHdr->pPrev->pNext==pHdr );
    pHdr->pPrev->pNext = pHdr->pNext;
  }else{
    assert( mem.pFirst==pHdr );
    mem.pFirst = pHdr->pNext;
  }
  if( pHdr->pNext ){
    assert( pHdr->pNext->pPrev==pHdr );
    pHdr->pNext->pPrev = pHdr->pPrev;
  }else{
    assert( mem.pLast==pHdr );
    mem.pLast = pHdr->pPrev;
  }
  z = (char*)pBt;
  z -= pHdr->nTitle;
  memset(z, 0x2b, sizeof(void*)*pHdr->nBacktraceSlots + sizeof(*pHdr) +
                  pHdr->iSize + sizeof(int) + pHdr->nTitle);
  free(z);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
}

/*
** Change the size of an existing memory allocation.
**
** For this debugging implementation, we *always* make a copy of the
** allocation into a new place in memory.  In this way, if the 
** higher level code is using pointer to the old allocation, it is 
** much more likely to break and we are much more liking to find
** the error.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_realloc(void *pPrior, int nByte){
  struct MemBlockHdr *pOldHdr;
  void *pNew;
  if( pPrior==0 ){
    return sqlite3_malloc(nByte);
  }
  if( nByte<=0 ){
    sqlite3_free(pPrior);
    return 0;
  }
  assert( mem.disallow==0 );
  pOldHdr = sqlite3MemsysGetHeader(pPrior);
  pNew = sqlite3_malloc(nByte);
  if( pNew ){
    memcpy(pNew, pPrior, nByte<pOldHdr->iSize ? nByte : pOldHdr->iSize);
    if( nByte>pOldHdr->iSize ){
      memset(&((char*)pNew)[pOldHdr->iSize], 0x2b, nByte - pOldHdr->iSize);
    }
    sqlite3_free(pPrior);
  }
  return pNew;
}

/*
** Set the number of backtrace levels kept for each allocation.
** A value of zero turns of backtracing.  The number is always rounded
** up to a multiple of 2.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_memdebug_backtrace(int depth){
  if( depth<0 ){ depth = 0; }
  if( depth>20 ){ depth = 20; }
  depth = (depth+1)&0xfe;
  mem.nBacktrace = depth;
}

/*
** Set the title string for subsequent allocations.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_memdebug_settitle(const char *zTitle){
  int n = strlen(zTitle) + 1;
  enterMem();
  if( n>=sizeof(mem.zTitle) ) n = sizeof(mem.zTitle)-1;
  memcpy(mem.zTitle, zTitle, n);
  mem.zTitle[n] = 0;
  mem.nTitle = (n+3)&~3;
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
}

/*
** Open the file indicated and write a log of all unfreed memory 
** allocations into that log.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_memdebug_dump(const char *zFilename){
  FILE *out;
  struct MemBlockHdr *pHdr;
  void **pBt;
  int i;
  out = fopen(zFilename, "w");
  if( out==0 ){
    fprintf(stderr, "** Unable to output memory debug output log: %s **\n",
                    zFilename);
    return;
  }
  for(pHdr=mem.pFirst; pHdr; pHdr=pHdr->pNext){
    char *z = (char*)pHdr;
    z -= pHdr->nBacktraceSlots*sizeof(void*) + pHdr->nTitle;
    fprintf(out, "**** %d bytes at %p from %s ****\n", 
            pHdr->iSize, &pHdr[1], pHdr->nTitle ? z : "???");
    if( pHdr->nBacktrace ){
      fflush(out);
      pBt = (void**)pHdr;
      pBt -= pHdr->nBacktraceSlots;
      backtrace_symbols_fd(pBt, pHdr->nBacktrace, fileno(out));
      fprintf(out, "\n");
    }
  }
  fprintf(out, "COUNTS:\n");
  for(i=0; i<NCSIZE-1; i++){
    if( mem.sizeCnt[i] ){
      fprintf(out, "   %3d: %d\n", i*8+8, mem.sizeCnt[i]);
    }
  }
  if( mem.sizeCnt[NCSIZE-1] ){
    fprintf(out, "  >%3d: %d\n", NCSIZE*8, mem.sizeCnt[NCSIZE-1]);
  }
  fclose(out);
}


#endif /* SQLITE_MEMDEBUG && !SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION */

/************** End of mem2.c ************************************************/
/************** Begin file mem3.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2007 October 14
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement a memory
** allocation subsystem for use by SQLite. 
**
** This version of the memory allocation subsystem omits all
** use of malloc().  All dynamically allocatable memory is
** contained in a static array, mem.aPool[].  The size of this
** fixed memory pool is SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE bytes.
**
** This version of the memory allocation subsystem is used if
** and only if SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE is defined.
**
** $Id: mem3.c,v 1.8 2007/12/29 13:18:22 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** This version of the memory allocator is used only when 
** SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE is defined.
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE)

#ifdef SQLITE_MEMDEBUG
# error  cannot define both SQLITE_MEMDEBUG and SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE
#endif

/*
** Maximum size (in Mem3Blocks) of a "small" chunk.
*/
#define MX_SMALL 10


/*
** Number of freelist hash slots
*/
#define N_HASH  61

/*
** A memory allocation (also called a "chunk") consists of two or 
** more blocks where each block is 8 bytes.  The first 8 bytes are 
** a header that is not returned to the user.
**
** A chunk is two or more blocks that is either checked out or
** free.  The first block has format u.hdr.  u.hdr.size4x is 4 times the
** size of the allocation in blocks if the allocation is free.
** The u.hdr.size4x&1 bit is true if the chunk is checked out and
** false if the chunk is on the freelist.  The u.hdr.size4x&2 bit
** is true if the previous chunk is checked out and false if the
** previous chunk is free.  The u.hdr.prevSize field is the size of
** the previous chunk in blocks if the previous chunk is on the
** freelist. If the previous chunk is checked out, then
** u.hdr.prevSize can be part of the data for that chunk and should
** not be read or written.
**
** We often identify a chunk by its index in mem.aPool[].  When
** this is done, the chunk index refers to the second block of
** the chunk.  In this way, the first chunk has an index of 1.
** A chunk index of 0 means "no such chunk" and is the equivalent
** of a NULL pointer.
**
** The second block of free chunks is of the form u.list.  The
** two fields form a double-linked list of chunks of related sizes.
** Pointers to the head of the list are stored in mem.aiSmall[] 
** for smaller chunks and mem.aiHash[] for larger chunks.
**
** The second block of a chunk is user data if the chunk is checked 
** out.  If a chunk is checked out, the user data may extend into
** the u.hdr.prevSize value of the following chunk.
*/
typedef struct Mem3Block Mem3Block;
struct Mem3Block {
  union {
    struct {
      u32 prevSize;   /* Size of previous chunk in Mem3Block elements */
      u32 size4x;     /* 4x the size of current chunk in Mem3Block elements */
    } hdr;
    struct {
      u32 next;       /* Index in mem.aPool[] of next free chunk */
      u32 prev;       /* Index in mem.aPool[] of previous free chunk */
    } list;
  } u;
};

/*
** All of the static variables used by this module are collected
** into a single structure named "mem".  This is to keep the
** static variables organized and to reduce namespace pollution
** when this module is combined with other in the amalgamation.
*/
static struct {
  /*
  ** True if we are evaluating an out-of-memory callback.
  */
  int alarmBusy;
  
  /*
  ** Mutex to control access to the memory allocation subsystem.
  */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;
  
  /*
  ** The minimum amount of free space that we have seen.
  */
  u32 mnMaster;

  /*
  ** iMaster is the index of the master chunk.  Most new allocations
  ** occur off of this chunk.  szMaster is the size (in Mem3Blocks)
  ** of the current master.  iMaster is 0 if there is not master chunk.
  ** The master chunk is not in either the aiHash[] or aiSmall[].
  */
  u32 iMaster;
  u32 szMaster;

  /*
  ** Array of lists of free blocks according to the block size 
  ** for smaller chunks, or a hash on the block size for larger
  ** chunks.
  */
  u32 aiSmall[MX_SMALL-1];   /* For sizes 2 through MX_SMALL, inclusive */
  u32 aiHash[N_HASH];        /* For sizes MX_SMALL+1 and larger */

  /*
  ** Memory available for allocation
  */
  Mem3Block aPool[SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE/sizeof(Mem3Block)+2];
} mem;

/*
** Unlink the chunk at mem.aPool[i] from list it is currently
** on.  *pRoot is the list that i is a member of.
*/
static void memsys3UnlinkFromList(u32 i, u32 *pRoot){
  u32 next = mem.aPool[i].u.list.next;
  u32 prev = mem.aPool[i].u.list.prev;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
  if( prev==0 ){
    *pRoot = next;
  }else{
    mem.aPool[prev].u.list.next = next;
  }
  if( next ){
    mem.aPool[next].u.list.prev = prev;
  }
  mem.aPool[i].u.list.next = 0;
  mem.aPool[i].u.list.prev = 0;
}

/*
** Unlink the chunk at index i from 
** whatever list is currently a member of.
*/
static void memsys3Unlink(u32 i){
  u32 size, hash;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
  assert( (mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x & 1)==0 );
  assert( i>=1 );
  size = mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4;
  assert( size==mem.aPool[i+size-1].u.hdr.prevSize );
  assert( size>=2 );
  if( size <= MX_SMALL ){
    memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, &mem.aiSmall[size-2]);
  }else{
    hash = size % N_HASH;
    memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, &mem.aiHash[hash]);
  }
}

/*
** Link the chunk at mem.aPool[i] so that is on the list rooted
** at *pRoot.
*/
static void memsys3LinkIntoList(u32 i, u32 *pRoot){
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
  mem.aPool[i].u.list.next = *pRoot;
  mem.aPool[i].u.list.prev = 0;
  if( *pRoot ){
    mem.aPool[*pRoot].u.list.prev = i;
  }
  *pRoot = i;
}

/*
** Link the chunk at index i into either the appropriate
** small chunk list, or into the large chunk hash table.
*/
static void memsys3Link(u32 i){
  u32 size, hash;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
  assert( i>=1 );
  assert( (mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x & 1)==0 );
  size = mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4;
  assert( size==mem.aPool[i+size-1].u.hdr.prevSize );
  assert( size>=2 );
  if( size <= MX_SMALL ){
    memsys3LinkIntoList(i, &mem.aiSmall[size-2]);
  }else{
    hash = size % N_HASH;
    memsys3LinkIntoList(i, &mem.aiHash[hash]);
  }
}

/*
** Enter the mutex mem.mutex. Allocate it if it is not already allocated.
**
** Also:  Initialize the memory allocation subsystem the first time
** this routine is called.
*/
static void memsys3Enter(void){
  if( mem.mutex==0 ){
    mem.mutex = sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM);
    mem.aPool[0].u.hdr.size4x = SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE/2 + 2;
    mem.aPool[SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE/8].u.hdr.prevSize = SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE/8;
    mem.aPool[SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE/8].u.hdr.size4x = 1;
    mem.iMaster = 1;
    mem.szMaster = SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE/8;
    mem.mnMaster = mem.szMaster;
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
}

/*
** Return the amount of memory currently checked out.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_used(void){
  sqlite3_int64 n;
  memsys3Enter();
  n = SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE - mem.szMaster*8;
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
  return n;
}

/*
** Return the maximum amount of memory that has ever been
** checked out since either the beginning of this process
** or since the most recent reset.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_highwater(int resetFlag){
  sqlite3_int64 n;
  memsys3Enter();
  n = SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE - mem.mnMaster*8;
  if( resetFlag ){
    mem.mnMaster = mem.szMaster;
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
  return n;
}

/*
** Change the alarm callback.
**
** This is a no-op for the static memory allocator.  The purpose
** of the memory alarm is to support sqlite3_soft_heap_limit().
** But with this memory allocator, the soft_heap_limit is really
** a hard limit that is fixed at SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_memory_alarm(
  void(*xCallback)(void *pArg, sqlite3_int64 used,int N),
  void *pArg,
  sqlite3_int64 iThreshold
){
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Called when we are unable to satisfy an allocation of nBytes.
*/
static void memsys3OutOfMemory(int nByte){
  if( !mem.alarmBusy ){
    mem.alarmBusy = 1;
    assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
    sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
    sqlite3_release_memory(nByte);
    sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
    mem.alarmBusy = 0;
  }
}

/*
** Return the size of an outstanding allocation, in bytes.  The
** size returned omits the 8-byte header overhead.  This only
** works for chunks that are currently checked out.
*/
static int memsys3Size(void *p){
  Mem3Block *pBlock = (Mem3Block*)p;
  assert( (pBlock[-1].u.hdr.size4x&1)!=0 );
  return (pBlock[-1].u.hdr.size4x&~3)*2 - 4;
}

/*
** Chunk i is a free chunk that has been unlinked.  Adjust its 
** size parameters for check-out and return a pointer to the 
** user portion of the chunk.
*/
static void *memsys3Checkout(u32 i, int nBlock){
  u32 x;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
  assert( i>=1 );
  assert( mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4==nBlock );
  assert( mem.aPool[i+nBlock-1].u.hdr.prevSize==nBlock );
  x = mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x;
  mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x = nBlock*4 | 1 | (x&2);
  mem.aPool[i+nBlock-1].u.hdr.prevSize = nBlock;
  mem.aPool[i+nBlock-1].u.hdr.size4x |= 2;
  return &mem.aPool[i];
}

/*
** Carve a piece off of the end of the mem.iMaster free chunk.
** Return a pointer to the new allocation.  Or, if the master chunk
** is not large enough, return 0.
*/
static void *memsys3FromMaster(int nBlock){
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
  assert( mem.szMaster>=nBlock );
  if( nBlock>=mem.szMaster-1 ){
    /* Use the entire master */
    void *p = memsys3Checkout(mem.iMaster, mem.szMaster);
    mem.iMaster = 0;
    mem.szMaster = 0;
    mem.mnMaster = 0;
    return p;
  }else{
    /* Split the master block.  Return the tail. */
    u32 newi, x;
    newi = mem.iMaster + mem.szMaster - nBlock;
    assert( newi > mem.iMaster+1 );
    mem.aPool[mem.iMaster+mem.szMaster-1].u.hdr.prevSize = nBlock;
    mem.aPool[mem.iMaster+mem.szMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x |= 2;
    mem.aPool[newi-1].u.hdr.size4x = nBlock*4 + 1;
    mem.szMaster -= nBlock;
    mem.aPool[newi-1].u.hdr.prevSize = mem.szMaster;
    x = mem.aPool[mem.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x & 2;
    mem.aPool[mem.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x = mem.szMaster*4 | x;
    if( mem.szMaster < mem.mnMaster ){
      mem.mnMaster = mem.szMaster;
    }
    return (void*)&mem.aPool[newi];
  }
}

/*
** *pRoot is the head of a list of free chunks of the same size
** or same size hash.  In other words, *pRoot is an entry in either
** mem.aiSmall[] or mem.aiHash[].  
**
** This routine examines all entries on the given list and tries
** to coalesce each entries with adjacent free chunks.  
**
** If it sees a chunk that is larger than mem.iMaster, it replaces 
** the current mem.iMaster with the new larger chunk.  In order for
** this mem.iMaster replacement to work, the master chunk must be
** linked into the hash tables.  That is not the normal state of
** affairs, of course.  The calling routine must link the master
** chunk before invoking this routine, then must unlink the (possibly
** changed) master chunk once this routine has finished.
*/
static void memsys3Merge(u32 *pRoot){
  u32 iNext, prev, size, i, x;

  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
  for(i=*pRoot; i>0; i=iNext){
    iNext = mem.aPool[i].u.list.next;
    size = mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x;
    assert( (size&1)==0 );
    if( (size&2)==0 ){
      memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, pRoot);
      assert( i > mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.prevSize );
      prev = i - mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.prevSize;
      if( prev==iNext ){
        iNext = mem.aPool[prev].u.list.next;
      }
      memsys3Unlink(prev);
      size = i + size/4 - prev;
      x = mem.aPool[prev-1].u.hdr.size4x & 2;
      mem.aPool[prev-1].u.hdr.size4x = size*4 | x;
      mem.aPool[prev+size-1].u.hdr.prevSize = size;
      memsys3Link(prev);
      i = prev;
    }else{
      size /= 4;
    }
    if( size>mem.szMaster ){
      mem.iMaster = i;
      mem.szMaster = size;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Return a block of memory of at least nBytes in size.
** Return NULL if unable.
*/
static void *memsys3Malloc(int nByte){
  u32 i;
  int nBlock;
  int toFree;

