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sqlite3.c

/******************************************************************************
** This file is an amalgamation of many separate C source files from SQLite
** version 3.6.2.  By combining all the individual C code files into this 
** single large file, the entire code can be compiled as a one translation
** unit.  This allows many compilers to do optimizations that would not be
** possible if the files were compiled separately.  Performance improvements
** of 5% are more are commonly seen when SQLite is compiled as a single
** translation unit.
**
** This file is all you need to compile SQLite.  To use SQLite in other
** programs, you need this file and the "sqlite3.h" header file that defines
** the programming interface to the SQLite library.  (If you do not have 
** the "sqlite3.h" header file at hand, you will find a copy in the first
** 6312 lines past this header comment.)  Additional code files may be
** needed if you want a wrapper to interface SQLite with your choice of
** programming language.  The code for the "sqlite3" command-line shell
** is also in a separate file.  This file contains only code for the core
** SQLite library.
**
** This amalgamation was generated on 2008-08-30 16:23:32 UTC.
*/
#define SQLITE_CORE 1
#define SQLITE_AMALGAMATION 1
#ifndef SQLITE_PRIVATE
# define SQLITE_PRIVATE static
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_API
# define SQLITE_API
#endif
/************** Begin file sqliteInt.h ***************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** Internal interface definitions for SQLite.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqliteInt.h,v 1.764 2008/08/29 18:42:30 rse Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITEINT_H_
#define _SQLITEINT_H_

/*
** Include the configuration header output by 'configure' if we're using the
** autoconf-based build
*/
#ifdef _HAVE_SQLITE_CONFIG_H
#include "config.h"
#endif

/************** Include sqliteLimit.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ***********/
/************** Begin file sqliteLimit.h *************************************/
/*
** 2007 May 7
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** 
** This file defines various limits of what SQLite can process.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqliteLimit.h,v 1.8 2008/03/26 15:56:22 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** The maximum length of a TEXT or BLOB in bytes.   This also
** limits the size of a row in a table or index.
**
** The hard limit is the ability of a 32-bit signed integer
** to count the size: 2^31-1 or 2147483647.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH
# define SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH 1000000000
#endif

/*
** This is the maximum number of
**
**    * Columns in a table
**    * Columns in an index
**    * Columns in a view
**    * Terms in the SET clause of an UPDATE statement
**    * Terms in the result set of a SELECT statement
**    * Terms in the GROUP BY or ORDER BY clauses of a SELECT statement.
**    * Terms in the VALUES clause of an INSERT statement
**
** The hard upper limit here is 32676.  Most database people will
** tell you that in a well-normalized database, you usually should
** not have more than a dozen or so columns in any table.  And if
** that is the case, there is no point in having more than a few
** dozen values in any of the other situations described above.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN
# define SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN 2000
#endif

/*
** The maximum length of a single SQL statement in bytes.
**
** It used to be the case that setting this value to zero would
** turn the limit off.  That is no longer true.  It is not possible
** to turn this limit off.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH
# define SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH 1000000000
#endif

/*
** The maximum depth of an expression tree. This is limited to 
** some extent by SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH. But sometime you might 
** want to place more severe limits on the complexity of an 
** expression.
**
** A value of 0 used to mean that the limit was not enforced.
** But that is no longer true.  The limit is now strictly enforced
** at all times.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH
# define SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH 1000
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of terms in a compound SELECT statement.
** The code generator for compound SELECT statements does one
** level of recursion for each term.  A stack overflow can result
** if the number of terms is too large.  In practice, most SQL
** never has more than 3 or 4 terms.  Use a value of 0 to disable
** any limit on the number of terms in a compount SELECT.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_COMPOUND_SELECT
# define SQLITE_MAX_COMPOUND_SELECT 500
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of opcodes in a VDBE program.
** Not currently enforced.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_VDBE_OP
# define SQLITE_MAX_VDBE_OP 25000
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of arguments to an SQL function.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_FUNCTION_ARG
# define SQLITE_MAX_FUNCTION_ARG 100
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of in-memory pages to use for the main database
** table and for temporary tables.  The SQLITE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE  2000
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_TEMP_CACHE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_TEMP_CACHE_SIZE  500
#endif

/*
** The maximum number of attached databases.  This must be between 0
** and 30.  The upper bound on 30 is because a 32-bit integer bitmap
** is used internally to track attached databases.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED
# define SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED 10
#endif


/*
** The maximum value of a ?nnn wildcard that the parser will accept.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER
# define SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER 999
#endif

/* Maximum page size.  The upper bound on this value is 32768.  This a limit
** imposed by the necessity of storing the value in a 2-byte unsigned integer
** and the fact that the page size must be a power of 2.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE 32768
#endif


/*
** The default size of a database page.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE 1024
#endif
#if SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE>SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
# undef SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
#endif

/*
** Ordinarily, if no value is explicitly provided, SQLite creates databases
** with page size SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE. However, based on certain
** device characteristics (sector-size and atomic write() support),
** SQLite may choose a larger value. This constant is the maximum value
** SQLite will choose on its own.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE 8192
#endif
#if SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE>SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
# undef SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE
# define SQLITE_MAX_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE
#endif


/*
** Maximum number of pages in one database file.
**
** This is really just the default value for the max_page_count pragma.
** This value can be lowered (or raised) at run-time using that the
** max_page_count macro.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_COUNT
# define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_COUNT 1073741823
#endif

/*
** Maximum length (in bytes) of the pattern in a LIKE or GLOB
** operator.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH
# define SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH 50000
#endif

/************** End of sqliteLimit.h *****************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/

/* Disable nuisance warnings on Borland compilers */
#if defined(__BORLANDC__)
#pragma warn -rch /* unreachable code */
#pragma warn -ccc /* Condition is always true or false */
#pragma warn -aus /* Assigned value is never used */
#pragma warn -csu /* Comparing signed and unsigned */
#pragma warn -spa /* Suspicous pointer arithmetic */
#endif

/* Needed for various definitions... */
#ifndef _GNU_SOURCE
# define _GNU_SOURCE
#endif

/*
** Include standard header files as necessary
*/
#ifdef HAVE_STDINT_H
#include <stdint.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_INTTYPES_H
#include <inttypes.h>
#endif

/*
** A macro used to aid in coverage testing.  When doing coverage
** testing, the condition inside the argument must be evaluated 
** both true and false in order to get full branch coverage.
** This macro can be inserted to ensure adequate test coverage
** in places where simple condition/decision coverage is inadequate.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_COVERAGE_TEST
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3Coverage(int);
# define testcase(X)  if( X ){ sqlite3Coverage(__LINE__); }
#else
# define testcase(X)
#endif