  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
  assert( sizeof(Mem3Block)==8 );
  if( nByte<=12 ){
    nBlock = 2;
  }else{
    nBlock = (nByte + 11)/8;
  }
  assert( nBlock >= 2 );

  /* STEP 1:
  ** Look for an entry of the correct size in either the small
  ** chunk table or in the large chunk hash table.  This is
  ** successful most of the time (about 9 times out of 10).
  */
  if( nBlock <= MX_SMALL ){
    i = mem.aiSmall[nBlock-2];
    if( i>0 ){
      memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, &mem.aiSmall[nBlock-2]);
      return memsys3Checkout(i, nBlock);
    }
  }else{
    int hash = nBlock % N_HASH;
    for(i=mem.aiHash[hash]; i>0; i=mem.aPool[i].u.list.next){
      if( mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4==nBlock ){
        memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, &mem.aiHash[hash]);
        return memsys3Checkout(i, nBlock);
      }
    }
  }

  /* STEP 2:
  ** Try to satisfy the allocation by carving a piece off of the end
  ** of the master chunk.  This step usually works if step 1 fails.
  */
  if( mem.szMaster>=nBlock ){
    return memsys3FromMaster(nBlock);
  }


  /* STEP 3:  
  ** Loop through the entire memory pool.  Coalesce adjacent free
  ** chunks.  Recompute the master chunk as the largest free chunk.
  ** Then try again to satisfy the allocation by carving a piece off
  ** of the end of the master chunk.  This step happens very
  ** rarely (we hope!)
  */
  for(toFree=nBlock*16; toFree<SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE*2; toFree *= 2){
    memsys3OutOfMemory(toFree);
    if( mem.iMaster ){
      memsys3Link(mem.iMaster);
      mem.iMaster = 0;
      mem.szMaster = 0;
    }
    for(i=0; i<N_HASH; i++){
      memsys3Merge(&mem.aiHash[i]);
    }
    for(i=0; i<MX_SMALL-1; i++){
      memsys3Merge(&mem.aiSmall[i]);
    }
    if( mem.szMaster ){
      memsys3Unlink(mem.iMaster);
      if( mem.szMaster>=nBlock ){
        return memsys3FromMaster(nBlock);
      }
    }
  }

  /* If none of the above worked, then we fail. */
  return 0;
}

/*
** Free an outstanding memory allocation.
*/
void memsys3Free(void *pOld){
  Mem3Block *p = (Mem3Block*)pOld;
  int i;
  u32 size, x;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem.mutex) );
  assert( p>mem.aPool && p<&mem.aPool[SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE/8] );
  i = p - mem.aPool;
  assert( (mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x&1)==1 );
  size = mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4;
  assert( i+size<=SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE/8+1 );
  mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x &= ~1;
  mem.aPool[i+size-1].u.hdr.prevSize = size;
  mem.aPool[i+size-1].u.hdr.size4x &= ~2;
  memsys3Link(i);

  /* Try to expand the master using the newly freed chunk */
  if( mem.iMaster ){
    while( (mem.aPool[mem.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x&2)==0 ){
      size = mem.aPool[mem.iMaster-1].u.hdr.prevSize;
      mem.iMaster -= size;
      mem.szMaster += size;
      memsys3Unlink(mem.iMaster);
      x = mem.aPool[mem.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x & 2;
      mem.aPool[mem.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x = mem.szMaster*4 | x;
      mem.aPool[mem.iMaster+mem.szMaster-1].u.hdr.prevSize = mem.szMaster;
    }
    x = mem.aPool[mem.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x & 2;
    while( (mem.aPool[mem.iMaster+mem.szMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x&1)==0 ){
      memsys3Unlink(mem.iMaster+mem.szMaster);
      mem.szMaster += mem.aPool[mem.iMaster+mem.szMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x/4;
      mem.aPool[mem.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x = mem.szMaster*4 | x;
      mem.aPool[mem.iMaster+mem.szMaster-1].u.hdr.prevSize = mem.szMaster;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Allocate nBytes of memory
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_malloc(int nBytes){
  sqlite3_int64 *p = 0;
  if( nBytes>0 ){
    memsys3Enter();
    p = memsys3Malloc(nBytes);
    sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  }
  return (void*)p; 
}

/*
** Free memory.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free(void *pPrior){
  if( pPrior==0 ){
    return;
  }
  assert( mem.mutex!=0 );
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  memsys3Free(pPrior);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
}

/*
** Change the size of an existing memory allocation
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_realloc(void *pPrior, int nBytes){
  int nOld;
  void *p;
  if( pPrior==0 ){
    return sqlite3_malloc(nBytes);
  }
  if( nBytes<=0 ){
    sqlite3_free(pPrior);
    return 0;
  }
  assert( mem.mutex!=0 );
  nOld = memsys3Size(pPrior);
  if( nBytes<=nOld && nBytes>=nOld-128 ){
    return pPrior;
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  p = memsys3Malloc(nBytes);
  if( p ){
    if( nOld<nBytes ){
      memcpy(p, pPrior, nOld);
    }else{
      memcpy(p, pPrior, nBytes);
    }
    memsys3Free(pPrior);
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  return p;
}

/*
** Open the file indicated and write a log of all unfreed memory 
** allocations into that log.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_memdebug_dump(const char *zFilename){
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  FILE *out;
  int i, j;
  u32 size;
  if( zFilename==0 || zFilename[0]==0 ){
    out = stdout;
  }else{
    out = fopen(zFilename, "w");
    if( out==0 ){
      fprintf(stderr, "** Unable to output memory debug output log: %s **\n",
                      zFilename);
      return;
    }
  }
  memsys3Enter();
  fprintf(out, "CHUNKS:\n");
  for(i=1; i<=SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE/8; i+=size/4){
    size = mem.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x;
    if( size/4<=1 ){
      fprintf(out, "%p size error\n", &mem.aPool[i]);
      assert( 0 );
      break;
    }
    if( (size&1)==0 && mem.aPool[i+size/4-1].u.hdr.prevSize!=size/4 ){
      fprintf(out, "%p tail size does not match\n", &mem.aPool[i]);
      assert( 0 );
      break;
    }
    if( ((mem.aPool[i+size/4-1].u.hdr.size4x&2)>>1)!=(size&1) ){
      fprintf(out, "%p tail checkout bit is incorrect\n", &mem.aPool[i]);
      assert( 0 );
      break;
    }
    if( size&1 ){
      fprintf(out, "%p %6d bytes checked out\n", &mem.aPool[i], (size/4)*8-8);
    }else{
      fprintf(out, "%p %6d bytes free%s\n", &mem.aPool[i], (size/4)*8-8,
                  i==mem.iMaster ? " **master**" : "");
    }
  }
  for(i=0; i<MX_SMALL-1; i++){
    if( mem.aiSmall[i]==0 ) continue;
    fprintf(out, "small(%2d):", i);
    for(j = mem.aiSmall[i]; j>0; j=mem.aPool[j].u.list.next){
      fprintf(out, " %p(%d)", &mem.aPool[j],
              (mem.aPool[j-1].u.hdr.size4x/4)*8-8);
    }
    fprintf(out, "\n"); 
  }
  for(i=0; i<N_HASH; i++){
    if( mem.aiHash[i]==0 ) continue;
    fprintf(out, "hash(%2d):", i);
    for(j = mem.aiHash[i]; j>0; j=mem.aPool[j].u.list.next){
      fprintf(out, " %p(%d)", &mem.aPool[j],
              (mem.aPool[j-1].u.hdr.size4x/4)*8-8);
    }
    fprintf(out, "\n"); 
  }
  fprintf(out, "master=%d\n", mem.iMaster);
  fprintf(out, "nowUsed=%d\n", SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE - mem.szMaster*8);
  fprintf(out, "mxUsed=%d\n", SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE - mem.mnMaster*8);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  if( out==stdout ){
    fflush(stdout);
  }else{
    fclose(out);
  }
#endif
}


#endif /* !SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE */

/************** End of mem3.c ************************************************/
/************** Begin file mutex.c *******************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 14
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement mutexes.
**
** The implementation in this file does not provide any mutual
** exclusion and is thus suitable for use only in applications
** that use SQLite in a single thread.  But this implementation
** does do a lot of error checking on mutexes to make sure they
** are called correctly and at appropriate times.  Hence, this
** implementation is suitable for testing.
** debugging purposes
**
** $Id: mutex.c,v 1.16 2007/09/10 16:13:00 danielk1977 Exp $
*/

#ifdef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP_DEBUG
/*
** In this implementation, mutexes do not provide any mutual exclusion.
** But the error checking is provided.  This implementation is useful
** for test purposes.
*/

/*
** The mutex object
*/
struct sqlite3_mutex {
  int id;     /* The mutex type */
  int cnt;    /* Number of entries without a matching leave */
};

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_alloc() routine allocates a new
** mutex and returns a pointer to it.  If it returns NULL
** that means that a mutex could not be allocated. 
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3_mutex_alloc(int id){
  static sqlite3_mutex aStatic[5];
  sqlite3_mutex *pNew = 0;
  switch( id ){
    case SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST:
    case SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE: {
      pNew = sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(*pNew));
      if( pNew ){
        pNew->id = id;
        pNew->cnt = 0;
      }
      break;
    }
    default: {
      assert( id-2 >= 0 );
      assert( id-2 < sizeof(aStatic)/sizeof(aStatic[0]) );
      pNew = &aStatic[id-2];
      pNew->id = id;
      break;
    }
  }
  return pNew;
}

/*
** This routine deallocates a previously allocated mutex.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_free(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( p->cnt==0 );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST || p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE );
  sqlite3_free(p);
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_enter() and sqlite3_mutex_try() routines attempt
** to enter a mutex.  If another thread is already within the mutex,
** sqlite3_mutex_enter() will block and sqlite3_mutex_try() will return
** SQLITE_BUSY.  The sqlite3_mutex_try() interface returns SQLITE_OK
** upon successful entry.  Mutexes created using SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE can
** be entered multiple times by the same thread.  In such cases the,
** mutex must be exited an equal number of times before another thread
** can enter.  If the same thread tries to enter any other kind of mutex
** more than once, the behavior is undefined.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE || sqlite3_mutex_notheld(p) );
  p->cnt++;
}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_try(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE || sqlite3_mutex_notheld(p) );
  p->cnt++;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_leave() routine exits a mutex that was
** previously entered by the same thread.  The behavior
** is undefined if the mutex is not currently entered or
** is not currently allocated.  SQLite will never do either.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(p) );
  p->cnt--;
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE || sqlite3_mutex_notheld(p) );
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_held() and sqlite3_mutex_notheld() routine are
** intended for use inside assert() statements.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  return p==0 || p->cnt>0;
}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  return p==0 || p->cnt==0;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP_DEBUG */

/************** End of mutex.c ***********************************************/
/************** Begin file mutex_os2.c ***************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 28
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement mutexes for OS/2
**
** $Id: mutex_os2.c,v 1.4 2007/12/30 23:29:07 pweilbacher Exp $
*/

/*
** The code in this file is only used if SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2 is defined.
** See the mutex.h file for details.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2

/********************** OS/2 Mutex Implementation **********************
**
** This implementation of mutexes is built using the OS/2 API.
*/

/*
** The mutex object
** Each recursive mutex is an instance of the following structure.
*/
struct sqlite3_mutex {
  PSZ  mutexName;   /* Mutex name controlling the lock */
  HMTX mutex;       /* Mutex controlling the lock */
  int  id;          /* Mutex type */
  int  nRef;        /* Number of references */
  TID  owner;       /* Thread holding this mutex */
};

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_alloc() routine allocates a new
** mutex and returns a pointer to it.  If it returns NULL
** that means that a mutex could not be allocated. 
** SQLite will unwind its stack and return an error.  The argument
** to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() is one of these integer constants:
**
** <ul>
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST               0
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE          1
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER      2
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM         3
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG        4
** </ul>
**
** The first two constants cause sqlite3_mutex_alloc() to create
** a new mutex.  The new mutex is recursive when SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
** is used but not necessarily so when SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST is used.
** The mutex implementation does not need to make a distinction
** between SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE and SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST if it does
** not want to.  But SQLite will only request a recursive mutex in
** cases where it really needs one.  If a faster non-recursive mutex
** implementation is available on the host platform, the mutex subsystem
** might return such a mutex in response to SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST.
**
** The other allowed parameters to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() each return
** a pointer to a static preexisting mutex.  Three static mutexes are
** used by the current version of SQLite.  Future versions of SQLite
** may add additional static mutexes.  Static mutexes are for internal
** use by SQLite only.  Applications that use SQLite mutexes should
** use only the dynamic mutexes returned by SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST or
** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE.
**
** Note that if one of the dynamic mutex parameters (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
** or SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE) is used then sqlite3_mutex_alloc()
** returns a different mutex on every call.  But for the static
** mutex types, the same mutex is returned on every call that has
** the same type number.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3_mutex_alloc(int iType){
  PSZ mutex_name = "\\SEM32\\SQLITE\\MUTEX";
  int mutex_name_len = strlen(mutex_name) + 1; /* name length + null byte */
  sqlite3_mutex *p;

  switch( iType ){
    case SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST:
    case SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE: {
      p = sqlite3MallocZero( sizeof(*p) );
      if( p ){
        p->mutexName = (PSZ)malloc(mutex_name_len);
        sqlite3_snprintf(mutex_name_len, p->mutexName, "%s", mutex_name);
        p->id = iType;
        DosCreateMutexSem(p->mutexName, &p->mutex, 0, FALSE);
        DosOpenMutexSem(p->mutexName, &p->mutex);
      }
      break;
    }
    default: {
      static sqlite3_mutex staticMutexes[5];
      static int isInit = 0;
      while( !isInit ) {
        static long lock = 0;
        DosEnterCritSec();
        lock++;
        if( lock == 1 ) {
          int i;
          DosExitCritSec();
          for(i = 0; i < sizeof(staticMutexes)/sizeof(staticMutexes[0]); i++) {
            staticMutexes[i].mutexName = (PSZ)malloc(mutex_name_len + 1);
            sqlite3_snprintf(mutex_name_len + 1, /* one more for the number */
                             staticMutexes[i].mutexName, "%s%1d", mutex_name, i);
            DosCreateMutexSem(staticMutexes[i].mutexName,
                              &staticMutexes[i].mutex, 0, FALSE);
            DosOpenMutexSem(staticMutexes[i].mutexName,
                            &staticMutexes[i].mutex);
          }
          isInit = 1;
        } else {
          DosExitCritSec();
          DosSleep(1);
        }
      }
      assert( iType-2 >= 0 );
      assert( iType-2 < sizeof(staticMutexes)/sizeof(staticMutexes[0]) );
      p = &staticMutexes[iType-2];
      p->id = iType;
      break;
    }
  }
  return p;
}