/*
** The ALWAYS and NEVER macros surround boolean expressions which 
** are intended to always be true or false, respectively.  Such
** expressions could be omitted from the code completely.  But they
** are included in a few cases in order to enhance the resilience
** of SQLite to unexpected behavior - to make the code "self-healing"
** or "ductile" rather than being "brittle" and crashing at the first
** hint of unplanned behavior.
**
** When doing coverage testing ALWAYS and NEVER are hard-coded to
** be true and false so that the unreachable code then specify will
** not be counted as untested code.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_COVERAGE_TEST
# define ALWAYS(X)      (1)
# define NEVER(X)       (0)
#else
# define ALWAYS(X)      (X)
# define NEVER(X)       (X)
#endif

/*
** The macro unlikely() is a hint that surrounds a boolean
** expression that is usually false.  Macro likely() surrounds
** a boolean expression that is usually true.  GCC is able to
** use these hints to generate better code, sometimes.
*/
#if defined(__GNUC__) && 0
# define likely(X)    __builtin_expect((X),1)
# define unlikely(X)  __builtin_expect((X),0)
#else
# define likely(X)    !!(X)
# define unlikely(X)  !!(X)
#endif

/*
 * This macro is used to "hide" some ugliness in casting an int
 * value to a ptr value under the MSVC 64-bit compiler.   Casting
 * non 64-bit values to ptr types results in a "hard" error with 
 * the MSVC 64-bit compiler which this attempts to avoid.  
 *
 * A simple compiler pragma or casting sequence could not be found
 * to correct this in all situations, so this macro was introduced.
 *
 * It could be argued that the intptr_t type could be used in this
 * case, but that type is not available on all compilers, or 
 * requires the #include of specific headers which differs between
 * platforms.
 */
#define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)   ((void*)&((char*)0)[X])
#define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)   ((int)(((char*)X)-(char*)0))

/*
** These #defines should enable >2GB file support on Posix if the
** underlying operating system supports it.  If the OS lacks
** large file support, or if the OS is windows, these should be no-ops.
**
** Ticket #2739:  The _LARGEFILE_SOURCE macro must appear before any
** system #includes.  Hence, this block of code must be the very first
** code in all source files.
**
** Large file support can be disabled using the -DSQLITE_DISABLE_LFS switch
** on the compiler command line.  This is necessary if you are compiling
** on a recent machine (ex: RedHat 7.2) but you want your code to work
** on an older machine (ex: RedHat 6.0).  If you compile on RedHat 7.2
** without this option, LFS is enable.  But LFS does not exist in the kernel
** in RedHat 6.0, so the code won't work.  Hence, for maximum binary
** portability you should omit LFS.
**
** Similar is true for MacOS.  LFS is only supported on MacOS 9 and later.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DISABLE_LFS
# define _LARGE_FILE       1
# ifndef _FILE_OFFSET_BITS
#   define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
# endif
# define _LARGEFILE_SOURCE 1
#endif


/*
** The SQLITE_THREADSAFE macro must be defined as either 0 or 1.
** Older versions of SQLite used an optional THREADSAFE macro.
** We support that for legacy
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_THREADSAFE)
#if defined(THREADSAFE)
# define SQLITE_THREADSAFE THREADSAFE
#else
# define SQLITE_THREADSAFE 1
#endif
#endif

/*
** Exactly one of the following macros must be defined in order to
** specify which memory allocation subsystem to use.
**
**     SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC          // Use normal system malloc()
**     SQLITE_MEMDEBUG               // Debugging version of system malloc()
**     SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE            // internal allocator #1
**     SQLITE_MMAP_HEAP_SIZE         // internal mmap() allocator
**     SQLITE_POW2_MEMORY_SIZE       // internal power-of-two allocator
**
** If none of the above are defined, then set SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC as
** the default.
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC)+defined(SQLITE_MEMDEBUG)+\
    defined(SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE)+defined(SQLITE_MMAP_HEAP_SIZE)+\
    defined(SQLITE_POW2_MEMORY_SIZE)>1
# error "At most one of the following compile-time configuration options\
 is allows: SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC, SQLITE_MEMDEBUG, SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE,\
 SQLITE_MMAP_HEAP_SIZE, SQLITE_POW2_MEMORY_SIZE"
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC)+defined(SQLITE_MEMDEBUG)+\
    defined(SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE)+defined(SQLITE_MMAP_HEAP_SIZE)+\
    defined(SQLITE_POW2_MEMORY_SIZE)==0
# define SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC 1
#endif

/*
** If SQLITE_MALLOC_SOFT_LIMIT is defined, then try to keep the
** sizes of memory allocations below this value where possible.
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_POW2_MEMORY_SIZE) && !defined(SQLITE_MALLOC_SOFT_LIMIT)
# define SQLITE_MALLOC_SOFT_LIMIT 1024
#endif

/*
** We need to define _XOPEN_SOURCE as follows in order to enable
** recursive mutexes on most unix systems.  But Mac OS X is different.
** The _XOPEN_SOURCE define causes problems for Mac OS X we are told,
** so it is omitted there.  See ticket #2673.
**
** Later we learn that _XOPEN_SOURCE is poorly or incorrectly
** implemented on some systems.  So we avoid defining it at all
** if it is already defined or if it is unneeded because we are
** not doing a threadsafe build.  Ticket #2681.
**
** See also ticket #2741.
*/
#if !defined(_XOPEN_SOURCE) && !defined(__DARWIN__) && !defined(__APPLE__) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE
#  define _XOPEN_SOURCE 500  /* Needed to enable pthread recursive mutexes */
#endif

/*
** The TCL headers are only needed when compiling the TCL bindings.
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_TCL) || defined(TCLSH)
# include <tcl.h>
#endif

/*
** Many people are failing to set -DNDEBUG=1 when compiling SQLite.
** Setting NDEBUG makes the code smaller and run faster.  So the following
** lines are added to automatically set NDEBUG unless the -DSQLITE_DEBUG=1
** option is set.  Thus NDEBUG becomes an opt-in rather than an opt-out
** feature.
*/
#if !defined(NDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) 
# define NDEBUG 1
#endif

/************** Include sqlite3.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ***************/
/************** Begin file sqlite3.h *****************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This header file defines the interface that the SQLite library
** presents to client programs.  If a C-function, structure, datatype,
** or constant definition does not appear in this file, then it is
** not a published API of SQLite, is subject to change without
** notice, and should not be referenced by programs that use SQLite.
**
** Some of the definitions that are in this file are marked as
** "experimental".  Experimental interfaces are normally new
** features recently added to SQLite.  We do not anticipate changes
** to experimental interfaces but reserve to make minor changes if
** experience from use "in the wild" suggest such changes are prudent.
**
** The official C-language API documentation for SQLite is derived
** from comments in this file.  This file is the authoritative source
** on how SQLite interfaces are suppose to operate.
**
** The name of this file under configuration management is "sqlite.h.in".
** The makefile makes some minor changes to this file (such as inserting
** the version number) and changes its name to "sqlite3.h" as
** part of the build process.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqlite.h.in,v 1.394 2008/08/25 21:23:02 drh Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE3_H_
#define _SQLITE3_H_
#include <stdarg.h>     /* Needed for the definition of va_list */