/*
** This routine deallocates a previously allocated mutex.
** SQLite is careful to deallocate every mutex that it allocates.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_free(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( p->nRef==0 );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST || p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE );
  DosCloseMutexSem(p->mutex);
  free(p->mutexName);
  sqlite3_free(p);
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_enter() and sqlite3_mutex_try() routines attempt
** to enter a mutex.  If another thread is already within the mutex,
** sqlite3_mutex_enter() will block and sqlite3_mutex_try() will return
** SQLITE_BUSY.  The sqlite3_mutex_try() interface returns SQLITE_OK
** upon successful entry.  Mutexes created using SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE can
** be entered multiple times by the same thread.  In such cases the,
** mutex must be exited an equal number of times before another thread
** can enter.  If the same thread tries to enter any other kind of mutex
** more than once, the behavior is undefined.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  TID tid;
  PID holder1;
  ULONG holder2;
  assert( p );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE || sqlite3_mutex_notheld(p) );
  DosRequestMutexSem(p->mutex, SEM_INDEFINITE_WAIT);
  DosQueryMutexSem(p->mutex, &holder1, &tid, &holder2);
  p->owner = tid;
  p->nRef++;
}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_try(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  int rc;
  TID tid;
  PID holder1;
  ULONG holder2;
  assert( p );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE || sqlite3_mutex_notheld(p) );
  if( DosRequestMutexSem(p->mutex, SEM_IMMEDIATE_RETURN) == NO_ERROR) {
    DosQueryMutexSem(p->mutex, &holder1, &tid, &holder2);
    p->owner = tid;
    p->nRef++;
    rc = SQLITE_OK;
  } else {
    rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
  }

  return rc;
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_leave() routine exits a mutex that was
** previously entered by the same thread.  The behavior
** is undefined if the mutex is not currently entered or
** is not currently allocated.  SQLite will never do either.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  TID tid;
  PID holder1;
  ULONG holder2;
  assert( p->nRef>0 );
  DosQueryMutexSem(p->mutex, &holder1, &tid, &holder2);
  assert( p->owner==tid );
  p->nRef--;
  assert( p->nRef==0 || p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE );
  DosReleaseMutexSem(p->mutex);
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_held() and sqlite3_mutex_notheld() routine are
** intended for use inside assert() statements.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  TID tid;
  PID pid;
  ULONG ulCount;
  PTIB ptib;
  if( p!=0 ) {
    DosQueryMutexSem(p->mutex, &pid, &tid, &ulCount);
  } else {
    DosGetInfoBlocks(&ptib, NULL);
    tid = ptib->tib_ptib2->tib2_ultid;
  }
  return p==0 || (p->nRef!=0 && p->owner==tid);
}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  TID tid;
  PID pid;
  ULONG ulCount;
  PTIB ptib;
  if( p!= 0 ) {
    DosQueryMutexSem(p->mutex, &pid, &tid, &ulCount);
  } else {
    DosGetInfoBlocks(&ptib, NULL);
    tid = ptib->tib_ptib2->tib2_ultid;
  }
  return p==0 || p->nRef==0 || p->owner!=tid;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2 */

/************** End of mutex_os2.c *******************************************/
/************** Begin file mutex_unix.c **************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 28
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement mutexes for pthreads
**
** $Id: mutex_unix.c,v 1.5 2007/11/28 14:04:57 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** The code in this file is only used if we are compiling threadsafe
** under unix with pthreads.
**
** Note that this implementation requires a version of pthreads that
** supports recursive mutexes.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREADS

#include <pthread.h>


/*
** Each recursive mutex is an instance of the following structure.
*/
struct sqlite3_mutex {
  pthread_mutex_t mutex;     /* Mutex controlling the lock */
  int id;                    /* Mutex type */
  int nRef;                  /* Number of entrances */
  pthread_t owner;           /* Thread that is within this mutex */
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  int trace;                 /* True to trace changes */
#endif
};

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_alloc() routine allocates a new
** mutex and returns a pointer to it.  If it returns NULL
** that means that a mutex could not be allocated.  SQLite
** will unwind its stack and return an error.  The argument
** to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() is one of these integer constants:
**
** <ul>
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM2
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU
** </ul>
**
** The first two constants cause sqlite3_mutex_alloc() to create
** a new mutex.  The new mutex is recursive when SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
** is used but not necessarily so when SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST is used.
** The mutex implementation does not need to make a distinction
** between SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE and SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST if it does
** not want to.  But SQLite will only request a recursive mutex in
** cases where it really needs one.  If a faster non-recursive mutex
** implementation is available on the host platform, the mutex subsystem
** might return such a mutex in response to SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST.
**
** The other allowed parameters to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() each return
** a pointer to a static preexisting mutex.  Three static mutexes are
** used by the current version of SQLite.  Future versions of SQLite
** may add additional static mutexes.  Static mutexes are for internal
** use by SQLite only.  Applications that use SQLite mutexes should
** use only the dynamic mutexes returned by SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST or
** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE.
**
** Note that if one of the dynamic mutex parameters (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
** or SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE) is used then sqlite3_mutex_alloc()
** returns a different mutex on every call.  But for the static 
** mutex types, the same mutex is returned on every call that has
** the same type number.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3_mutex_alloc(int iType){
  static sqlite3_mutex staticMutexes[] = {
    { PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER, },
    { PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER, },
    { PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER, },
    { PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER, },
    { PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER, },
  };
  sqlite3_mutex *p;
  switch( iType ){
    case SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE: {
      p = sqlite3MallocZero( sizeof(*p) );
      if( p ){
#ifdef SQLITE_HOMEGROWN_RECURSIVE_MUTEX
        /* If recursive mutexes are not available, we will have to
        ** build our own.  See below. */
        pthread_mutex_init(&p->mutex, 0);
#else
        /* Use a recursive mutex if it is available */
        pthread_mutexattr_t recursiveAttr;
        pthread_mutexattr_init(&recursiveAttr);
        pthread_mutexattr_settype(&recursiveAttr, PTHREAD_MUTEX_RECURSIVE);
        pthread_mutex_init(&p->mutex, &recursiveAttr);
        pthread_mutexattr_destroy(&recursiveAttr);
#endif
        p->id = iType;
      }
      break;
    }
    case SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST: {
      p = sqlite3MallocZero( sizeof(*p) );
      if( p ){
        p->id = iType;
        pthread_mutex_init(&p->mutex, 0);
      }
      break;
    }
    default: {
      assert( iType-2 >= 0 );
      assert( iType-2 < sizeof(staticMutexes)/sizeof(staticMutexes[0]) );
      p = &staticMutexes[iType-2];
      p->id = iType;
      break;
    }
  }
  return p;
}


/*
** This routine deallocates a previously
** allocated mutex.  SQLite is careful to deallocate every
** mutex that it allocates.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_free(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( p->nRef==0 );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST || p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE );
  pthread_mutex_destroy(&p->mutex);
  sqlite3_free(p);
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_enter() and sqlite3_mutex_try() routines attempt
** to enter a mutex.  If another thread is already within the mutex,
** sqlite3_mutex_enter() will block and sqlite3_mutex_try() will return
** SQLITE_BUSY.  The sqlite3_mutex_try() interface returns SQLITE_OK
** upon successful entry.  Mutexes created using SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE can
** be entered multiple times by the same thread.  In such cases the,
** mutex must be exited an equal number of times before another thread
** can enter.  If the same thread tries to enter any other kind of mutex
** more than once, the behavior is undefined.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE || sqlite3_mutex_notheld(p) );

#ifdef SQLITE_HOMEGROWN_RECURSIVE_MUTEX
  /* If recursive mutexes are not available, then we have to grow
  ** our own.  This implementation assumes that pthread_equal()
  ** is atomic - that it cannot be deceived into thinking self
  ** and p->owner are equal if p->owner changes between two values
  ** that are not equal to self while the comparison is taking place.
  ** This implementation also assumes a coherent cache - that 
  ** separate processes cannot read different values from the same
  ** address at the same time.  If either of these two conditions
  ** are not met, then the mutexes will fail and problems will result.
  */
  {
    pthread_t self = pthread_self();
    if( p->nRef>0 && pthread_equal(p->owner, self) ){
      p->nRef++;
    }else{
      pthread_mutex_lock(&p->mutex);
      assert( p->nRef==0 );
      p->owner = self;
      p->nRef = 1;
    }
  }
#else
  /* Use the built-in recursive mutexes if they are available.
  */
  pthread_mutex_lock(&p->mutex);
  p->owner = pthread_self();
  p->nRef++;
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  if( p->trace ){
    printf("enter mutex %p (%d) with nRef=%d\n", p, p->trace, p->nRef);
  }
#endif
}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_try(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  int rc;
  assert( p );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE || sqlite3_mutex_notheld(p) );

#ifdef SQLITE_HOMEGROWN_RECURSIVE_MUTEX
  /* If recursive mutexes are not available, then we have to grow
  ** our own.  This implementation assumes that pthread_equal()
  ** is atomic - that it cannot be deceived into thinking self
  ** and p->owner are equal if p->owner changes between two values
  ** that are not equal to self while the comparison is taking place.
  ** This implementation also assumes a coherent cache - that 
  ** separate processes cannot read different values from the same
  ** address at the same time.  If either of these two conditions
  ** are not met, then the mutexes will fail and problems will result.
  */
  {
    pthread_t self = pthread_self();
    if( p->nRef>0 && pthread_equal(p->owner, self) ){
      p->nRef++;
      rc = SQLITE_OK;
    }else if( pthread_mutex_lock(&p->mutex)==0 ){
      assert( p->nRef==0 );
      p->owner = self;
      p->nRef = 1;
      rc = SQLITE_OK;
    }else{
      rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
    }
  }
#else
  /* Use the built-in recursive mutexes if they are available.
  */
  if( pthread_mutex_trylock(&p->mutex)==0 ){
    p->owner = pthread_self();
    p->nRef++;
    rc = SQLITE_OK;
  }else{
    rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
  }
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && p->trace ){
    printf("enter mutex %p (%d) with nRef=%d\n", p, p->trace, p->nRef);
  }
#endif
  return rc;
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_leave() routine exits a mutex that was
** previously entered by the same thread.  The behavior
** is undefined if the mutex is not currently entered or
** is not currently allocated.  SQLite will never do either.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(p) );
  p->nRef--;
  assert( p->nRef==0 || p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE );

#ifdef SQLITE_HOMEGROWN_RECURSIVE_MUTEX
  if( p->nRef==0 ){
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&p->mutex);
  }
#else
  pthread_mutex_unlock(&p->mutex);
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  if( p->trace ){
    printf("leave mutex %p (%d) with nRef=%d\n", p, p->trace, p->nRef);
  }
#endif
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_held() and sqlite3_mutex_notheld() routine are
** intended for use only inside assert() statements.  On some platforms,
** there might be race conditions that can cause these routines to
** deliver incorrect results.  In particular, if pthread_equal() is
** not an atomic operation, then these routines might delivery
** incorrect results.  On most platforms, pthread_equal() is a 
** comparison of two integers and is therefore atomic.  But we are
** told that HPUX is not such a platform.  If so, then these routines
** will not always work correctly on HPUX.
**
** On those platforms where pthread_equal() is not atomic, SQLite
** should be compiled without -DSQLITE_DEBUG and with -DNDEBUG to
** make sure no assert() statements are evaluated and hence these
** routines are never called.
*/
#ifndef NDEBUG
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  return p==0 || (p->nRef!=0 && pthread_equal(p->owner, pthread_self()));
}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  return p==0 || p->nRef==0 || pthread_equal(p->owner, pthread_self())==0;
}
#endif
#endif /* SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREAD */

/************** End of mutex_unix.c ******************************************/
/************** Begin file mutex_w32.c ***************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 14
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement mutexes for win32
**
** $Id: mutex_w32.c,v 1.5 2007/10/05 15:08:01 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** The code in this file is only used if we are compiling multithreaded
** on a win32 system.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_MUTEX_W32

/*
** Each recursive mutex is an instance of the following structure.
*/
struct sqlite3_mutex {
  CRITICAL_SECTION mutex;    /* Mutex controlling the lock */
  int id;                    /* Mutex type */
  int nRef;                  /* Number of enterances */
  DWORD owner;               /* Thread holding this mutex */
};

/*
** Return true (non-zero) if we are running under WinNT, Win2K, WinXP,
** or WinCE.  Return false (zero) for Win95, Win98, or WinME.
**
** Here is an interesting observation:  Win95, Win98, and WinME lack
** the LockFileEx() API.  But we can still statically link against that
** API as long as we don't call it win running Win95/98/ME.  A call to
** this routine is used to determine if the host is Win95/98/ME or
** WinNT/2K/XP so that we will know whether or not we can safely call
** the LockFileEx() API.
*/
#if OS_WINCE
# define mutexIsNT()  (1)
#else
  static int mutexIsNT(void){
    static int osType = 0;
    if( osType==0 ){
      OSVERSIONINFO sInfo;
      sInfo.dwOSVersionInfoSize = sizeof(sInfo);
      GetVersionEx(&sInfo);
      osType = sInfo.dwPlatformId==VER_PLATFORM_WIN32_NT ? 2 : 1;
    }
    return osType==2;
  }
#endif /* OS_WINCE */


/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_alloc() routine allocates a new
** mutex and returns a pointer to it.  If it returns NULL
** that means that a mutex could not be allocated.  SQLite
** will unwind its stack and return an error.  The argument
** to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() is one of these integer constants:
**
** <ul>
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST               0
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE          1
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER      2
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM         3
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG        4
** </ul>
**
** The first two constants cause sqlite3_mutex_alloc() to create
** a new mutex.  The new mutex is recursive when SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
** is used but not necessarily so when SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST is used.
** The mutex implementation does not need to make a distinction
** between SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE and SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST if it does
** not want to.  But SQLite will only request a recursive mutex in
** cases where it really needs one.  If a faster non-recursive mutex
** implementation is available on the host platform, the mutex subsystem
** might return such a mutex in response to SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST.
**
** The other allowed parameters to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() each return
** a pointer to a static preexisting mutex.  Three static mutexes are
** used by the current version of SQLite.  Future versions of SQLite
** may add additional static mutexes.  Static mutexes are for internal
** use by SQLite only.  Applications that use SQLite mutexes should
** use only the dynamic mutexes returned by SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST or
** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE.
**
** Note that if one of the dynamic mutex parameters (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
** or SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE) is used then sqlite3_mutex_alloc()
** returns a different mutex on every call.  But for the static 
** mutex types, the same mutex is returned on every call that has
** the same type number.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3_mutex_alloc(int iType){
  sqlite3_mutex *p;

  switch( iType ){
    case SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST:
    case SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE: {
      p = sqlite3MallocZero( sizeof(*p) );
      if( p ){
        p->id = iType;
        InitializeCriticalSection(&p->mutex);
      }
      break;
    }
    default: {
      static sqlite3_mutex staticMutexes[5];
      static int isInit = 0;
      while( !isInit ){
        static long lock = 0;
        if( InterlockedIncrement(&lock)==1 ){
          int i;
          for(i=0; i<sizeof(staticMutexes)/sizeof(staticMutexes[0]); i++){
            InitializeCriticalSection(&staticMutexes[i].mutex);
          }
          isInit = 1;
        }else{
          Sleep(1);
        }
      }
      assert( iType-2 >= 0 );
      assert( iType-2 < sizeof(staticMutexes)/sizeof(staticMutexes[0]) );
      p = &staticMutexes[iType-2];
      p->id = iType;
      break;
    }
  }
  return p;
}


/*
** This routine deallocates a previously
** allocated mutex.  SQLite is careful to deallocate every
** mutex that it allocates.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_free(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( p->nRef==0 );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST || p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE );
  DeleteCriticalSection(&p->mutex);
  sqlite3_free(p);
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_enter() and sqlite3_mutex_try() routines attempt
** to enter a mutex.  If another thread is already within the mutex,
** sqlite3_mutex_enter() will block and sqlite3_mutex_try() will return
** SQLITE_BUSY.  The sqlite3_mutex_try() interface returns SQLITE_OK
** upon successful entry.  Mutexes created using SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE can
** be entered multiple times by the same thread.  In such cases the,
** mutex must be exited an equal number of times before another thread
** can enter.  If the same thread tries to enter any other kind of mutex
** more than once, the behavior is undefined.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE || sqlite3_mutex_notheld(p) );
  EnterCriticalSection(&p->mutex);
  p->owner = GetCurrentThreadId(); 
  p->nRef++;
}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_try(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  int rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
  assert( p );
  assert( p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE || sqlite3_mutex_notheld(p) );
  /*
  ** The sqlite3_mutex_try() routine is very rarely used, and when it
  ** is used it is merely an optimization.  So it is OK for it to always
  ** fail.  
  **
  ** The TryEnterCriticalSection() interface is only available on WinNT.
  ** And some windows compilers complain if you try to use it without
  ** first doing some #defines that prevent SQLite from building on Win98.
  ** For that reason, we will omit this optimization for now.  See
  ** ticket #2685.
  */
#if 0
  if( mutexIsNT() && TryEnterCriticalSection(&p->mutex) ){
    p->owner = GetCurrentThreadId();
    p->nRef++;
    rc = SQLITE_OK;
  }
#endif
  return rc;
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_leave() routine exits a mutex that was
** previously entered by the same thread.  The behavior
** is undefined if the mutex is not currently entered or
** is not currently allocated.  SQLite will never do either.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p->nRef>0 );
  assert( p->owner==GetCurrentThreadId() );
  p->nRef--;
  assert( p->nRef==0 || p->id==SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE );
  LeaveCriticalSection(&p->mutex);
}