/*
** Make sure we can call this stuff from C++.
*/
#if 0
extern "C" {
#endif


/*
** Add the ability to override 'extern'
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_EXTERN
# define SQLITE_EXTERN extern
#endif

/*
** Add the ability to mark interfaces as deprecated.
*/
#if (__GNUC__ > 3 || (__GNUC__ == 3 && __GNUC_MINOR__ >= 1))
  /* GCC added the deprecated attribute in version 3.1 */
  #define SQLITE_DEPRECATED __attribute__ ((deprecated))
#elif defined(_MSC_VER)
  #define SQLITE_DEPRECATED __declspec(deprecated)
#else
  #define SQLITE_DEPRECATED
#endif

/*
** Add the ability to mark interfaces as experimental.
*/
#if (__GNUC__ > 4 || (__GNUC__ == 4 && __GNUC_MINOR__ >= 3))
  /* I can confirm that it does not work on version 4.1.0... */
  /* First appears in GCC docs for version 4.3.0 */
  #define SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL __attribute__ ((warning ("is experimental")))
#elif defined(_MSC_VER) && (_MSC_VER >= 1400)
  #define SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL __declspec(deprecated("was declared experimental"))
#else
  #define SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL
#endif

/*
** Ensure these symbols were not defined by some previous header file.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_VERSION
# undef SQLITE_VERSION
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER
# undef SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER
#endif

/*
** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Library Version Numbers {H10010} <S60100>
**
** The SQLITE_VERSION and SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER #defines in
** the sqlite3.h file specify the version of SQLite with which
** that header file is associated.
**
** The "version" of SQLite is a string of the form "X.Y.Z".
** The phrase "alpha" or "beta" might be appended after the Z.
** The X value is major version number always 3 in SQLite3.
** The X value only changes when backwards compatibility is
** broken and we intend to never break backwards compatibility.
** The Y value is the minor version number and only changes when
** there are major feature enhancements that are forwards compatible
** but not backwards compatible.
** The Z value is the release number and is incremented with
** each release but resets back to 0 whenever Y is incremented.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()] and [sqlite3_libversion_number()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H10011} The SQLITE_VERSION #define in the sqlite3.h header file shall
**          evaluate to a string literal that is the SQLite version
**          with which the header file is associated.
**
** {H10014} The SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER #define shall resolve to an integer
**          with the value (X*1000000 + Y*1000 + Z) where X, Y, and Z
**          are the major version, minor version, and release number.
*/
#define SQLITE_VERSION         "3.6.2"
#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER  3006002

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers {H10020} <S60100>
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version
**
** These features provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION]
** and [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER] #defines in the header, but are associated
** with the library instead of the header file.  Cautious programmers might
** include a check in their application to verify that
** sqlite3_libversion_number() always returns the value
** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER].
**
** The sqlite3_libversion() function returns the same information as is
** in the sqlite3_version[] string constant.  The function is provided
** for use in DLLs since DLL users usually do not have direct access to string
** constants within the DLL.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H10021} The [sqlite3_libversion_number()] interface shall return
**          an integer equal to [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER].
**
** {H10022} The [sqlite3_version] string constant shall contain
**          the text of the [SQLITE_VERSION] string.
**
** {H10023} The [sqlite3_libversion()] function shall return
**          a pointer to the [sqlite3_version] string constant.
*/
SQLITE_API const char sqlite3_version[];
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_libversion(void);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_libversion_number(void);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Test To See If The Library Is Threadsafe {H10100} <S60100>
**
** SQLite can be compiled with or without mutexes.  When
** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] C preprocessor macro is true, mutexes
** are enabled and SQLite is threadsafe.  When that macro is false,
** the mutexes are omitted.  Without the mutexes, it is not safe
** to use SQLite concurrently from more than one thread.
**
** Enabling mutexes incurs a measurable performance penalty.
** So if speed is of utmost importance, it makes sense to disable
** the mutexes.  But for maximum safety, mutexes should be enabled.
** The default behavior is for mutexes to be enabled.
**
** This interface can be used by a program to make sure that the
** version of SQLite that it is linking against was compiled with
** the desired setting of the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] macro.
**
** This interface only reports on the compile-time mutex setting
** of the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] flag.  If SQLite is compiled with
** SQLITE_THREADSAFE=1 then mutexes are enabled by default but
** can be fully or partially disabled using a call to [sqlite3_config()]
** with the verbs [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD], [SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD],
** or [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX].  The return value of this function shows
** only the default compile-time setting, not any run-time changes
** to that setting.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H10101} The [sqlite3_threadsafe()] function shall return nonzero if
**          SQLite was compiled with the its mutexes enabled by default
**          or zero if SQLite was compiled such that mutexes are
**          permanently disabled.
**
** {H10102} The value returned by the [sqlite3_threadsafe()] function
**          shall not change when mutex setting are modified at
**          runtime using the [sqlite3_config()] interface and 
**          especially the [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD],
**          [SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD], [SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED],
**          and [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX] verbs.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_threadsafe(void);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Handle {H12000} <S40200>
** KEYWORDS: {database connection} {database connections}
**
** Each open SQLite database is represented by a pointer to an instance of
** the opaque structure named "sqlite3".  It is useful to think of an sqlite3
** pointer as an object.  The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
** [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces are its constructors, and [sqlite3_close()]
** is its destructor.  There are many other interfaces (such as
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_create_function()], and
** [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] to name but three) that are methods on an
** sqlite3 object.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3 sqlite3;

/*
** CAPI3REF: 64-Bit Integer Types {H10200} <S10110>
** KEYWORDS: sqlite_int64 sqlite_uint64
**
** Because there is no cross-platform way to specify 64-bit integer types
** SQLite includes typedefs for 64-bit signed and unsigned integers.
**
** The sqlite3_int64 and sqlite3_uint64 are the preferred type definitions.
** The sqlite_int64 and sqlite_uint64 types are supported for backwards
** compatibility only.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H10201} The [sqlite_int64] and [sqlite3_int64] type shall specify
**          a 64-bit signed integer.
**
** {H10202} The [sqlite_uint64] and [sqlite3_uint64] type shall specify
**          a 64-bit unsigned integer.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_INT64_TYPE
  typedef SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_int64;
  typedef unsigned SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_uint64;
#elif defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
  typedef __int64 sqlite_int64;
  typedef unsigned __int64 sqlite_uint64;
#else
  typedef long long int sqlite_int64;
  typedef unsigned long long int sqlite_uint64;
#endif
typedef sqlite_int64 sqlite3_int64;
typedef sqlite_uint64 sqlite3_uint64;

/*
** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
** substitute integer for floating-point.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
# define double sqlite3_int64
#endif