/*
** The sqlite3_mutex_held() and sqlite3_mutex_notheld() routine are
** intended for use only inside assert() statements.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  return p==0 || (p->nRef!=0 && p->owner==GetCurrentThreadId());
}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  return p==0 || p->nRef==0 || p->owner!=GetCurrentThreadId();
}
#endif /* SQLITE_MUTEX_W32 */

/************** End of mutex_w32.c *******************************************/
/************** Begin file malloc.c ******************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** Memory allocation functions used throughout sqlite.
**
**
** $Id: malloc.c,v 1.14 2007/10/20 16:36:31 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** This routine runs when the memory allocator sees that the
** total memory allocation is about to exceed the soft heap
** limit.
*/
static void softHeapLimitEnforcer(
  void *NotUsed, 
  sqlite3_int64 inUse,
  int allocSize
){
  sqlite3_release_memory(allocSize);
}

/*
** Set the soft heap-size limit for the current thread. Passing a
** zero or negative value indicates no limit.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(int n){
  sqlite3_uint64 iLimit;
  int overage;
  if( n<0 ){
    iLimit = 0;
  }else{
    iLimit = n;
  }
  if( iLimit>0 ){
    sqlite3_memory_alarm(softHeapLimitEnforcer, 0, iLimit);
  }else{
    sqlite3_memory_alarm(0, 0, 0);
  }
  overage = sqlite3_memory_used() - n;
  if( overage>0 ){
    sqlite3_release_memory(overage);
  }
}

/*
** Release memory held by SQLite instances created by the current thread.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_release_memory(int n){
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT
  return sqlite3PagerReleaseMemory(n);
#else
  return SQLITE_OK;
#endif
}


/*
** Allocate and zero memory.
*/ 
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3MallocZero(unsigned n){
  void *p = sqlite3_malloc(n);
  if( p ){
    memset(p, 0, n);
  }
  return p;
}

/*
** Allocate and zero memory.  If the allocation fails, make
** the mallocFailed flag in the connection pointer.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocZero(sqlite3 *db, unsigned n){
  void *p = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(db, n);
  if( p ){
    memset(p, 0, n);
  }
  return p;
}

/*
** Allocate and zero memory.  If the allocation fails, make
** the mallocFailed flag in the connection pointer.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocRaw(sqlite3 *db, unsigned n){
  void *p = 0;
  if( !db || db->mallocFailed==0 ){
    p = sqlite3_malloc(n);
    if( !p && db ){
      db->mallocFailed = 1;
    }
  }
  return p;
}

/*
** Resize the block of memory pointed to by p to n bytes. If the
** resize fails, set the mallocFailed flag inthe connection object.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbRealloc(sqlite3 *db, void *p, int n){
  void *pNew = 0;
  if( db->mallocFailed==0 ){
    pNew = sqlite3_realloc(p, n);
    if( !pNew ){
      db->mallocFailed = 1;
    }
  }
  return pNew;
}

/*
** Attempt to reallocate p.  If the reallocation fails, then free p
** and set the mallocFailed flag in the database connection.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(sqlite3 *db, void *p, int n){
  void *pNew;
  pNew = sqlite3DbRealloc(db, p, n);
  if( !pNew ){
    sqlite3_free(p);
  }
  return pNew;
}

/*
** Make a copy of a string in memory obtained from sqliteMalloc(). These 
** functions call sqlite3MallocRaw() directly instead of sqliteMalloc(). This
** is because when memory debugging is turned on, these two functions are 
** called via macros that record the current file and line number in the
** ThreadData structure.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrDup(const char *z){
  char *zNew;
  int n;
  if( z==0 ) return 0;
  n = strlen(z)+1;
  zNew = sqlite3_malloc(n);
  if( zNew ) memcpy(zNew, z, n);
  return zNew;
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrNDup(const char *z, int n){
  char *zNew;
  if( z==0 ) return 0;
  zNew = sqlite3_malloc(n+1);
  if( zNew ){
    memcpy(zNew, z, n);
    zNew[n] = 0;
  }
  return zNew;
}

SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrDup(sqlite3 *db, const char *z){
  char *zNew = sqlite3StrDup(z);
  if( z && !zNew ){
    db->mallocFailed = 1;
  }
  return zNew;
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrNDup(sqlite3 *db, const char *z, int n){
  char *zNew = sqlite3StrNDup(z, n);
  if( z && !zNew ){
    db->mallocFailed = 1;
  }
  return zNew;
}

/*
** Create a string from the 2nd and subsequent arguments (up to the
** first NULL argument), store the string in memory obtained from
** sqliteMalloc() and make the pointer indicated by the 1st argument
** point to that string.  The 1st argument must either be NULL or 
** point to memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SetString(char **pz, ...){
  va_list ap;
  int nByte;
  const char *z;
  char *zResult;

  assert( pz!=0 );
  nByte = 1;
  va_start(ap, pz);
  while( (z = va_arg(ap, const char*))!=0 ){
    nByte += strlen(z);
  }
  va_end(ap);
  sqlite3_free(*pz);
  *pz = zResult = sqlite3_malloc(nByte);
  if( zResult==0 ){
    return;
  }
  *zResult = 0;
  va_start(ap, pz);
  while( (z = va_arg(ap, const char*))!=0 ){
    int n = strlen(z);
    memcpy(zResult, z, n);
    zResult += n;
  }
  zResult[0] = 0;
  va_end(ap);
}


/*
** This function must be called before exiting any API function (i.e. 
** returning control to the user) that has called sqlite3_malloc or
** sqlite3_realloc.
**
** The returned value is normally a copy of the second argument to this
** function. However, if a malloc() failure has occured since the previous
** invocation SQLITE_NOMEM is returned instead. 
**
** If the first argument, db, is not NULL and a malloc() error has occured,
** then the connection error-code (the value returned by sqlite3_errcode())
** is set to SQLITE_NOMEM.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3* db, int rc){
  /* If the db handle is not NULL, then we must hold the connection handle
  ** mutex here. Otherwise the read (and possible write) of db->mallocFailed 
  ** is unsafe, as is the call to sqlite3Error().
  */
  assert( !db || sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
  if( db && db->mallocFailed ){
    sqlite3Error(db, SQLITE_NOMEM, 0);
    db->mallocFailed = 0;
    rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }
  return rc & (db ? db->errMask : 0xff);
}

/************** End of malloc.c **********************************************/
/************** Begin file printf.c ******************************************/
/*
** The "printf" code that follows dates from the 1980's.  It is in
** the public domain.  The original comments are included here for
** completeness.  They are very out-of-date but might be useful as
** an historical reference.  Most of the "enhancements" have been backed
** out so that the functionality is now the same as standard printf().
**
**************************************************************************
**
** The following modules is an enhanced replacement for the "printf" subroutines
** found in the standard C library.  The following enhancements are
** supported:
**
**      +  Additional functions.  The standard set of "printf" functions
**         includes printf, fprintf, sprintf, vprintf, vfprintf, and
**         vsprintf.  This module adds the following:
**
**           *  snprintf -- Works like sprintf, but has an extra argument
**                          which is the size of the buffer written to.
**
**           *  mprintf --  Similar to sprintf.  Writes output to memory
**                          obtained from malloc.
**
**           *  xprintf --  Calls a function to dispose of output.
**
**           *  nprintf --  No output, but returns the number of characters
**                          that would have been output by printf.
**
**           *  A v- version (ex: vsnprintf) of every function is also
**              supplied.
**
**      +  A few extensions to the formatting notation are supported:
**
**           *  The "=" flag (similar to "-") causes the output to be
**              be centered in the appropriately sized field.
**
**           *  The %b field outputs an integer in binary notation.
**
**           *  The %c field now accepts a precision.  The character output
**              is repeated by the number of times the precision specifies.
**
**           *  The %' field works like %c, but takes as its character the
**              next character of the format string, instead of the next
**              argument.  For example,  printf("%.78'-")  prints 78 minus
**              signs, the same as  printf("%.78c",'-').
**
**      +  When compiled using GCC on a SPARC, this version of printf is
**         faster than the library printf for SUN OS 4.1.
**
**      +  All functions are fully reentrant.
**
*/

/*
** Conversion types fall into various categories as defined by the
** following enumeration.
*/
#define etRADIX       1 /* Integer types.  %d, %x, %o, and so forth */
#define etFLOAT       2 /* Floating point.  %f */
#define etEXP         3 /* Exponentional notation. %e and %E */
#define etGENERIC     4 /* Floating or exponential, depending on exponent. %g */
#define etSIZE        5 /* Return number of characters processed so far. %n */
#define etSTRING      6 /* Strings. %s */
#define etDYNSTRING   7 /* Dynamically allocated strings. %z */
#define etPERCENT     8 /* Percent symbol. %% */
#define etCHARX       9 /* Characters. %c */
/* The rest are extensions, not normally found in printf() */
#define etCHARLIT    10 /* Literal characters.  %' */
#define etSQLESCAPE  11 /* Strings with '\'' doubled.  %q */
#define etSQLESCAPE2 12 /* Strings with '\'' doubled and enclosed in '',
                          NULL pointers replaced by SQL NULL.  %Q */
#define etTOKEN      13 /* a pointer to a Token structure */
#define etSRCLIST    14 /* a pointer to a SrcList */
#define etPOINTER    15 /* The %p conversion */
#define etSQLESCAPE3 16 /* %w -> Strings with '\"' doubled */
#define etORDINAL    17 /* %r -> 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc.  English only */


/*
** An "etByte" is an 8-bit unsigned value.
*/
typedef unsigned char etByte;

/*
** Each builtin conversion character (ex: the 'd' in "%d") is described
** by an instance of the following structure
*/
typedef struct et_info {   /* Information about each format field */
  char fmttype;            /* The format field code letter */
  etByte base;             /* The base for radix conversion */
  etByte flags;            /* One or more of FLAG_ constants below */
  etByte type;             /* Conversion paradigm */
  etByte charset;          /* Offset into aDigits[] of the digits string */
  etByte prefix;           /* Offset into aPrefix[] of the prefix string */
} et_info;

/*
** Allowed values for et_info.flags
*/
#define FLAG_SIGNED  1     /* True if the value to convert is signed */
#define FLAG_INTERN  2     /* True if for internal use only */
#define FLAG_STRING  4     /* Allow infinity precision */


/*
** The following table is searched linearly, so it is good to put the
** most frequently used conversion types first.
*/
static const char aDigits[] = "0123456789ABCDEF0123456789abcdef";
static const char aPrefix[] = "-x0\000X0";
static const et_info fmtinfo[] = {
  {  'd', 10, 1, etRADIX,      0,  0 },
  {  's',  0, 4, etSTRING,     0,  0 },
  {  'g',  0, 1, etGENERIC,    30, 0 },
  {  'z',  0, 4, etDYNSTRING,  0,  0 },
  {  'q',  0, 4, etSQLESCAPE,  0,  0 },
  {  'Q',  0, 4, etSQLESCAPE2, 0,  0 },
  {  'w',  0, 4, etSQLESCAPE3, 0,  0 },
  {  'c',  0, 0, etCHARX,      0,  0 },
  {  'o',  8, 0, etRADIX,      0,  2 },
  {  'u', 10, 0, etRADIX,      0,  0 },
  {  'x', 16, 0, etRADIX,      16, 1 },
  {  'X', 16, 0, etRADIX,      0,  4 },
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
  {  'f',  0, 1, etFLOAT,      0,  0 },
  {  'e',  0, 1, etEXP,        30, 0 },
  {  'E',  0, 1, etEXP,        14, 0 },
  {  'G',  0, 1, etGENERIC,    14, 0 },
#endif
  {  'i', 10, 1, etRADIX,      0,  0 },
  {  'n',  0, 0, etSIZE,       0,  0 },
  {  '%',  0, 0, etPERCENT,    0,  0 },
  {  'p', 16, 0, etPOINTER,    0,  1 },
  {  'T',  0, 2, etTOKEN,      0,  0 },
  {  'S',  0, 2, etSRCLIST,    0,  0 },
  {  'r', 10, 3, etORDINAL,    0,  0 },
};
#define etNINFO  (sizeof(fmtinfo)/sizeof(fmtinfo[0]))

/*
** If SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT is defined, then none of the floating point
** conversions will work.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
/*
** "*val" is a double such that 0.1 <= *val < 10.0
** Return the ascii code for the leading digit of *val, then
** multiply "*val" by 10.0 to renormalize.
**
** Example:
**     input:     *val = 3.14159
**     output:    *val = 1.4159    function return = '3'
**
** The counter *cnt is incremented each time.  After counter exceeds
** 16 (the number of significant digits in a 64-bit float) '0' is
** always returned.
*/
static int et_getdigit(LONGDOUBLE_TYPE *val, int *cnt){
  int digit;
  LONGDOUBLE_TYPE d;
  if( (*cnt)++ >= 16 ) return '0';
  digit = (int)*val;
  d = digit;
  digit += '0';
  *val = (*val - d)*10.0;
  return digit;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT */

/*
** Append N space characters to the given string buffer.
*/
static void appendSpace(StrAccum *pAccum, int N){
  static const char zSpaces[] = "                             ";
  while( N>=sizeof(zSpaces)-1 ){
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, zSpaces, sizeof(zSpaces)-1);
    N -= sizeof(zSpaces)-1;
  }
  if( N>0 ){
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, zSpaces, N);
  }
}

/*
** On machines with a small stack size, you can redefine the
** SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE to be less than 350.  But beware - for
** smaller values some %f conversions may go into an infinite loop.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE
# define SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE 350
#endif
#define etBUFSIZE SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE  /* Size of the output buffer */

/*
** The root program.  All variations call this core.
**
** INPUTS:
**   func   This is a pointer to a function taking three arguments
**            1. A pointer to anything.  Same as the "arg" parameter.
**            2. A pointer to the list of characters to be output
**               (Note, this list is NOT null terminated.)
**            3. An integer number of characters to be output.
**               (Note: This number might be zero.)
**
**   arg    This is the pointer to anything which will be passed as the
**          first argument to "func".  Use it for whatever you like.
**
**   fmt    This is the format string, as in the usual print.
**
**   ap     This is a pointer to a list of arguments.  Same as in
**          vfprint.
**
** OUTPUTS:
**          The return value is the total number of characters sent to
**          the function "func".  Returns -1 on a error.
**
** Note that the order in which automatic variables are declared below
** seems to make a big difference in determining how fast this beast
** will run.
*/
static void vxprintf(
  StrAccum *pAccum,                  /* Accumulate results here */
  int useExtended,                   /* Allow extended %-conversions */
  const char *fmt,                   /* Format string */
  va_list ap                         /* arguments */
){
  int c;                     /* Next character in the format string */
  char *bufpt;               /* Pointer to the conversion buffer */
  int precision;             /* Precision of the current field */
  int length;                /* Length of the field */
  int idx;                   /* A general purpose loop counter */
  int width;                 /* Width of the current field */
  etByte flag_leftjustify;   /* True if "-" flag is present */
  etByte flag_plussign;      /* True if "+" flag is present */
  etByte flag_blanksign;     /* True if " " flag is present */
  etByte flag_alternateform; /* True if "#" flag is present */
  etByte flag_altform2;      /* True if "!" flag is present */
  etByte flag_zeropad;       /* True if field width constant starts with zero */
  etByte flag_long;          /* True if "l" flag is present */
  etByte flag_longlong;      /* True if the "ll" flag is present */
  etByte done;               /* Loop termination flag */
  sqlite_uint64 longvalue;   /* Value for integer types */
  LONGDOUBLE_TYPE realvalue; /* Value for real types */
  const et_info *infop;      /* Pointer to the appropriate info structure */
  char buf[etBUFSIZE];       /* Conversion buffer */
  char prefix;               /* Prefix character.  "+" or "-" or " " or '\0'. */
  etByte errorflag = 0;      /* True if an error is encountered */
  etByte xtype;              /* Conversion paradigm */
  char *zExtra;              /* Extra memory used for etTCLESCAPE conversions */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
  int  exp, e2;              /* exponent of real numbers */
  double rounder;            /* Used for rounding floating point values */
  etByte flag_dp;            /* True if decimal point should be shown */
  etByte flag_rtz;           /* True if trailing zeros should be removed */
  etByte flag_exp;           /* True to force display of the exponent */
  int nsd;                   /* Number of significant digits returned */
#endif

  length = 0;
  bufpt = 0;
  for(; (c=(*fmt))!=0; ++fmt){
    if( c!='%' ){
      int amt;
      bufpt = (char *)fmt;
      amt = 1;
      while( (c=(*++fmt))!='%' && c!=0 ) amt++;
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, bufpt, amt);
      if( c==0 ) break;
    }
    if( (c=(*++fmt))==0 ){
      errorflag = 1;
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, "%", 1);
      break;
    }
    /* Find out what flags are present */
    flag_leftjustify = flag_plussign = flag_blanksign = 
     flag_alternateform = flag_altform2 = flag_zeropad = 0;
    done = 0;
    do{
      switch( c ){
        case '-':   flag_leftjustify = 1;     break;
        case '+':   flag_plussign = 1;        break;
        case ' ':   flag_blanksign = 1;       break;
        case '#':   flag_alternateform = 1;   break;
        case '!':   flag_altform2 = 1;        break;
        case '0':   flag_zeropad = 1;         break;
        default:    done = 1;                 break;
      }
    }while( !done && (c=(*++fmt))!=0 );
    /* Get the field width */
    width = 0;
    if( c=='*' ){
      width = va_arg(ap,int);
      if( width<0 ){
        flag_leftjustify = 1;
        width = -width;
      }
      c = *++fmt;
    }else{
      while( c>='0' && c<='9' ){
        width = width*10 + c - '0';
        c = *++fmt;
      }
    }
    if( width > etBUFSIZE-10 ){
      width = etBUFSIZE-10;
    }
    /* Get the precision */
    if( c=='.' ){
      precision = 0;
      c = *++fmt;
      if( c=='*' ){
        precision = va_arg(ap,int);
        if( precision<0 ) precision = -precision;
        c = *++fmt;
      }else{
        while( c>='0' && c<='9' ){
          precision = precision*10 + c - '0';
          c = *++fmt;
        }
      }
    }else{
      precision = -1;
    }
    /* Get the conversion type modifier */
    if( c=='l' ){
      flag_long = 1;
      c = *++fmt;
      if( c=='l' ){
        flag_longlong = 1;
        c = *++fmt;
      }else{
        flag_longlong = 0;
      }
    }else{
      flag_long = flag_longlong = 0;
    }
    /* Fetch the info entry for the field */
    infop = 0;
    for(idx=0; idx<etNINFO; idx++){
      if( c==fmtinfo[idx].fmttype ){
        infop = &fmtinfo[idx];
        if( useExtended || (infop->flags & FLAG_INTERN)==0 ){
          xtype = infop->type;
        }else{
          return;
        }
        break;
      }
    }
    zExtra = 0;
    if( infop==0 ){
      return;
    }


    /* Limit the precision to prevent overflowing buf[] during conversion */
    if( precision>etBUFSIZE-40 && (infop->flags & FLAG_STRING)==0 ){
      precision = etBUFSIZE-40;
    }

    /*
    ** At this point, variables are initialized as follows:
    **
    **   flag_alternateform          TRUE if a '#' is present.
    **   flag_altform2               TRUE if a '!' is present.
    **   flag_plussign               TRUE if a '+' is present.
    **   flag_leftjustify            TRUE if a '-' is present or if the
    **                               field width was negative.
    **   flag_zeropad                TRUE if the width began with 0.
    **   flag_long                   TRUE if the letter 'l' (ell) prefixed
    **                               the conversion character.
    **   flag_longlong               TRUE if the letter 'll' (ell ell) prefixed
    **                               the conversion character.
    **   flag_blanksign              TRUE if a ' ' is present.
    **   width                       The specified field width.  This is
    **                               always non-negative.  Zero is the default.
    **   precision                   The specified precision.  The default
    **                               is -1.
    **   xtype                       The class of the conversion.
    **   infop                       Pointer to the appropriate info struct.
    */
    switch( xtype ){
      case etPOINTER:
        flag_longlong = sizeof(char*)==sizeof(i64);
        flag_long = sizeof(char*)==sizeof(long int);
        /* Fall through into the next case */
      case etORDINAL:
      case etRADIX:
        if( infop->flags & FLAG_SIGNED ){
          i64 v;
          if( flag_longlong )   v = va_arg(ap,i64);
          else if( flag_long )  v = va_arg(ap,long int);
          else                  v = va_arg(ap,int);
          if( v<0 ){
            longvalue = -v;
            prefix = '-';
          }else{
            longvalue = v;
            if( flag_plussign )        prefix = '+';
            else if( flag_blanksign )  prefix = ' ';
            else                       prefix = 0;
          }
        }else{
          if( flag_longlong )   longvalue = va_arg(ap,u64);
          else if( flag_long )  longvalue = va_arg(ap,unsigned long int);
          else                  longvalue = va_arg(ap,unsigned int);
          prefix = 0;
        }
        if( longvalue==0 ) flag_alternateform = 0;
        if( flag_zeropad && precision<width-(prefix!=0) ){
          precision = width-(prefix!=0);
        }
        bufpt = &buf[etBUFSIZE-1];
        if( xtype==etORDINAL ){
          static const char zOrd[] = "thstndrd";
          int x = longvalue % 10;
          if( x>=4 || (longvalue/10)%10==1 ){
            x = 0;
          }
          buf[etBUFSIZE-3] = zOrd[x*2];
          buf[etBUFSIZE-2] = zOrd[x*2+1];
          bufpt -= 2;
        }
        {
          register const char *cset;      /* Use registers for speed */
          register int base;
          cset = &aDigits[infop->charset];
          base = infop->base;
          do{                                           /* Convert to ascii */
            *(--bufpt) = cset[longvalue%base];
            longvalue = longvalue/base;
          }while( longvalue>0 );
        }
        length = &buf[etBUFSIZE-1]-bufpt;
        for(idx=precision-length; idx>0; idx--){
          *(--bufpt) = '0';                             /* Zero pad */
        }
        if( prefix ) *(--bufpt) = prefix;               /* Add sign */
        if( flag_alternateform && infop->prefix ){      /* Add "0" or "0x" */
          const char *pre;
          char x;
          pre = &aPrefix[infop->prefix];
          if( *bufpt!=pre[0] ){
            for(; (x=(*pre))!=0; pre++) *(--bufpt) = x;
          }
        }
        length = &buf[etBUFSIZE-1]-bufpt;
        break;
      case etFLOAT:
      case etEXP:
      case etGENERIC:
        realvalue = va_arg(ap,double);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
        if( precision<0 ) precision = 6;         /* Set default precision */
        if( precision>etBUFSIZE/2-10 ) precision = etBUFSIZE/2-10;
        if( realvalue<0.0 ){
          realvalue = -realvalue;
          prefix = '-';
        }else{
          if( flag_plussign )          prefix = '+';
          else if( flag_blanksign )    prefix = ' ';
          else                         prefix = 0;
        }
        if( xtype==etGENERIC && precision>0 ) precision--;
#if 0
        /* Rounding works like BSD when the constant 0.4999 is used.  Wierd! */
        for(idx=precision, rounder=0.4999; idx>0; idx--, rounder*=0.1);
#else
        /* It makes more sense to use 0.5 */
        for(idx=precision, rounder=0.5; idx>0; idx--, rounder*=0.1){}
#endif
        if( xtype==etFLOAT ) realvalue += rounder;
        /* Normalize realvalue to within 10.0 > realvalue >= 1.0 */
        exp = 0;
        if( sqlite3_isnan(realvalue) ){
          bufpt = "NaN";
          length = 3;
          break;
        }
        if( realvalue>0.0 ){
          while( realvalue>=1e32 && exp<=350 ){ realvalue *= 1e-32; exp+=32; }
          while( realvalue>=1e8 && exp<=350 ){ realvalue *= 1e-8; exp+=8; }
          while( realvalue>=10.0 && exp<=350 ){ realvalue *= 0.1; exp++; }
          while( realvalue<1e-8 && exp>=-350 ){ realvalue *= 1e8; exp-=8; }
          while( realvalue<1.0 && exp>=-350 ){ realvalue *= 10.0; exp--; }
          if( exp>350 || exp<-350 ){
            if( prefix=='-' ){
              bufpt = "-Inf";
            }else if( prefix=='+' ){
              bufpt = "+Inf";
            }else{
              bufpt = "Inf";
            }
            length = strlen(bufpt);
            break;
          }
        }
        bufpt = buf;
        /*
        ** If the field type is etGENERIC, then convert to either etEXP
        ** or etFLOAT, as appropriate.
        */
        flag_exp = xtype==etEXP;
        if( xtype!=etFLOAT ){
          realvalue += rounder;
          if( realvalue>=10.0 ){ realvalue *= 0.1; exp++; }
        }
        if( xtype==etGENERIC ){
          flag_rtz = !flag_alternateform;
          if( exp<-4 || exp>precision ){
            xtype = etEXP;
          }else{
            precision = precision - exp;
            xtype = etFLOAT;
          }
        }else{
          flag_rtz = 0;
        }
        if( xtype==etEXP ){
          e2 = 0;
        }else{
          e2 = exp;
        }
        nsd = 0;
        flag_dp = (precision>0) | flag_alternateform | flag_altform2;
        /* The sign in front of the number */
        if( prefix ){
          *(bufpt++) = prefix;
        }
        /* Digits prior to the decimal point */
        if( e2<0 ){
          *(bufpt++) = '0';
        }else{
          for(; e2>=0; e2--){
            *(bufpt++) = et_getdigit(&realvalue,&nsd);
          }
        }
        /* The decimal point */
        if( flag_dp ){
          *(bufpt++) = '.';
        }
        /* "0" digits after the decimal point but before the first
        ** significant digit of the number */
        for(e2++; e2<0 && precision>0; precision--, e2++){
          *(bufpt++) = '0';
        }
        /* Significant digits after the decimal point */
        while( (precision--)>0 ){
          *(bufpt++) = et_getdigit(&realvalue,&nsd);
        }
        /* Remove trailing zeros and the "." if no digits follow the "." */
        if( flag_rtz && flag_dp ){
          while( bufpt[-1]=='0' ) *(--bufpt) = 0;
          assert( bufpt>buf );
          if( bufpt[-1]=='.' ){
            if( flag_altform2 ){
              *(bufpt++) = '0';
            }else{
              *(--bufpt) = 0;
            }
          }
        }
        /* Add the "eNNN" suffix */
        if( flag_exp || (xtype==etEXP && exp) ){
          *(bufpt++) = aDigits[infop->charset];
          if( exp<0 ){
            *(bufpt++) = '-'; exp = -exp;
          }else{
            *(bufpt++) = '+';
          }
          if( exp>=100 ){
            *(bufpt++) = (exp/100)+'0';                /* 100's digit */
            exp %= 100;
          }
          *(bufpt++) = exp/10+'0';                     /* 10's digit */
          *(bufpt++) = exp%10+'0';                     /* 1's digit */
        }
        *bufpt = 0;

        /* The converted number is in buf[] and zero terminated. Output it.
        ** Note that the number is in the usual order, not reversed as with
        ** integer conversions. */
        length = bufpt-buf;
        bufpt = buf;

        /* Special case:  Add leading zeros if the flag_zeropad flag is
        ** set and we are not left justified */
        if( flag_zeropad && !flag_leftjustify && length < width){
          int i;
          int nPad = width - length;
          for(i=width; i>=nPad; i--){
            bufpt[i] = bufpt[i-nPad];
          }
          i = prefix!=0;
          while( nPad-- ) bufpt[i++] = '0';
          length = width;
        }
#endif
        break;
      case etSIZE:
        *(va_arg(ap,int*)) = pAccum->nChar;
        length = width = 0;
        break;
      case etPERCENT:
        buf[0] = '%';
        bufpt = buf;
        length = 1;
        break;
      case etCHARLIT:
      case etCHARX:
        c = buf[0] = (xtype==etCHARX ? va_arg(ap,int) : *++fmt);
        if( precision>=0 ){
          for(idx=1; idx<precision; idx++) buf[idx] = c;
          length = precision;
        }else{
          length =1;
        }
        bufpt = buf;
        break;
      case etSTRING:
      case etDYNSTRING:
        bufpt = va_arg(ap,char*);
        if( bufpt==0 ){
          bufpt = "";
        }else if( xtype==etDYNSTRING ){
          zExtra = bufpt;
        }
        length = strlen(bufpt);
        if( precision>=0 && precision<length ) length = precision;
        break;
      case etSQLESCAPE:
      case etSQLESCAPE2:
      case etSQLESCAPE3: {
        int i, j, n, ch, isnull;
        int needQuote;
        char q = ((xtype==etSQLESCAPE3)?'"':'\'');   /* Quote character */
        char *escarg = va_arg(ap,char*);
        isnull = escarg==0;
        if( isnull ) escarg = (xtype==etSQLESCAPE2 ? "NULL" : "(NULL)");
        for(i=n=0; (ch=escarg[i])!=0; i++){
          if( ch==q )  n++;
        }
        needQuote = !isnull && xtype==etSQLESCAPE2;
        n += i + 1 + needQuote*2;
        if( n>etBUFSIZE ){
          bufpt = zExtra = sqlite3_malloc( n );
          if( bufpt==0 ) return;
        }else{
          bufpt = buf;
        }
        j = 0;
        if( needQuote ) bufpt[j++] = q;
        for(i=0; (ch=escarg[i])!=0; i++){
          bufpt[j++] = ch;
          if( ch==q ) bufpt[j++] = ch;
        }
        if( needQuote ) bufpt[j++] = q;
        bufpt[j] = 0;
        length = j;
        /* The precision is ignored on %q and %Q */
        /* if( precision>=0 && precision<length ) length = precision; */
        break;
      }
      case etTOKEN: {
        Token *pToken = va_arg(ap, Token*);
        if( pToken && pToken->z ){
          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, (const char*)pToken->z, pToken->n);
        }
        length = width = 0;
        break;
      }
      case etSRCLIST: {
        SrcList *pSrc = va_arg(ap, SrcList*);
        int k = va_arg(ap, int);
        struct SrcList_item *pItem = &pSrc->a[k];
        assert( k>=0 && k<pSrc->nSrc );
        if( pItem->zDatabase && pItem->zDatabase[0] ){
          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, pItem->zDatabase, -1);
          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, ".", 1);
        }
        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, pItem->zName, -1);
        length = width = 0;
        break;
      }
    }/* End switch over the format type */
    /*
    ** The text of the conversion is pointed to by "bufpt" and is
    ** "length" characters long.  The field width is "width".  Do
    ** the output.
    */
    if( !flag_leftjustify ){
      register int nspace;
      nspace = width-length;
      if( nspace>0 ){
        appendSpace(pAccum, nspace);
      }
    }
    if( length>0 ){
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, bufpt, length);
    }
    if( flag_leftjustify ){
      register int nspace;
      nspace = width-length;
      if( nspace>0 ){
        appendSpace(pAccum, nspace);
      }
    }
    if( zExtra ){
      sqlite3_free(zExtra);
    }
  }/* End for loop over the format string */
} /* End of function */

/*
** Append N bytes of text from z to the StrAccum object.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum *p, const char *z, int N){
  if( p->tooBig | p->mallocFailed ){
    return;
  }
  if( N<0 ){
    N = strlen(z);
  }
  if( N==0 ){
    return;
  }
  if( p->nChar+N >= p->nAlloc ){
    char *zNew;
    if( !p->useMalloc ){
      p->tooBig = 1;
      N = p->nAlloc - p->nChar - 1;
      if( N<=0 ){
        return;
      }
    }else{
      p->nAlloc += p->nAlloc + N + 1;
      if( p->nAlloc > SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH ){
        p->nAlloc = SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH;
        if( p->nChar+N >= p->nAlloc ){
          sqlite3StrAccumReset(p);
          p->tooBig = 1;
          return;
        }
      }
      zNew = sqlite3_malloc( p->nAlloc );
      if( zNew ){
        memcpy(zNew, p->zText, p->nChar);
        sqlite3StrAccumReset(p);
        p->zText = zNew;
      }else{
        p->mallocFailed = 1;
        sqlite3StrAccumReset(p);
        return;
      }
    }
  }
  memcpy(&p->zText[p->nChar], z, N);
  p->nChar += N;
}

/*
** Finish off a string by making sure it is zero-terminated.
** Return a pointer to the resulting string.  Return a NULL
** pointer if any kind of error was encountered.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum *p){
  if( p->zText ){
    p->zText[p->nChar] = 0;
    if( p->useMalloc && p->zText==p->zBase ){
      p->zText = sqlite3_malloc( p->nChar+1 );
      if( p->zText ){
        memcpy(p->zText, p->zBase, p->nChar+1);
      }else{
        p->mallocFailed = 1;
      }
    }
  }
  return p->zText;
}