/*
** CAPI3REF: Closing A Database Connection {H12010} <S30100><S40200>
**
** This routine is the destructor for the [sqlite3] object.
**
** Applications should [sqlite3_finalize | finalize] all [prepared statements]
** and [sqlite3_blob_close | close] all [BLOB handles] associated with
** the [sqlite3] object prior to attempting to close the object.
** The [sqlite3_next_stmt()] interface can be used to locate all
** [prepared statements] associated with a [database connection] if desired.
** Typical code might look like this:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
** sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
** while( (pStmt = sqlite3_next_stmt(db, 0))!=0 ){
** &nbsp;   sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
** }
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** If [sqlite3_close()] is invoked while a transaction is open,
** the transaction is automatically rolled back.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12011} A successful call to [sqlite3_close(C)] shall destroy the
**          [database connection] object C.
**
** {H12012} A successful call to [sqlite3_close(C)] shall return SQLITE_OK.
**
** {H12013} A successful call to [sqlite3_close(C)] shall release all
**          memory and system resources associated with [database connection]
**          C.
**
** {H12014} A call to [sqlite3_close(C)] on a [database connection] C that
**          has one or more open [prepared statements] shall fail with
**          an [SQLITE_BUSY] error code.
**
** {H12015} A call to [sqlite3_close(C)] where C is a NULL pointer shall
**          return SQLITE_OK.
**
** {H12019} When [sqlite3_close(C)] is invoked on a [database connection] C
**          that has a pending transaction, the transaction shall be
**          rolled back.
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A12016} The C parameter to [sqlite3_close(C)] must be either a NULL
**          pointer or an [sqlite3] object pointer obtained
**          from [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], or
**          [sqlite3_open_v2()], and not previously closed.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_close(sqlite3 *);

/*
** The type for a callback function.
** This is legacy and deprecated.  It is included for historical
** compatibility and is not documented.
*/
typedef int (*sqlite3_callback)(void*,int,char**, char**);

/*
** CAPI3REF: One-Step Query Execution Interface {H12100} <S10000>
**
** The sqlite3_exec() interface is a convenient way of running one or more
** SQL statements without having to write a lot of C code.  The UTF-8 encoded
** SQL statements are passed in as the second parameter to sqlite3_exec().
** The statements are evaluated one by one until either an error or
** an interrupt is encountered, or until they are all done.  The 3rd parameter
** is an optional callback that is invoked once for each row of any query
** results produced by the SQL statements.  The 5th parameter tells where
** to write any error messages.
**
** The error message passed back through the 5th parameter is held
** in memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].  To avoid a memory leak,
** the calling application should call [sqlite3_free()] on any error
** message returned through the 5th parameter when it has finished using
** the error message.
**
** If the SQL statement in the 2nd parameter is NULL or an empty string
** or a string containing only whitespace and comments, then no SQL
** statements are evaluated and the database is not changed.
**
** The sqlite3_exec() interface is implemented in terms of
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_step()], and [sqlite3_finalize()].
** The sqlite3_exec() routine does nothing to the database that cannot be done
** by [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_step()], and [sqlite3_finalize()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12101} A successful invocation of [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)]
**          shall sequentially evaluate all of the UTF-8 encoded,
**          semicolon-separated SQL statements in the zero-terminated
**          string S within the context of the [database connection] D.
**
** {H12102} If the S parameter to [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] is NULL then
**          the actions of the interface shall be the same as if the
**          S parameter were an empty string.
**
** {H12104} The return value of [sqlite3_exec()] shall be [SQLITE_OK] if all
**          SQL statements run successfully and to completion.
**
** {H12105} The return value of [sqlite3_exec()] shall be an appropriate
**          non-zero [error code] if any SQL statement fails.
**
** {H12107} If one or more of the SQL statements handed to [sqlite3_exec()]
**          return results and the 3rd parameter is not NULL, then
**          the callback function specified by the 3rd parameter shall be
**          invoked once for each row of result.
**
** {H12110} If the callback returns a non-zero value then [sqlite3_exec()]
**          shall abort the SQL statement it is currently evaluating,
**          skip all subsequent SQL statements, and return [SQLITE_ABORT].
**
** {H12113} The [sqlite3_exec()] routine shall pass its 4th parameter through
**          as the 1st parameter of the callback.
**
** {H12116} The [sqlite3_exec()] routine shall set the 2nd parameter of its
**          callback to be the number of columns in the current row of
**          result.
**
** {H12119} The [sqlite3_exec()] routine shall set the 3rd parameter of its
**          callback to be an array of pointers to strings holding the
**          values for each column in the current result set row as
**          obtained from [sqlite3_column_text()].
**
** {H12122} The [sqlite3_exec()] routine shall set the 4th parameter of its
**          callback to be an array of pointers to strings holding the
**          names of result columns as obtained from [sqlite3_column_name()].
**
** {H12125} If the 3rd parameter to [sqlite3_exec()] is NULL then
**          [sqlite3_exec()] shall silently discard query results.
**
** {H12131} If an error occurs while parsing or evaluating any of the SQL
**          statements in the S parameter of [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] and if
**          the E parameter is not NULL, then [sqlite3_exec()] shall store
**          in *E an appropriate error message written into memory obtained
**          from [sqlite3_malloc()].
**
** {H12134} The [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] routine shall set the value of
**          *E to NULL if E is not NULL and there are no errors.
**
** {H12137} The [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] function shall set the [error code]
**          and message accessible via [sqlite3_errcode()],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg()], and [sqlite3_errmsg16()].
**
** {H12138} If the S parameter to [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] is NULL or an
**          empty string or contains nothing other than whitespace, comments,
**          and/or semicolons, then results of [sqlite3_errcode()],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg()], and [sqlite3_errmsg16()]
**          shall reset to indicate no errors.
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A12141} The first parameter to [sqlite3_exec()] must be an valid and open