/*
** Reset an StrAccum string.  Reclaim all malloced memory.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum *p){
  if( p->zText!=p->zBase ){
    sqlite3_free(p->zText);
    p->zText = 0;
  }
}

/*
** Initialize a string accumulator
*/
static void sqlite3StrAccumInit(StrAccum *p, char *zBase, int n){
  p->zText = p->zBase = zBase;
  p->nChar = 0;
  p->nAlloc = n;
  p->useMalloc = 1;
  p->tooBig = 0;
  p->mallocFailed = 0;
}

/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().  Use the internal
** %-conversion extensions.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3 *db, const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
  char *z;
  char zBase[SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE];
  StrAccum acc;
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, zBase, sizeof(zBase));
  vxprintf(&acc, 1, zFormat, ap);
  z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  if( acc.mallocFailed && db ){
    db->mallocFailed = 1;
  }
  return z;
}

/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().  Use the internal
** %-conversion extensions.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3MPrintf(sqlite3 *db, const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  char *z;
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  z = sqlite3VMPrintf(db, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  return z;
}

/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqlite3_malloc().  Omit the internal
** %-conversion extensions.
*/
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_vmprintf(const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
  char *z;
  char zBase[SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE];
  StrAccum acc;
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, zBase, sizeof(zBase));
  vxprintf(&acc, 0, zFormat, ap);
  z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  return z;
}

/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqlite3_malloc()().  Omit the internal
** %-conversion extensions.
*/
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_mprintf(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  char *z;
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  z = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  return z;
}

/*
** sqlite3_snprintf() works like snprintf() except that it ignores the
** current locale settings.  This is important for SQLite because we
** are not able to use a "," as the decimal point in place of "." as
** specified by some locales.
*/
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int n, char *zBuf, const char *zFormat, ...){
  char *z;
  va_list ap;
  StrAccum acc;

  if( n<=0 ){
    return zBuf;
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, zBuf, n);
  acc.useMalloc = 0;
  va_start(ap,zFormat);
  vxprintf(&acc, 0, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  return z;
}

#if defined(SQLITE_TEST) || defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_MEMDEBUG)
/*
** A version of printf() that understands %lld.  Used for debugging.
** The printf() built into some versions of windows does not understand %lld
** and segfaults if you give it a long long int.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  StrAccum acc;
  char zBuf[500];
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf));
  acc.useMalloc = 0;
  va_start(ap,zFormat);
  vxprintf(&acc, 0, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  fprintf(stdout,"%s", zBuf);
  fflush(stdout);
}
#endif

/************** End of printf.c **********************************************/
/************** Begin file random.c ******************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains code to implement a pseudo-random number
** generator (PRNG) for SQLite.
**
** Random numbers are used by some of the database backends in order
** to generate random integer keys for tables or random filenames.
**
** $Id: random.c,v 1.21 2008/01/16 17:46:38 drh Exp $
*/


/* All threads share a single random number generator.
** This structure is the current state of the generator.
*/
static struct sqlite3PrngType {
  unsigned char isInit;          /* True if initialized */
  unsigned char i, j;            /* State variables */
  unsigned char s[256];          /* State variables */
} sqlite3Prng;

/*
** Get a single 8-bit random value from the RC4 PRNG.  The Mutex
** must be held while executing this routine.
**
** Why not just use a library random generator like lrand48() for this?
** Because the OP_NewRowid opcode in the VDBE depends on having a very
** good source of random numbers.  The lrand48() library function may
** well be good enough.  But maybe not.  Or maybe lrand48() has some
** subtle problems on some systems that could cause problems.  It is hard
** to know.  To minimize the risk of problems due to bad lrand48()
** implementations, SQLite uses this random number generator based
** on RC4, which we know works very well.
**
** (Later):  Actually, OP_NewRowid does not depend on a good source of
** randomness any more.  But we will leave this code in all the same.
*/
static int randomByte(void){
  unsigned char t;


  /* Initialize the state of the random number generator once,
  ** the first time this routine is called.  The seed value does
  ** not need to contain a lot of randomness since we are not
  ** trying to do secure encryption or anything like that...
  **
  ** Nothing in this file or anywhere else in SQLite does any kind of
  ** encryption.  The RC4 algorithm is being used as a PRNG (pseudo-random
  ** number generator) not as an encryption device.
  */
  if( !sqlite3Prng.isInit ){
    int i;
    char k[256];
    sqlite3Prng.j = 0;
    sqlite3Prng.i = 0;
    sqlite3OsRandomness(sqlite3_vfs_find(0), 256, k);
    for(i=0; i<256; i++){
      sqlite3Prng.s[i] = i;
    }
    for(i=0; i<256; i++){
      sqlite3Prng.j += sqlite3Prng.s[i] + k[i];
      t = sqlite3Prng.s[sqlite3Prng.j];
      sqlite3Prng.s[sqlite3Prng.j] = sqlite3Prng.s[i];
      sqlite3Prng.s[i] = t;
    }
    sqlite3Prng.isInit = 1;
  }

  /* Generate and return single random byte
  */
  sqlite3Prng.i++;
  t = sqlite3Prng.s[sqlite3Prng.i];
  sqlite3Prng.j += t;
  sqlite3Prng.s[sqlite3Prng.i] = sqlite3Prng.s[sqlite3Prng.j];
  sqlite3Prng.s[sqlite3Prng.j] = t;
  t += sqlite3Prng.s[sqlite3Prng.i];
  return sqlite3Prng.s[t];
}

/*
** Return N random bytes.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Randomness(int N, void *pBuf){
  unsigned char *zBuf = pBuf;
  static sqlite3_mutex *mutex = 0;
  if( mutex==0 ){
    mutex = sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG);
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mutex);
  while( N-- ){
    *(zBuf++) = randomByte();
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mutex);
}

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
/*
** For testing purposes, we sometimes want to preserve the state of
** PRNG and restore the PRNG to its saved state at a later time.
*/
static struct sqlite3PrngType sqlite3SavedPrng;
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SavePrngState(void){
  memcpy(&sqlite3SavedPrng, &sqlite3Prng, sizeof(sqlite3Prng));
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RestorePrngState(void){
  memcpy(&sqlite3Prng, &sqlite3SavedPrng, sizeof(sqlite3Prng));
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResetPrngState(void){
  sqlite3Prng.isInit = 0;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_TEST */

/************** End of random.c **********************************************/
/************** Begin file utf.c *********************************************/
/*
** 2004 April 13
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains routines used to translate between UTF-8, 
** UTF-16, UTF-16BE, and UTF-16LE.
**
** $Id: utf.c,v 1.59 2007/10/03 08:46:45 danielk1977 Exp $
**
** Notes on UTF-8:
**
**   Byte-0    Byte-1    Byte-2    Byte-3    Value
**  0xxxxxxx                                 00000000 00000000 0xxxxxxx
**  110yyyyy  10xxxxxx                       00000000 00000yyy yyxxxxxx
**  1110zzzz  10yyyyyy  10xxxxxx             00000000 zzzzyyyy yyxxxxxx
**  11110uuu  10uuzzzz  10yyyyyy  10xxxxxx   000uuuuu zzzzyyyy yyxxxxxx
**
**
** Notes on UTF-16:  (with wwww+1==uuuuu)
**
**      Word-0               Word-1          Value
**  110110ww wwzzzzyy   110111yy yyxxxxxx    000uuuuu zzzzyyyy yyxxxxxx
**  zzzzyyyy yyxxxxxx                        00000000 zzzzyyyy yyxxxxxx
**
**
** BOM or Byte Order Mark:
**     0xff 0xfe   little-endian utf-16 follows
**     0xfe 0xff   big-endian utf-16 follows
**
*/
/************** Include vdbeInt.h in the middle of utf.c *********************/
/************** Begin file vdbeInt.h *****************************************/
/*
** 2003 September 6
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This is the header file for information that is private to the
** VDBE.  This information used to all be at the top of the single
** source code file "vdbe.c".  When that file became too big (over
** 6000 lines long) it was split up into several smaller files and
** this header information was factored out.
*/
#ifndef _VDBEINT_H_
#define _VDBEINT_H_

/*
** intToKey() and keyToInt() used to transform the rowid.  But with
** the latest versions of the design they are no-ops.
*/
#define keyToInt(X)   (X)
#define intToKey(X)   (X)


/*
** SQL is translated into a sequence of instructions to be
** executed by a virtual machine.  Each instruction is an instance
** of the following structure.
*/
typedef struct VdbeOp Op;

/*
** Boolean values
*/
typedef unsigned char Bool;

/*
** A cursor is a pointer into a single BTree within a database file.
** The cursor can seek to a BTree entry with a particular key, or
** loop over all entries of the Btree.  You can also insert new BTree
** entries or retrieve the key or data from the entry that the cursor
** is currently pointing to.
** 
** Every cursor that the virtual machine has open is represented by an
** instance of the following structure.
**
** If the Cursor.isTriggerRow flag is set it means that this cursor is
** really a single row that represents the NEW or OLD pseudo-table of
** a row trigger.  The data for the row is stored in Cursor.pData and
** the rowid is in Cursor.iKey.
*/
struct Cursor {
  BtCursor *pCursor;    /* The cursor structure of the backend */
  int iDb;              /* Index of cursor database in db->aDb[] (or -1) */
  i64 lastRowid;        /* Last rowid from a Next or NextIdx operation */
  i64 nextRowid;        /* Next rowid returned by OP_NewRowid */
  Bool zeroed;          /* True if zeroed out and ready for reuse */
  Bool rowidIsValid;    /* True if lastRowid is valid */
  Bool atFirst;         /* True if pointing to first entry */
  Bool useRandomRowid;  /* Generate new record numbers semi-randomly */
  Bool nullRow;         /* True if pointing to a row with no data */
  Bool nextRowidValid;  /* True if the nextRowid field is valid */
  Bool pseudoTable;     /* This is a NEW or OLD pseudo-tables of a trigger */
  Bool deferredMoveto;  /* A call to sqlite3BtreeMoveto() is needed */
  Bool isTable;         /* True if a table requiring integer keys */
  Bool isIndex;         /* True if an index containing keys only - no data */
  u8 bogusIncrKey;      /* Something for pIncrKey to point to if pKeyInfo==0 */
  i64 movetoTarget;     /* Argument to the deferred sqlite3BtreeMoveto() */
  Btree *pBt;           /* Separate file holding temporary table */
  int nData;            /* Number of bytes in pData */
  char *pData;          /* Data for a NEW or OLD pseudo-table */
  i64 iKey;             /* Key for the NEW or OLD pseudo-table row */
  u8 *pIncrKey;         /* Pointer to pKeyInfo->incrKey */
  KeyInfo *pKeyInfo;    /* Info about index keys needed by index cursors */
  int nField;           /* Number of fields in the header */
  i64 seqCount;         /* Sequence counter */
  sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pVtabCursor;  /* The cursor for a virtual table */
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;     /* Module for cursor pVtabCursor */

  /* Cached information about the header for the data record that the
  ** cursor is currently pointing to.  Only valid if cacheValid is true.
  ** aRow might point to (ephemeral) data for the current row, or it might
  ** be NULL.
  */
  int cacheStatus;      /* Cache is valid if this matches Vdbe.cacheCtr */
  int payloadSize;      /* Total number of bytes in the record */
  u32 *aType;           /* Type values for all entries in the record */
  u32 *aOffset;         /* Cached offsets to the start of each columns data */
  u8 *aRow;             /* Data for the current row, if all on one page */
};
typedef struct Cursor Cursor;

/*
** Number of bytes of string storage space available to each stack
** layer without having to malloc.  NBFS is short for Number of Bytes
** For Strings.
*/
#define NBFS 32

/*
** A value for Cursor.cacheValid that means the cache is always invalid.
*/
#define CACHE_STALE 0

/*
** Internally, the vdbe manipulates nearly all SQL values as Mem
** structures. Each Mem struct may cache multiple representations (string,
** integer etc.) of the same value.  A value (and therefore Mem structure)
** has the following properties:
**
** Each value has a manifest type. The manifest type of the value stored
** in a Mem struct is returned by the MemType(Mem*) macro. The type is
** one of SQLITE_NULL, SQLITE_INTEGER, SQLITE_REAL, SQLITE_TEXT or
** SQLITE_BLOB.
*/
struct Mem {
  union {
    i64 i;              /* Integer value. Or FuncDef* when flags==MEM_Agg */
    FuncDef *pDef;      /* Used only when flags==MEM_Agg */
  } u;
  double r;           /* Real value */
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The associated database connection */
  char *z;            /* String or BLOB value */
  int n;              /* Number of characters in string value, excluding '\0' */
  u16 flags;          /* Some combination of MEM_Null, MEM_Str, MEM_Dyn, etc. */
  u8  type;           /* One of SQLITE_NULL, SQLITE_TEXT, SQLITE_INTEGER, etc */
  u8  enc;            /* SQLITE_UTF8, SQLITE_UTF16BE, SQLITE_UTF16LE */
  void (*xDel)(void *);  /* If not null, call this function to delete Mem.z */
  char zShort[NBFS];  /* Space for short strings */
};

/* One or more of the following flags are set to indicate the validOK
** representations of the value stored in the Mem struct.
**
** If the MEM_Null flag is set, then the value is an SQL NULL value.
** No other flags may be set in this case.
**
** If the MEM_Str flag is set then Mem.z points at a string representation.
** Usually this is encoded in the same unicode encoding as the main
** database (see below for exceptions). If the MEM_Term flag is also
** set, then the string is nul terminated. The MEM_Int and MEM_Real 
** flags may coexist with the MEM_Str flag.
**
** Multiple of these values can appear in Mem.flags.  But only one
** at a time can appear in Mem.type.
*/
#define MEM_Null      0x0001   /* Value is NULL */
#define MEM_Str       0x0002   /* Value is a string */
#define MEM_Int       0x0004   /* Value is an integer */
#define MEM_Real      0x0008   /* Value is a real number */
#define MEM_Blob      0x0010   /* Value is a BLOB */

/* Whenever Mem contains a valid string or blob representation, one of
** the following flags must be set to determine the memory management
** policy for Mem.z.  The MEM_Term flag tells us whether or not the
** string is \000 or \u0000 terminated
*/
#define MEM_Term      0x0020   /* String rep is nul terminated */
#define MEM_Dyn       0x0040   /* Need to call sqliteFree() on Mem.z */
#define MEM_Static    0x0080   /* Mem.z points to a static string */
#define MEM_Ephem     0x0100   /* Mem.z points to an ephemeral string */
#define MEM_Short     0x0200   /* Mem.z points to Mem.zShort */
#define MEM_Agg       0x0400   /* Mem.z points to an agg function context */
#define MEM_Zero      0x0800   /* Mem.i contains count of 0s appended to blob */

#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_INCRBLOB
  #undef MEM_Zero
  #define MEM_Zero 0x0000
#endif


/* A VdbeFunc is just a FuncDef (defined in sqliteInt.h) that contains
** additional information about auxiliary information bound to arguments
** of the function.  This is used to implement the sqlite3_get_auxdata()
** and sqlite3_set_auxdata() APIs.  The "auxdata" is some auxiliary data
** that can be associated with a constant argument to a function.  This
** allows functions such as "regexp" to compile their constant regular
** expression argument once and reused the compiled code for multiple
** invocations.
*/
struct VdbeFunc {
  FuncDef *pFunc;               /* The definition of the function */
  int nAux;                     /* Number of entries allocated for apAux[] */
  struct AuxData {
    void *pAux;                   /* Aux data for the i-th argument */
    void (*xDelete)(void *);      /* Destructor for the aux data */
  } apAux[1];                   /* One slot for each function argument */
};

/*
** The "context" argument for a installable function.  A pointer to an
** instance of this structure is the first argument to the routines used
** implement the SQL functions.
**
** There is a typedef for this structure in sqlite.h.  So all routines,
** even the public interface to SQLite, can use a pointer to this structure.
** But this file is the only place where the internal details of this
** structure are known.
**
** This structure is defined inside of vdbeInt.h because it uses substructures
** (Mem) which are only defined there.
*/
struct sqlite3_context {
  FuncDef *pFunc;       /* Pointer to function information.  MUST BE FIRST */
  VdbeFunc *pVdbeFunc;  /* Auxilary data, if created. */
  Mem s;                /* The return value is stored here */
  Mem *pMem;            /* Memory cell used to store aggregate context */
  u8 isError;           /* Set to true for an error */
  CollSeq *pColl;       /* Collating sequence */
};

/*
** A Set structure is used for quick testing to see if a value
** is part of a small set.  Sets are used to implement code like
** this:
**            x.y IN ('hi','hoo','hum')
*/
typedef struct Set Set;
struct Set {
  Hash hash;             /* A set is just a hash table */
  HashElem *prev;        /* Previously accessed hash elemen */
};

/*
** A FifoPage structure holds a single page of valves.  Pages are arranged
** in a list.
*/
typedef struct FifoPage FifoPage;
struct FifoPage {
  int nSlot;         /* Number of entries aSlot[] */
  int iWrite;        /* Push the next value into this entry in aSlot[] */
  int iRead;         /* Read the next value from this entry in aSlot[] */
  FifoPage *pNext;   /* Next page in the fifo */
  i64 aSlot[1];      /* One or more slots for rowid values */
};

/*
** The Fifo structure is typedef-ed in vdbeInt.h.  But the implementation
** of that structure is private to this file.
**
** The Fifo structure describes the entire fifo.  
*/
typedef struct Fifo Fifo;
struct Fifo {
  int nEntry;         /* Total number of entries */
  FifoPage *pFirst;   /* First page on the list */
  FifoPage *pLast;    /* Last page on the list */
};

/*
** A Context stores the last insert rowid, the last statement change count,
** and the current statement change count (i.e. changes since last statement).
** The current keylist is also stored in the context.
** Elements of Context structure type make up the ContextStack, which is
** updated by the ContextPush and ContextPop opcodes (used by triggers).
** The context is pushed before executing a trigger a popped when the
** trigger finishes.
*/
typedef struct Context Context;
struct Context {
  i64 lastRowid;    /* Last insert rowid (sqlite3.lastRowid) */
  int nChange;      /* Statement changes (Vdbe.nChanges)     */
  Fifo sFifo;       /* Records that will participate in a DELETE or UPDATE */
};

/*
** An instance of the virtual machine.  This structure contains the complete
** state of the virtual machine.
**
** The "sqlite3_stmt" structure pointer that is returned by sqlite3_compile()
** is really a pointer to an instance of this structure.
**
** The Vdbe.inVtabMethod variable is set to non-zero for the duration of
** any virtual table method invocations made by the vdbe program. It is
** set to 2 for xDestroy method calls and 1 for all other methods. This
** variable is used for two purposes: to allow xDestroy methods to execute
** "DROP TABLE" statements and to prevent some nasty side effects of
** malloc failure when SQLite is invoked recursively by a virtual table 
** method function.
*/
struct Vdbe {
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The whole database */
  Vdbe *pPrev,*pNext; /* Linked list of VDBEs with the same Vdbe.db */
  int nOp;            /* Number of instructions in the program */
  int nOpAlloc;       /* Number of slots allocated for aOp[] */
  Op *aOp;            /* Space to hold the virtual machine's program */
  int nLabel;         /* Number of labels used */
  int nLabelAlloc;    /* Number of slots allocated in aLabel[] */
  int *aLabel;        /* Space to hold the labels */
  Mem **apArg;        /* Arguments to currently executing user function */
  Mem *aColName;      /* Column names to return */
  int nCursor;        /* Number of slots in apCsr[] */
  Cursor **apCsr;     /* One element of this array for each open cursor */
  int nVar;           /* Number of entries in aVar[] */
  Mem *aVar;          /* Values for the OP_Variable opcode. */
  char **azVar;       /* Name of variables */
  int okVar;          /* True if azVar[] has been initialized */
  int magic;              /* Magic number for sanity checking */
  int nMem;               /* Number of memory locations currently allocated */
  Mem *aMem;              /* The memory locations */
  int nCallback;          /* Number of callbacks invoked so far */
  int cacheCtr;           /* Cursor row cache generation counter */
  Fifo sFifo;             /* A list of ROWIDs */
  int contextStackTop;    /* Index of top element in the context stack */
  int contextStackDepth;  /* The size of the "context" stack */
  Context *contextStack;  /* Stack used by opcodes ContextPush & ContextPop*/
  int pc;                 /* The program counter */
  int rc;                 /* Value to return */
  unsigned uniqueCnt;     /* Used by OP_MakeRecord when P2!=0 */
  int errorAction;        /* Recovery action to do in case of an error */
  int inTempTrans;        /* True if temp database is transactioned */
  int returnStack[25];    /* Return address stack for OP_Gosub & OP_Return */
  int returnDepth;        /* Next unused element in returnStack[] */
  int nResColumn;         /* Number of columns in one row of the result set */
  char **azResColumn;     /* Values for one row of result */ 
  char *zErrMsg;          /* Error message written here */
  Mem *pResultSet;        /* Pointer to an array of results */
  u8 explain;             /* True if EXPLAIN present on SQL command */
  u8 changeCntOn;         /* True to update the change-counter */
  u8 aborted;             /* True if ROLLBACK in another VM causes an abort */
  u8 expired;             /* True if the VM needs to be recompiled */
  u8 minWriteFileFormat;  /* Minimum file format for writable database files */
  u8 inVtabMethod;        /* See comments above */
  int nChange;            /* Number of db changes made since last reset */
  i64 startTime;          /* Time when query started - used for profiling */
  int btreeMask;          /* Bitmask of db->aDb[] entries referenced */
  BtreeMutexArray aMutex; /* An array of Btree used here and needing locks */
  int nSql;             /* Number of bytes in zSql */
  char *zSql;           /* Text of the SQL statement that generated this */
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  FILE *trace;        /* Write an execution trace here, if not NULL */
#endif
  int openedStatement;  /* True if this VM has opened a statement journal */
#ifdef SQLITE_SSE
  int fetchId;          /* Statement number used by sqlite3_fetch_statement */
  int lru;              /* Counter used for LRU cache replacement */
#endif
};

/*
** The following are allowed values for Vdbe.magic
*/
#define VDBE_MAGIC_INIT     0x26bceaa5    /* Building a VDBE program */
#define VDBE_MAGIC_RUN      0xbdf20da3    /* VDBE is ready to execute */
#define VDBE_MAGIC_HALT     0x519c2973    /* VDBE has completed execution */
#define VDBE_MAGIC_DEAD     0xb606c3c8    /* The VDBE has been deallocated */

/*
** Function prototypes
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeFreeCursor(Vdbe *, Cursor*);
void sqliteVdbePopStack(Vdbe*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(Cursor*);
#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(VDBE_PROFILE)
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbePrintOp(FILE*, int, Op*);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(u32);
SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialType(Mem*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSerialPut(unsigned char*, int, Mem*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSerialGet(const unsigned char*, u32, Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeDeleteAuxData(VdbeFunc*, int);

int sqlite2BtreeKeyCompare(BtCursor *, const void *, int, int, int *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeIdxKeyCompare(Cursor*,int,const unsigned char*,int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid(BtCursor *, i64 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MemCompare(const Mem*, const Mem*, const CollSeq*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare(void*,int,const void*,int, const void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeIdxRowidLen(const u8*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeExec(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeList(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeHalt(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(Mem *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemTooBig(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemCopy(Mem*, const Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(Mem*, const Mem*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemMove(Mem*, Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemNulTerminate(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(Mem*, const char*, int, u8, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(Mem*, i64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemSetDouble(Mem*, double);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemSetZeroBlob(Mem*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemMakeWriteable(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemDynamicify(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemStringify(Mem*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE i64 sqlite3VdbeIntValue(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE double sqlite3VdbeRealValue(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeIntegerAffinity(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemNumerify(Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree(BtCursor*,int,int,int,Mem*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(Mem *p);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemFinalize(Mem*, FuncDef*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3OpcodeName(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeOpcodeHasProperty(int, int);

#ifndef NDEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeMemSanity(Mem*);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemTranslate(Mem*, u8);
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbePrintSql(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(Mem *pMem, char *zBuf);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemHandleBom(Mem *pMem);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeFifoInit(Fifo*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeFifoPush(Fifo*, i64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeFifoPop(Fifo*, i64*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeFifoClear(Fifo*);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_INCRBLOB
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3VdbeMemExpandBlob(Mem *);
#else
  #define sqlite3VdbeMemExpandBlob(x) SQLITE_OK
#endif

#endif /* !defined(_VDBEINT_H_) */

/************** End of vdbeInt.h *********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in utf.c ************************/

/*
** The following constant value is used by the SQLITE_BIGENDIAN and
** SQLITE_LITTLEENDIAN macros.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE const int sqlite3one = 1;

/*
** This lookup table is used to help decode the first byte of
** a multi-byte UTF8 character.
*/
static const unsigned char sqlite3UtfTrans1[] = {
  0x00, 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04, 0x05, 0x06, 0x07,
  0x08, 0x09, 0x0a, 0x0b, 0x0c, 0x0d, 0x0e, 0x0f,
  0x10, 0x11, 0x12, 0x13, 0x14, 0x15, 0x16, 0x17,
  0x18, 0x19, 0x1a, 0x1b, 0x1c, 0x1d, 0x1e, 0x1f,
  0x00, 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04, 0x05, 0x06, 0x07,
  0x08, 0x09, 0x0a, 0x0b, 0x0c, 0x0d, 0x0e, 0x0f,
  0x00, 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04, 0x05, 0x06, 0x07,
  0x00, 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00,
};


#define WRITE_UTF8(zOut, c) {                          \
  if( c<0x00080 ){                                     \
    *zOut++ = (c&0xFF);                                \
  }                                                    \
  else if( c<0x00800 ){                                \
    *zOut++ = 0xC0 + ((c>>6)&0x1F);                    \
    *zOut++ = 0x80 + (c & 0x3F);                       \
  }                                                    \
  else if( c<0x10000 ){                                \
    *zOut++ = 0xE0 + ((c>>12)&0x0F);                   \
    *zOut++ = 0x80 + ((c>>6) & 0x3F);                  \
    *zOut++ = 0x80 + (c & 0x3F);                       \
  }else{                                               \
    *zOut++ = 0xF0 + ((c>>18) & 0x07);                 \
    *zOut++ = 0x80 + ((c>>12) & 0x3F);                 \
    *zOut++ = 0x80 + ((c>>6) & 0x3F);                  \
    *zOut++ = 0x80 + (c & 0x3F);                       \
  }                                                    \
}

#define WRITE_UTF16LE(zOut, c) {                                \
  if( c<=0xFFFF ){                                              \
    *zOut++ = (c&0x00FF);                                       \
    *zOut++ = ((c>>8)&0x00FF);                                  \
  }else{                                                        \
    *zOut++ = (((c>>10)&0x003F) + (((c-0x10000)>>10)&0x00C0));  \
    *zOut++ = (0x00D8 + (((c-0x10000)>>18)&0x03));              \
    *zOut++ = (c&0x00FF);                                       \
    *zOut++ = (0x00DC + ((c>>8)&0x03));                         \
  }                                                             \
}

#define WRITE_UTF16BE(zOut, c) {                                \
  if( c<=0xFFFF ){                                              \
    *zOut++ = ((c>>8)&0x00FF);                                  \
    *zOut++ = (c&0x00FF);                                       \
  }else{                                                        \
    *zOut++ = (0x00D8 + (((c-0x10000)>>18)&0x03));              \
    *zOut++ = (((c>>10)&0x003F) + (((c-0x10000)>>10)&0x00C0));  \
    *zOut++ = (0x00DC + ((c>>8)&0x03));                         \
    *zOut++ = (c&0x00FF);                                       \
  }                                                             \
}

#define READ_UTF16LE(zIn, c){                                         \
  c = (*zIn++);                                                       \
  c += ((*zIn++)<<8);                                                 \
  if( c>=0xD800 && c<0xE000 ){                                       \
    int c2 = (*zIn++);                                                \
    c2 += ((*zIn++)<<8);                                              \
    c = (c2&0x03FF) + ((c&0x003F)<<10) + (((c&0x03C0)+0x0040)<<10);   \
    if( (c & 0xFFFF0000)==0 ) c = 0xFFFD;                             \
  }                                                                   \
}

#define READ_UTF16BE(zIn, c){                                         \
  c = ((*zIn++)<<8);                                                  \
  c += (*zIn++);                                                      \
  if( c>=0xD800 && c<0xE000 ){                                       \
    int c2 = ((*zIn++)<<8);                                           \
    c2 += (*zIn++);                                                   \
    c = (c2&0x03FF) + ((c&0x003F)<<10) + (((c&0x03C0)+0x0040)<<10);   \
    if( (c & 0xFFFF0000)==0 ) c = 0xFFFD;                             \
  }                                                                   \
}

/*
** Translate a single UTF-8 character.  Return the unicode value.
**
** During translation, assume that the byte that zTerm points
** is a 0x00.
**
** Write a pointer to the next unread byte back into *pzNext.
**
** Notes On Invalid UTF-8:
**
**  *  This routine never allows a 7-bit character (0x00 through 0x7f) to
**     be encoded as a multi-byte character.  Any multi-byte character that
**     attempts to encode a value between 0x00 and 0x7f is rendered as 0xfffd.
**
**  *  This routine never allows a UTF16 surrogate value to be encoded.
**     If a multi-byte character attempts to encode a value between
**     0xd800 and 0xe000 then it is rendered as 0xfffd.
**
**  *  Bytes in the range of 0x80 through 0xbf which occur as the first
**     byte of a character are interpreted as single-byte characters
**     and rendered as themselves even though they are technically
**     invalid characters.
**
**  *  This routine accepts an infinite number of different UTF8 encodings
**     for unicode values 0x80 and greater.  It do not change over-length
**     encodings to 0xfffd as some systems recommend.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8Read(
  const unsigned char *z,         /* First byte of UTF-8 character */
  const unsigned char *zTerm,     /* Pretend this byte is 0x00 */
  const unsigned char **pzNext    /* Write first byte past UTF-8 char here */
){
  int c = *(z++);
  if( c>=0xc0 ){
    c = sqlite3UtfTrans1[c-0xc0];
    while( z!=zTerm && (*z & 0xc0)==0x80 ){
      c = (c<<6) + (0x3f & *(z++));
    }
    if( c<0x80
        || (c&0xFFFFF800)==0xD800
        || (c&0xFFFFFFFE)==0xFFFE ){  c = 0xFFFD; }
  }
  *pzNext = z;
  return c;
}



/*
** If the TRANSLATE_TRACE macro is defined, the value of each Mem is
** printed on stderr on the way into and out of sqlite3VdbeMemTranslate().
*/ 
/* #define TRANSLATE_TRACE 1 */

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
/*
** This routine transforms the internal text encoding used by pMem to
** desiredEnc. It is an error if the string is already of the desired
** encoding, or if *pMem does not contain a string value.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemTranslate(Mem *pMem, u8 desiredEnc){
  unsigned char zShort[NBFS]; /* Temporary short output buffer */
  int len;                    /* Maximum length of output string in bytes */
  unsigned char *zOut;                  /* Output buffer */
  unsigned char *zIn;                   /* Input iterator */
  unsigned char *zTerm;                 /* End of input */
  unsigned char *z;                     /* Output iterator */
  unsigned int c;

  assert( pMem->db==0 || sqlite3_mutex_held(pMem->db->mutex) );
  assert( pMem->flags&MEM_Str );
  assert( pMem->enc!=desiredEnc );
  assert( pMem->enc!=0 );
  assert( pMem->n>=0 );

#if defined(TRANSLATE_TRACE) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
  {
    char zBuf[100];
    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(pMem, zBuf);
    fprintf(stderr, "INPUT:  %s\n", zBuf);
  }
#endif

  /* If the translation is between UTF-16 little and big endian, then 
  ** all that is required is to swap the byte order. This case is handled
  ** differently from the others.
  */
  if( pMem->enc!=SQLITE_UTF8 && desiredEnc!=SQLITE_UTF8 ){
    u8 temp;
    int rc;
    rc = sqlite3VdbeMemMakeWriteable(pMem);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      assert( rc==SQLITE_NOMEM );
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
    zIn = (u8*)pMem->z;
    zTerm = &zIn[pMem->n];
    while( zIn<zTerm ){
      temp = *zIn;
      *zIn = *(zIn+1);
      zIn++;
      *zIn++ = temp;
    }
    pMem->enc = desiredEnc;
    goto translate_out;
  }