**          [database connection].
**
** {A12142} The database connection must not be closed while
**          [sqlite3_exec()] is running.
**
** {A12143} The calling function should use [sqlite3_free()] to free
**          the memory that *errmsg is left pointing at once the error
**          message is no longer needed.
**
** {A12145} The SQL statement text in the 2nd parameter to [sqlite3_exec()]
**          must remain unchanged while [sqlite3_exec()] is running.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_exec(
  sqlite3*,                                  /* An open database */
  const char *sql,                           /* SQL to be evaluated */
  int (*callback)(void*,int,char**,char**),  /* Callback function */
  void *,                                    /* 1st argument to callback */
  char **errmsg                              /* Error msg written here */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Result Codes {H10210} <S10700>
** KEYWORDS: SQLITE_OK {error code} {error codes}
** KEYWORDS: {result code} {result codes}
**
** Many SQLite functions return an integer result code from the set shown
** here in order to indicates success or failure.
**
** New error codes may be added in future versions of SQLite.
**
** See also: [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes]
*/
#define SQLITE_OK           0   /* Successful result */
/* beginning-of-error-codes */
#define SQLITE_ERROR        1   /* SQL error or missing database */
#define SQLITE_INTERNAL     2   /* Internal logic error in SQLite */
#define SQLITE_PERM         3   /* Access permission denied */
#define SQLITE_ABORT        4   /* Callback routine requested an abort */
#define SQLITE_BUSY         5   /* The database file is locked */
#define SQLITE_LOCKED       6   /* A table in the database is locked */
#define SQLITE_NOMEM        7   /* A malloc() failed */
#define SQLITE_READONLY     8   /* Attempt to write a readonly database */
#define SQLITE_INTERRUPT    9   /* Operation terminated by sqlite3_interrupt()*/
#define SQLITE_IOERR       10   /* Some kind of disk I/O error occurred */
#define SQLITE_CORRUPT     11   /* The database disk image is malformed */
#define SQLITE_NOTFOUND    12   /* NOT USED. Table or record not found */
#define SQLITE_FULL        13   /* Insertion failed because database is full */
#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN    14   /* Unable to open the database file */
#define SQLITE_PROTOCOL    15   /* NOT USED. Database lock protocol error */
#define SQLITE_EMPTY       16   /* Database is empty */
#define SQLITE_SCHEMA      17   /* The database schema changed */
#define SQLITE_TOOBIG      18   /* String or BLOB exceeds size limit */
#define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT  19   /* Abort due to constraint violation */
#define SQLITE_MISMATCH    20   /* Data type mismatch */
#define SQLITE_MISUSE      21   /* Library used incorrectly */
#define SQLITE_NOLFS       22   /* Uses OS features not supported on host */
#define SQLITE_AUTH        23   /* Authorization denied */
#define SQLITE_FORMAT      24   /* Auxiliary database format error */
#define SQLITE_RANGE       25   /* 2nd parameter to sqlite3_bind out of range */
#define SQLITE_NOTADB      26   /* File opened that is not a database file */
#define SQLITE_ROW         100  /* sqlite3_step() has another row ready */
#define SQLITE_DONE        101  /* sqlite3_step() has finished executing */
/* end-of-error-codes */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Extended Result Codes {H10220} <S10700>
** KEYWORDS: {extended error code} {extended error codes}
** KEYWORDS: {extended result code} {extended result codes}
**
** In its default configuration, SQLite API routines return one of 26 integer
** [SQLITE_OK | result codes].  However, experience has shown that many of
** these result codes are too coarse-grained.  They do not provide as
** much information about problems as programmers might like.  In an effort to
** address this, newer versions of SQLite (version 3.3.8 and later) include
** support for additional result codes that provide more detailed information
** about errors. The extended result codes are enabled or disabled
** on a per database connection basis using the
** [sqlite3_extended_result_codes()] API.
**
** Some of the available extended result codes are listed here.
** One may expect the number of extended result codes will be expand
** over time.  Software that uses extended result codes should expect
** to see new result codes in future releases of SQLite.
**
** The SQLITE_OK result code will never be extended.  It will always
** be exactly zero.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H10223} The symbolic name for an extended result code shall contains
**          a related primary result code as a prefix.
**
** {H10224} Primary result code names shall contain a single "_" character.
**
** {H10225} Extended result code names shall contain two or more "_" characters.
**
** {H10226} The numeric value of an extended result code shall contain the
**          numeric value of its corresponding primary result code in
**          its least significant 8 bits.
*/
#define SQLITE_IOERR_READ              (SQLITE_IOERR | (1<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ        (SQLITE_IOERR | (2<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_WRITE             (SQLITE_IOERR | (3<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSYNC             (SQLITE_IOERR | (4<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_DIR_FSYNC         (SQLITE_IOERR | (5<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_TRUNCATE          (SQLITE_IOERR | (6<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSTAT             (SQLITE_IOERR | (7<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK            (SQLITE_IOERR | (8<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_RDLOCK            (SQLITE_IOERR | (9<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_DELETE            (SQLITE_IOERR | (10<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED           (SQLITE_IOERR | (11<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM             (SQLITE_IOERR | (12<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_ACCESS            (SQLITE_IOERR | (13<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_CHECKRESERVEDLOCK (SQLITE_IOERR | (14<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_LOCK              (SQLITE_IOERR | (15<<8))