  /* Set len to the maximum number of bytes required in the output buffer. */
  if( desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF8 ){
    /* When converting from UTF-16, the maximum growth results from
    ** translating a 2-byte character to a 4-byte UTF-8 character.
    ** A single byte is required for the output string
    ** nul-terminator.
    */
    len = pMem->n * 2 + 1;
  }else{
    /* When converting from UTF-8 to UTF-16 the maximum growth is caused
    ** when a 1-byte UTF-8 character is translated into a 2-byte UTF-16
    ** character. Two bytes are required in the output buffer for the
    ** nul-terminator.
    */
    len = pMem->n * 2 + 2;
  }

  /* Set zIn to point at the start of the input buffer and zTerm to point 1
  ** byte past the end.
  **
  ** Variable zOut is set to point at the output buffer. This may be space
  ** obtained from sqlite3_malloc(), or Mem.zShort, if it large enough and
  ** not in use, or the zShort array on the stack (see above).
  */
  zIn = (u8*)pMem->z;
  zTerm = &zIn[pMem->n];
  if( len>NBFS ){
    zOut = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(pMem->db, len);
    if( !zOut ){
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
  }else{
    zOut = zShort;
  }
  z = zOut;

  if( pMem->enc==SQLITE_UTF8 ){
    if( desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF16LE ){
      /* UTF-8 -> UTF-16 Little-endian */
      while( zIn<zTerm ){
        c = sqlite3Utf8Read(zIn, zTerm, (const u8**)&zIn);
        WRITE_UTF16LE(z, c);
      }
    }else{
      assert( desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF16BE );
      /* UTF-8 -> UTF-16 Big-endian */
      while( zIn<zTerm ){
        c = sqlite3Utf8Read(zIn, zTerm, (const u8**)&zIn);
        WRITE_UTF16BE(z, c);
      }
    }
    pMem->n = z - zOut;
    *z++ = 0;
  }else{
    assert( desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF8 );
    if( pMem->enc==SQLITE_UTF16LE ){
      /* UTF-16 Little-endian -> UTF-8 */
      while( zIn<zTerm ){
        READ_UTF16LE(zIn, c); 
        WRITE_UTF8(z, c);
      }
    }else{
      /* UTF-16 Little-endian -> UTF-8 */
      while( zIn<zTerm ){
        READ_UTF16BE(zIn, c); 
        WRITE_UTF8(z, c);
      }
    }
    pMem->n = z - zOut;
  }
  *z = 0;
  assert( (pMem->n+(desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF8?1:2))<=len );

  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pMem);
  pMem->flags &= ~(MEM_Static|MEM_Dyn|MEM_Ephem|MEM_Short);
  pMem->enc = desiredEnc;
  if( zOut==zShort ){
    memcpy(pMem->zShort, zOut, len);
    zOut = (u8*)pMem->zShort;
    pMem->flags |= (MEM_Term|MEM_Short);
  }else{
    pMem->flags |= (MEM_Term|MEM_Dyn);
  }
  pMem->z = (char*)zOut;

translate_out:
#if defined(TRANSLATE_TRACE) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
  {
    char zBuf[100];
    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(pMem, zBuf);
    fprintf(stderr, "OUTPUT: %s\n", zBuf);
  }
#endif
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** This routine checks for a byte-order mark at the beginning of the 
** UTF-16 string stored in *pMem. If one is present, it is removed and
** the encoding of the Mem adjusted. This routine does not do any
** byte-swapping, it just sets Mem.enc appropriately.
**
** The allocation (static, dynamic etc.) and encoding of the Mem may be
** changed by this function.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMemHandleBom(Mem *pMem){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  u8 bom = 0;

  if( pMem->n<0 || pMem->n>1 ){
    u8 b1 = *(u8 *)pMem->z;
    u8 b2 = *(((u8 *)pMem->z) + 1);
    if( b1==0xFE && b2==0xFF ){
      bom = SQLITE_UTF16BE;
    }
    if( b1==0xFF && b2==0xFE ){
      bom = SQLITE_UTF16LE;
    }
  }
  
  if( bom ){
    /* This function is called as soon as a string is stored in a Mem*,
    ** from within sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(). At that point it is not possible
    ** for the string to be stored in Mem.zShort, or for it to be stored
    ** in dynamic memory with no destructor.
    */
    assert( !(pMem->flags&MEM_Short) );
    assert( !(pMem->flags&MEM_Dyn) || pMem->xDel );
    if( pMem->flags & MEM_Dyn ){
      void (*xDel)(void*) = pMem->xDel;
      char *z = pMem->z;
      pMem->z = 0;
      pMem->xDel = 0;
      rc = sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(pMem, &z[2], pMem->n-2, bom, 
          SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
      xDel(z);
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(pMem, &pMem->z[2], pMem->n-2, bom, 
          SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
    }
  }
  return rc;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16 */

/*
** pZ is a UTF-8 encoded unicode string. If nByte is less than zero,
** return the number of unicode characters in pZ up to (but not including)
** the first 0x00 byte. If nByte is not less than zero, return the
** number of unicode characters in the first nByte of pZ (or up to 
** the first 0x00, whichever comes first).
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8CharLen(const char *zIn, int nByte){
  int r = 0;
  const u8 *z = (const u8*)zIn;
  const u8 *zTerm;
  if( nByte>=0 ){
    zTerm = &z[nByte];
  }else{
    zTerm = (const u8*)(-1);
  }
  assert( z<=zTerm );
  while( *z!=0 && z<zTerm ){
    SQLITE_SKIP_UTF8(z);
    r++;
  }
  return r;
}

/* This test function is not currently used by the automated test-suite. 
** Hence it is only available in debug builds.
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
/*
** Translate UTF-8 to UTF-8.
**
** This has the effect of making sure that the string is well-formed
** UTF-8.  Miscoded characters are removed.
**
** The translation is done in-place (since it is impossible for the
** correct UTF-8 encoding to be longer than a malformed encoding).
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8To8(unsigned char *zIn){
  unsigned char *zOut = zIn;
  unsigned char *zStart = zIn;
  unsigned char *zTerm;
  u32 c;

  while( zIn[0] ){
    c = sqlite3Utf8Read(zIn, zTerm, (const u8**)&zIn);
    if( c!=0xfffd ){
      WRITE_UTF8(zOut, c);
    }
  }
  *zOut = 0;
  return zOut - zStart;
}
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
/*
** Convert a UTF-16 string in the native encoding into a UTF-8 string.
** Memory to hold the UTF-8 string is obtained from sqlite3_malloc and must
** be freed by the calling function.
**
** NULL is returned if there is an allocation error.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3Utf16to8(sqlite3 *db, const void *z, int nByte){
  Mem m;
  memset(&m, 0, sizeof(m));
  m.db = db;
  sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(&m, z, nByte, SQLITE_UTF16NATIVE, SQLITE_STATIC);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(&m, SQLITE_UTF8);
  if( db->mallocFailed ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(&m);
    m.z = 0;
  }
  assert( (m.flags & MEM_Term)!=0 || db->mallocFailed );
  assert( (m.flags & MEM_Str)!=0 || db->mallocFailed );
  return (m.flags & MEM_Dyn)!=0 ? m.z : sqlite3DbStrDup(db, m.z);
}

/*
** pZ is a UTF-16 encoded unicode string. If nChar is less than zero,
** return the number of bytes up to (but not including), the first pair
** of consecutive 0x00 bytes in pZ. If nChar is not less than zero,
** then return the number of bytes in the first nChar unicode characters
** in pZ (or up until the first pair of 0x00 bytes, whichever comes first).
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf16ByteLen(const void *zIn, int nChar){
  unsigned int c = 1;
  char const *z = zIn;
  int n = 0;
  if( SQLITE_UTF16NATIVE==SQLITE_UTF16BE ){
    /* Using an "if (SQLITE_UTF16NATIVE==SQLITE_UTF16BE)" construct here
    ** and in other parts of this file means that at one branch will
    ** not be covered by coverage testing on any single host. But coverage
    ** will be complete if the tests are run on both a little-endian and 
    ** big-endian host. Because both the UTF16NATIVE and SQLITE_UTF16BE
    ** macros are constant at compile time the compiler can determine
    ** which branch will be followed. It is therefore assumed that no runtime
    ** penalty is paid for this "if" statement.
    */
    while( c && ((nChar<0) || n<nChar) ){
      READ_UTF16BE(z, c);
      n++;
    }
  }else{
    while( c && ((nChar<0) || n<nChar) ){
      READ_UTF16LE(z, c);
      n++;
    }
  }
  return (z-(char const *)zIn)-((c==0)?2:0);
}

#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
/*
** This routine is called from the TCL test function "translate_selftest".
** It checks that the primitives for serializing and deserializing
** characters in each encoding are inverses of each other.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UtfSelfTest(){
  unsigned int i, t;
  unsigned char zBuf[20];
  unsigned char *z;
  unsigned char *zTerm;
  int n;
  unsigned int c;

  for(i=0; i<0x00110000; i++){
    z = zBuf;
    WRITE_UTF8(z, i);
    n = z-zBuf;
    z[0] = 0;
    zTerm = z;
    z = zBuf;
    c = sqlite3Utf8Read(z, zTerm, (const u8**)&z);
    t = i;
    if( i>=0xD800 && i<=0xDFFF ) t = 0xFFFD;
    if( (i&0xFFFFFFFE)==0xFFFE ) t = 0xFFFD;
    assert( c==t );
    assert( (z-zBuf)==n );
  }
  for(i=0; i<0x00110000; i++){
    if( i>=0xD800 && i<0xE000 ) continue;
    z = zBuf;
    WRITE_UTF16LE(z, i);
    n = z-zBuf;
    z[0] = 0;
    z = zBuf;
    READ_UTF16LE(z, c);
    assert( c==i );
    assert( (z-zBuf)==n );
  }
  for(i=0; i<0x00110000; i++){
    if( i>=0xD800 && i<0xE000 ) continue;
    z = zBuf;
    WRITE_UTF16BE(z, i);
    n = z-zBuf;
    z[0] = 0;
    z = zBuf;
    READ_UTF16BE(z, c);
    assert( c==i );
    assert( (z-zBuf)==n );
  }
}
#endif /* SQLITE_TEST */
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16 */

/************** End of utf.c *************************************************/
/************** Begin file util.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** Utility functions used throughout sqlite.
**
** This file contains functions for allocating memory, comparing
** strings, and stuff like that.
**
** $Id: util.c,v 1.216 2008/01/23 03:03:05 drh Exp $
*/


/*
** Set the most recent error code and error string for the sqlite
** handle "db". The error code is set to "err_code".
**
** If it is not NULL, string zFormat specifies the format of the
** error string in the style of the printf functions: The following
** format characters are allowed:
**
**      %s      Insert a string
**      %z      A string that should be freed after use
**      %d      Insert an integer
**      %T      Insert a token
**      %S      Insert the first element of a SrcList
**
** zFormat and any string tokens that follow it are assumed to be
** encoded in UTF-8.
**
** To clear the most recent error for sqlite handle "db", sqlite3Error
** should be called with err_code set to SQLITE_OK and zFormat set
** to NULL.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Error(sqlite3 *db, int err_code, const char *zFormat, ...){
  if( db && (db->pErr || (db->pErr = sqlite3ValueNew(db))!=0) ){
    db->errCode = err_code;
    if( zFormat ){
      char *z;
      va_list ap;
      va_start(ap, zFormat);
      z = sqlite3VMPrintf(db, zFormat, ap);
      va_end(ap);
      sqlite3ValueSetStr(db->pErr, -1, z, SQLITE_UTF8, sqlite3_free);
    }else{
      sqlite3ValueSetStr(db->pErr, 0, 0, SQLITE_UTF8, SQLITE_STATIC);
    }
  }
}

/*
** Add an error message to pParse->zErrMsg and increment pParse->nErr.
** The following formatting characters are allowed:
**
**      %s      Insert a string
**      %z      A string that should be freed after use
**      %d      Insert an integer
**      %T      Insert a token
**      %S      Insert the first element of a SrcList
**
** This function should be used to report any error that occurs whilst
** compiling an SQL statement (i.e. within sqlite3_prepare()). The
** last thing the sqlite3_prepare() function does is copy the error
** stored by this function into the database handle using sqlite3Error().
** Function sqlite3Error() should be used during statement execution
** (sqlite3_step() etc.).
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorMsg(Parse *pParse, const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  pParse->nErr++;
  sqlite3_free(pParse->zErrMsg);
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  pParse->zErrMsg = sqlite3VMPrintf(pParse->db, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  if( pParse->rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    pParse->rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
  }
}

/*
** Clear the error message in pParse, if any
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorClear(Parse *pParse){
  sqlite3_free(pParse->zErrMsg);
  pParse->zErrMsg = 0;
  pParse->nErr = 0;
}

/*
** Convert an SQL-style quoted string into a normal string by removing
** the quote characters.  The conversion is done in-place.  If the
** input does not begin with a quote character, then this routine
** is a no-op.
**
** 2002-Feb-14: This routine is extended to remove MS-Access style
** brackets from around identifers.  For example:  "[a-b-c]" becomes
** "a-b-c".
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Dequote(char *z){
  int quote;
  int i, j;
  if( z==0 ) return;
  quote = z[0];
  switch( quote ){
    case '\'':  break;
    case '"':   break;
    case '`':   break;                /* For MySQL compatibility */
    case '[':   quote = ']';  break;  /* For MS SqlServer compatibility */
    default:    return;
  }
  for(i=1, j=0; z[i]; i++){
    if( z[i]==quote ){
      if( z[i+1]==quote ){
        z[j++] = quote;
        i++;
      }else{
        z[j++] = 0;
        break;
      }
    }else{
      z[j++] = z[i];
    }
  }
}

/* An array to map all upper-case characters into their corresponding
** lower-case character. 
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3UpperToLower[] = {
#ifdef SQLITE_ASCII
      0,  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
     18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
     36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53,
     54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,
    104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,
    122, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,
    108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,
    126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143,
    144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,
    162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,
    180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,
    198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,
    216,217,218,219,220,221,222,223,224,225,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,
    234,235,236,237,238,239,240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,250,251,
    252,253,254,255
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_EBCDIC
      0,  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, /* 0x */
     16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, /* 1x */
     32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, /* 2x */
     48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, /* 3x */
     64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, /* 4x */
     80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, /* 5x */
     96, 97, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,106,107,108,109,110,111, /* 6x */
    112, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89,122,123,124,125,126,127, /* 7x */
    128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143, /* 8x */
    144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,156,159, /* 9x */
    160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,140,141,142,175, /* Ax */
    176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191, /* Bx */
    192,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,202,203,204,205,206,207, /* Cx */
    208,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,218,219,220,221,222,223, /* Dx */
    224,225,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,232,203,204,205,206,207, /* Ex */
    239,240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,219,220,221,222,255, /* Fx */
#endif
};
#define UpperToLower sqlite3UpperToLower

/*
** Some systems have stricmp().  Others have strcasecmp().  Because
** there is no consistency, we will define our own.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StrICmp(const char *zLeft, const char *zRight){
  register unsigned char *a, *b;
  a = (unsigned char *)zLeft;
  b = (unsigned char *)zRight;
  while( *a!=0 && UpperToLower[*a]==UpperToLower[*b]){ a++; b++; }
  return UpperToLower[*a] - UpperToLower[*b];
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StrNICmp(const char *zLeft, const char *zRight, int N){
  register unsigned char *a, *b;
  a = (unsigned char *)zLeft;
  b = (unsigned char *)zRight;
  while( N-- > 0 && *a!=0 && UpperToLower[*a]==UpperToLower[*b]){ a++; b++; }
  return N<0 ? 0 : UpperToLower[*a] - UpperToLower[*b];
}

/*
** Return TRUE if z is a pure numeric string.  Return FALSE if the
** string contains any character which is not part of a number. If
** the string is numeric and contains the '.' character, set *realnum
** to TRUE (otherwise FALSE).
**
** An empty string is considered non-numeric.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsNumber(const char *z, int *realnum, u8 enc){
  int incr = (enc==SQLITE_UTF8?1:2);
  if( enc==SQLITE_UTF16BE ) z++;
  if( *z=='-' || *z=='+' ) z += incr;
  if( !isdigit(*(u8*)z) ){
    return 0;
  }
  z += incr