/*
** CAPI3REF: Flags For File Open Operations {H10230} <H11120> <H12700>
**
** These bit values are intended for use in the
** 3rd parameter to the [sqlite3_open_v2()] interface and
** in the 4th parameter to the xOpen method of the
** [sqlite3_vfs] object.
*/
#define SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY         0x00000001
#define SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE        0x00000002
#define SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE           0x00000004
#define SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE    0x00000008
#define SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE        0x00000010
#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB          0x00000100
#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB          0x00000200
#define SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB     0x00000400
#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL     0x00000800
#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL     0x00001000
#define SQLITE_OPEN_SUBJOURNAL       0x00002000
#define SQLITE_OPEN_MASTER_JOURNAL   0x00004000
#define SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX          0x00008000
#define SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX        0x00010000

/*
** CAPI3REF: Device Characteristics {H10240} <H11120>
**
** The xDeviceCapabilities method of the [sqlite3_io_methods]
** object returns an integer which is a vector of the these
** bit values expressing I/O characteristics of the mass storage
** device that holds the file that the [sqlite3_io_methods]
** refers to.
**
** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
** any size are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
** nnn are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
** way around.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
** to xWrite().
*/
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC          0x00000001
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC512       0x00000002
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC1K        0x00000004
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC2K        0x00000008
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC4K        0x00000010
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC8K        0x00000020
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC16K       0x00000040
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC32K       0x00000080
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC64K       0x00000100
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND     0x00000200
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL      0x00000400

/*
** CAPI3REF: File Locking Levels {H10250} <H11120> <H11310>
**
** SQLite uses one of these integer values as the second
** argument to calls it makes to the xLock() and xUnlock() methods
** of an [sqlite3_io_methods] object.
*/
#define SQLITE_LOCK_NONE          0
#define SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED        1
#define SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED      2
#define SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING       3
#define SQLITE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE     4

/*
** CAPI3REF: Synchronization Type Flags {H10260} <H11120>
**
** When SQLite invokes the xSync() method of an
** [sqlite3_io_methods] object it uses a combination of
** these integer values as the second argument.
**
** When the SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY flag is used, it means that the
** sync operation only needs to flush data to mass storage.  Inode
** information need not be flushed. The SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL flag means
** to use normal fsync() semantics. The SQLITE_SYNC_FULL flag means
** to use Mac OS-X style fullsync instead of fsync().
*/
#define SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL        0x00002
#define SQLITE_SYNC_FULL          0x00003
#define SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY      0x00010

/*
** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Open File Handle {H11110} <S20110>
**
** An [sqlite3_file] object represents an open file in the OS
** interface layer.  Individual OS interface implementations will
** want to subclass this object by appending additional fields
** for their own use.  The pMethods entry is a pointer to an
** [sqlite3_io_methods] object that defines methods for performing
** I/O operations on the open file.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_file sqlite3_file;
struct sqlite3_file {
  const struct sqlite3_io_methods *pMethods;  /* Methods for an open file */
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: OS Interface File Virtual Methods Object {H11120} <S20110>
**
** Every file opened by the [sqlite3_vfs] xOpen method populates an
** [sqlite3_file] object (or, more commonly, a subclass of the
** [sqlite3_file] object) with a pointer to an instance of this object.
** This object defines the methods used to perform various operations
** against the open file represented by the [sqlite3_file] object.
**
** The flags argument to xSync may be one of [SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL] or
** [SQLITE_SYNC_FULL].  The first choice is the normal fsync().
** The second choice is a Mac OS-X style fullsync.  The [SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY]
** flag may be ORed in to indicate that only the data of the file
** and not its inode needs to be synced.
**
** The integer values to xLock() and xUnlock() are one of
** <ul>
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE],
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED],
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED],
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING], or
** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE].
** </ul>
** xLock() increases the lock. xUnlock() decreases the lock.
** The xCheckReservedLock() method checks whether any database connection,
** either in this process or in some other process, is holding a RESERVED,
** PENDING, or EXCLUSIVE lock on the file.  It returns true
** if such a lock exists and false otherwise.
**
** The xFileControl() method is a generic interface that allows custom
** VFS implementations to directly control an open file using the
** [sqlite3_file_control()] interface.  The second "op" argument is an
** integer opcode.  The third argument is a generic pointer intended to
** point to a structure that may contain arguments or space in which to
** write return values.  Potential uses for xFileControl() might be
** functions to enable blocking locks with timeouts, to change the
** locking strategy (for example to use dot-file locks), to inquire
** about the status of a lock, or to break stale locks.  The SQLite
** core reserves all opcodes less than 100 for its own use.
** A [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE | list of opcodes] less than 100 is available.
** Applications that define a custom xFileControl method should use opcodes
** greater than 100 to avoid conflicts.
**
** The xSectorSize() method returns the sector size of the
** device that underlies the file.  The sector size is the
** minimum write that can be performed without disturbing
** other bytes in the file.  The xDeviceCharacteristics()
** method returns a bit vector describing behaviors of the
** underlying device:
**
** <ul>
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC512]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC1K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC2K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC4K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC8K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC16K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC32K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC64K]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND]
** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL]
** </ul>
**
** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
** any size are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
** nnn are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
** way around.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
** to xWrite().
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_io_methods sqlite3_io_methods;
struct sqlite3_io_methods {
  int iVersion;
  int (*xClose)(sqlite3_file*);
  int (*xRead)(sqlite3_file*, void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
  int (*xWrite)(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
  int (*xTruncate)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 size);
  int (*xSync)(sqlite3_file*, int flags);
  int (*xFileSize)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 *pSize);
  int (*xLock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
  int (*xUnlock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
  int (*xCheckReservedLock)(sqlite3_file*, int *pResOut);
  int (*xFileControl)(sqlite3_file*, int op, void *pArg);
  int (*xSectorSize)(sqlite3_file*);
  int (*xDeviceCharacteristics)(sqlite3_file*);
  /* Additional methods may be added in future releases */
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: Standard File Control Opcodes {H11310} <S30800>
**
** These integer constants are opcodes for the xFileControl method
** of the [sqlite3_io_methods] object and for the [sqlite3_file_control()]
** interface.
**
** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE] opcode is used for debugging.  This
** opcode causes the xFileControl method to write the current state of
** the lock (one of [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE], [SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED],
** [SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED], [SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING], or [SQLITE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE])
** into an integer that the pArg argument points to. This capability
** is used during testing and only needs to be supported when SQLITE_TEST
** is defined.
*/
#define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE        1

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle {H17110} <S20130>
**
** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
** abstract type for a mutex object.  The SQLite core never looks
** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex].  It only
** deals with pointers to the [sqlite3_mutex] object.
**
** Mutexes are created using [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()].
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_mutex sqlite3_mutex;

/*
** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Object {H11140} <S20100>
**
** An instance of the sqlite3_vfs object defines the interface between
** the SQLite core and the underlying operating system.  The "vfs"
** in the name of the object stands for "virtual file system".
**
** The value of the iVersion field is initially 1 but may be larger in
** future versions of SQLite.  Additional fields may be appended to this
** object when the iVersion value is increased.  Note that the structure
** of the sqlite3_vfs object changes in the transaction between
** SQLite version 3.5.9 and 3.6.0 and yet the iVersion field was not
** modified.
**
** The szOsFile field is the size of the subclassed [sqlite3_file]
** structure used by this VFS.  mxPathname is the maximum length of
** a pathname in this VFS.
**
** Registered sqlite3_vfs objects are kept on a linked list formed by
** the pNext pointer.  The [sqlite3_vfs_register()]
** and [sqlite3_vfs_unregister()] interfaces manage this list
** in a thread-safe way.  The [sqlite3_vfs_find()] interface
** searches the list.  Neither the application code nor the VFS
** implementation should use the pNext pointer.
**
** The pNext field is the only field in the sqlite3_vfs
** structure that SQLite will ever modify.  SQLite will only access
** or modify this field while holding a particular static mutex.
** The application should never modify anything within the sqlite3_vfs
** object once the object has been registered.
**
** The zName field holds the name of the VFS module.  The name must
** be unique across all VFS modules.
**
** {H11141} SQLite will guarantee that the zFilename parameter to xOpen
** is either a NULL pointer or string obtained
** from xFullPathname().  SQLite further guarantees that
** the string will be valid and unchanged until xClose() is
** called. {END}  Because of the previous sentense,
** the [sqlite3_file] can safely store a pointer to the
** filename if it needs to remember the filename for some reason.
** If the zFilename parameter is xOpen is a NULL pointer then xOpen
** must invite its own temporary name for the file.  Whenever the 
** xFilename parameter is NULL it will also be the case that the
** flags parameter will include [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE].
**
** {H11142} The flags argument to xOpen() includes all bits set in
** the flags argument to [sqlite3_open_v2()].  Or if [sqlite3_open()]
** or [sqlite3_open16()] is used, then flags includes at least
** [SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE] | [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE]. {END}
** If xOpen() opens a file read-only then it sets *pOutFlags to
** include [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY].  Other bits in *pOutFlags may be set.
**
** {H11143} SQLite will also add one of the following flags to the xOpen()
** call, depending on the object being opened:
**
** <ul>
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_SUBJOURNAL]
** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_MASTER_JOURNAL]
** </ul> {END}
**
** The file I/O implementation can use the object type flags to
** change the way it deals with files.  For example, an application
** that does not care about crash recovery or rollback might make
** the open of a journal file a no-op.  Writes to this journal would
** also be no-ops, and any attempt to read the journal would return
** SQLITE_IOERR.  Or the implementation might recognize that a database
** file will be doing page-aligned sector reads and writes in a random
** order and set up its I/O subsystem accordingly.
**
** SQLite might also add one of the following flags to the xOpen method:
**
** <ul>
** <li> [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE]
** <li> [SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE]
** </ul>
**
** {H11145} The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE] flag means the file should be
** deleted when it is closed.  {H11146} The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE]
** will be set for TEMP  databases, journals and for subjournals.
**
** {H11147} The [SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE] flag means the file should be opened
** for exclusive access.  This flag is set for all files except
** for the main database file.
**
** {H11148} At least szOsFile bytes of memory are allocated by SQLite
** to hold the  [sqlite3_file] structure passed as the third
** argument to xOpen. {END}  The xOpen method does not have to
** allocate the structure; it should just fill it in.
**
** {H11149} The flags argument to xAccess() may be [SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS]
** to test for the existence of a file, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE] to
** test whether a file is readable and writable, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READ]
** to test whether a file is at least readable. {END}  The file can be a
** directory.
**
** {H11150} SQLite will always allocate at least mxPathname+1 bytes for the
** output buffer xFullPathname. {H11151} The exact size of the output buffer
** is also passed as a parameter to both  methods. {END}  If the output buffer
** is not large enough, [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] should be returned. Since this is
** handled as a fatal error by SQLite, vfs implementations should endeavor
** to prevent this by setting mxPathname to a sufficiently large value.
**
** The xRandomness(), xSleep(), and xCurrentTime() interfaces
** are not strictly a part of the filesystem, but they are
** included in the VFS structure for completeness.
** The xRandomness() function attempts to return nBytes bytes
** of good-quality randomness into zOut.  The return value is
** the actual number of bytes of randomness obtained.
** The xSleep() method causes the calling thread to sleep for at
** least the number of microseconds given.  The xCurrentTime()
** method returns a Julian Day Number for the current date and time.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_vfs sqlite3_vfs;
struct sqlite3_vfs {
  int iVersion;            /* Structure version number */
  int szOsFile;            /* Size of subclassed sqlite3_file */
  int mxPathname;          /* Maximum file pathname length */
  sqlite3_vfs *pNext;      /* Next registered VFS */
  const char *zName;       /* Name of this virtual file system */
  void *pAppData;          /* Pointer to application-specific data */
  int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, sqlite3_file*,
               int flags, int *pOutFlags);
  int (*xDelete)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int syncDir);
  int (*xAccess)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int flags, int *pResOut);
  int (*xFullPathname)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int nOut, char *zOut);
  void *(*xDlOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zFilename);
  void (*xDlError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zErrMsg);
  void *(*xDlSym)(sqlite3_vfs*,void*, const char *zSymbol);
  void (*xDlClose)(sqlite3_vfs*, void*);
  int (*xRandomness)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zOut);
  int (*xSleep)(sqlite3_vfs*, int microseconds);
  int (*xCurrentTime)(sqlite3_vfs*, double*);
  int (*xGetLastError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int, char *);
  /* New fields may be appended in figure versions.  The iVersion
  ** value will increment whenever this happens. */
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: Flags for the xAccess VFS method {H11190} <H11140>
**
** {H11191} These integer constants can be used as the third parameter to
** the xAccess method of an [sqlite3_vfs] object. {END}  They determine
** what kind of permissions the xAccess method is looking for.
** {H11192} With SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS, the xAccess method
** simply checks whether the file exists.
** {H11193} With SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE, the xAccess method
** checks whether the file is both readable and writable.
** {H11194} With SQLITE_ACCESS_READ, the xAccess method
** checks whether the file is readable.
*/
#define SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS    0
#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE 1
#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READ      2

/*
** CAPI3REF: Initialize The SQLite Library {H10130} <S20000><S30100>
**
** The sqlite3_initialize() routine initializes the
** SQLite library.  The sqlite3_shutdown() routine
** deallocates any resources that were allocated by sqlite3_initialize().
**
** A call to sqlite3_initialize() is an "effective" call if it is
** the first time sqlite3_initialize() is invoked during the lifetime of
** the process, or if it is the first time sqlite3_initialize() is invoked
** following a call to sqlite3_shutdown().  Only an effective call
** of sqlite3_initialize() does any initialization.  All other calls
** are harmless no-ops.
**
** Among other things, sqlite3_initialize() shall invoke
** sqlite3_os_init().  Similarly, sqlite3_shutdown()
** shall invoke sqlite3_os_end().
**
** The sqlite3_initialize() routine returns SQLITE_OK on success.
** If for some reason, sqlite3_initialize() is unable to initialize
** the library (perhaps it is unable to allocate a needed resource such
** as a mutex) it returns an [error code] other than SQLITE_OK.
**
** The sqlite3_initialize() routine is called internally by many other
** SQLite interfaces so that an application usually does not need to
** invoke sqlite3_initialize() directly.  For example, [sqlite3_open()]
** calls sqlite3_initialize() so the SQLite library will be automatically
** initialized when [sqlite3_open()] is called if it has not be initialized
** already.  However, if SQLite is compiled with the SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT
** compile-time option, then the automatic calls to sqlite3_initialize()
** are omitted and the application must call sqlite3_initialize() directly
** prior to using any other SQLite interface.  For maximum portability,
** it is recommended that applications always invoke sqlite3_initialize()
** directly prior to using any other SQLite interface.  Future releases
** of SQLite may require this.  In other words, the behavior exhibited
** when SQLite is compiled with SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT might become the
** default behavior in some future release of SQLite.
**
** The sqlite3_os_init() routine does operating-system specific
** initialization of the SQLite library.  The sqlite3_os_end()
** routine undoes the effect of sqlite3_os_init().  Typical tasks
** performed by these routines include allocation or deallocation
** of static resources, initialization of global variables,
** setting up a default [sqlite3_vfs] module, or setting up
** a default configuration using [sqlite3_config()].
**
** The application should never invoke either sqlite3_os_init()
** or sqlite3_os_end() directly.  The application should only invoke
** sqlite3_initialize() and sqlite3_shutdown().  The sqlite3_os_init()
** interface is called automatically by sqlite3_initialize() and
** sqlite3_os_end() is called by sqlite3_shutdown().  Appropriate
** implementations for sqlite3_os_init() and sqlite3_os_end()
** are built into SQLite when it is compiled for unix, windows, or os/2.
** When built for other platforms (using the SQLITE_OS_OTHER=1 compile-time
** option) the application must supply a suitable implementation for
** sqlite3_os_init() and sqlite3_os_end().  An application-supplied
** implementation of sqlite3_os_init() or sqlite3_os_end()
** must return SQLITE_OK on success and some other [error code] upon
** failure.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_initialize(void);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_shutdown(void);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_os_init(void);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_os_end(void);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Configuring The SQLite Library {H10145} <S20000><S30200>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** The sqlite3_config() interface is used to make global configuration
** changes to SQLite in order to tune SQLite to the specific needs of
** the application.  The default configuration is recommended for most
** applications and so this routine is usually not necessary.  It is
** provided to support rare applications with unusual needs.
**
** The sqlite3_config() interface is not threadsafe.  The application
** must insure that no other SQLite interfaces are invoked by other
** threads while sqlite3_config() is running.  Furthermore, sqlite3_config()
** may only be invoked prior to library initialization using
** [sqlite3_initialize()] or after shutdown by [sqlite3_shutdown()].
** Note, however, that sqlite3_config() can be called as part of the
** implementation of an application-defined [sqlite3_os_init()].
**
** The first argument to sqlite3_config() is an integer
** [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD | configuration option] that determines
** what property of SQLite is to be configured.  Subsequent arguments
** vary depending on the [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD | configuration option]
** in the first argument.
**
** When a configuration option is set, sqlite3_config() returns SQLITE_OK.
** If the option is unknown or SQLite is unable to set the option
** then this routine returns a non-zero [error code].
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_config(int, ...);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Configure database connections  {H10180} <S20000>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** The sqlite3_db_config() interface is used to make configuration
** changes to a [database connection].  The interface is similar to
** [sqlite3_config()] except that the changes apply to a single
** [database connection] (specified in the first argument).  The
** sqlite3_db_config() interface can only be used immediately after
** the database connection is created using [sqlite3_open()],
** [sqlite3_open16()], or [sqlite3_open_v2()].  
**
** The second argument to sqlite3_db_config(D,V,...)  is the
** configuration verb - an integer code that indicates what
** aspect of the [database connection] is being configured.
** The only choice for this value is [SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE].
** New verbs are likely to be added in future releases of SQLite.
** Additional arguments depend on the verb.
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_db_config(sqlite3*, int op, ...);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Routines {H10155} <S20120>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** An instance of this object defines the interface between SQLite
** and low-level memory allocation routines.
**
** This object is used in only one place in the SQLite interface.
** A pointer to an instance of this object is the argument to
** [sqlite3_config()] when the configuration option is
** [SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC].  By creating an instance of this object
** and passing it to [sqlite3_config()] during configuration, an
** application can specify an alternative memory allocation subsystem
** for SQLite to use for all of its dynamic memory needs.
**
** Note that SQLite comes with a built-in memory allocator that is
** perfectly adequate for the overwhelming majority of applications
** and that this object is only useful to a tiny minority of applications
** with specialized memory allocation requirements.  This object is
** also used during testing of SQLite in order to specify an alternative
** memory allocator that simulates memory out-of-memory conditions in
** order to verify that SQLite recovers gracefully from such
** conditions.
**
** The xMalloc, xFree, and xRealloc methods must work like the
** malloc(), free(), and realloc() functions from the standard library.
**
** xSize should return the allocated size of a memory allocation
** previously obtained from xMalloc or xRealloc.  The allocated size
** is always at least as big as the requested size but may be larger.
**
** The xRoundup method returns what would be the allocated size of
** a memory allocation given a particular requested size.  Most memory
** allocators round up memory allocations at least to the next multiple
** of 8.  Some allocators round up to a larger multiple or to a power of 2.
**
** The xInit method initializes the memory allocator.  (For example,
** it might allocate any require mutexes or initialize internal data
** structures.  The xShutdown method is invoked (indirectly) by
** [sqlite3_shutdown()] and should deallocate any resources acquired
** by xInit.  The pAppData pointer is used as the only parameter to
** xInit and xShutdown.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_mem_methods sqlite3_mem_methods;
struct sqlite3_mem_methods {
  void *(*xMalloc)(int);         /* Memory allocation function */
  void (*xFree)(void*);          /* Free a prior allocation */
  void *(*xRealloc)(void*,int);  /* Resize an allocation */
  int (*xSize)(void*);           /* Return the size of an allocation */
  int (*xRoundup)(int);          /* Round up request size to allocation size */
  int (*xInit)(void*);           /* Initialize the memory allocator */
  void (*xShutdown)(void*);      /* Deinitialize the memory allocator */
  void *pAppData;                /* Argument to xInit() and xShutdown() */
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: Configuration Options {H10160} <S20000>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** These constants are the available integer configuration options that
** can be passed as the first argument to the [sqlite3_config()] interface.
**
** New configuration options may be added in future releases of SQLite.
** Existing configuration options might be discontinued.  Applications
** should check the return code from [sqlite3_config()] to make sure that
** the call worked.  The [sqlite3_config()] interface will return a
** non-zero [error code] if a discontinued or unsupported configuration option
** is invoked.
**
** <dl>
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD</dt>
** <dd>There are no arguments to this option.  This option disables
** all mutexing and puts SQLite into a mode where it can only be used
** by a single thread.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD</dt>
** <dd>There are no arguments to this option.  This option disables
** mutexing on [database connection] and [prepared statement] objects.
** The application is responsible for serializing access to
** [database connections] and [prepared statements].  But other mutexes
** are enabled so that SQLite will be safe to use in a multi-threaded
** environment.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED</dt>
** <dd>There are no arguments to this option.  This option enables
** all mutexes including the recursive
** mutexes on [database connection] and [prepared statement] objects.
** In this mode (which is the default when SQLite is compiled with
** [SQLITE_THREADSAFE=1]) the SQLite library will itself serialize access
** to [database connections] and [prepared statements] so that the
** application is free to use the same [database connection] or the
** same [prepared statement] in different threads at the same time.
**
** <p>This configuration option merely sets the default mutex 
** behavior to serialize access to [database connections].  Individual
** [database connections] can override this setting
** using the [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX] flag to [sqlite3_open_v2()].</p></dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC</dt>
** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
** instance of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure.  The argument specifies
** alternative low-level memory allocation routines to be used in place of
** the memory allocation routines built into SQLite.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC</dt>
** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
** instance of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure.  The [sqlite3_mem_methods]
** structure is filled with the currently defined memory allocation routines.
** This option can be used to overload the default memory allocation
** routines with a wrapper that simulations memory allocation failure or
** tracks memory usage, for example.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS</dt>
** <dd>This option takes single argument of type int, interpreted as a 
** boolean, which enables or disables the collection of memory allocation 
** statistics. When disabled, the following SQLite interfaces become 
** non-operational:
**   <ul>
**   <li> [sqlite3_memory_used()]
**   <li> [sqlite3_memory_highwater()]
**   <li> [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit()]
**   <li> [sqlite3_status()]
**   </ul>
** </dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH</dt>
** <dd>This option specifies a static memory buffer that SQLite can use for
** scratch memory.  There are three arguments:  A pointer to the memory, the
** size of each scratch buffer (sz), and the number of buffers (N).  The sz
** argument must be a multiple of 16. The sz parameter should be a few bytes
** larger than the actual scratch space required due internal overhead.
** The first
** argument should point to an allocation of at least sz*N bytes of memory.
** SQLite will use no more than one scratch buffer at once per thread, so
** N should be set to the expected maximum number of threads.  The sz
** parameter should be 6 times the size of the largest database page size.
** Scratch buffers are used as part of the btree balance operation.  If
** The btree balancer needs additional memory beyond what is provided by
** scratch buffers or if no scratch buffer space is specified, then SQLite
** goes to [sqlite3_malloc()] to obtain the memory it needs.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE</dt>
** <dd>This option specifies a static memory buffer that SQLite can use for
** the database page cache.  There are three arguments: A pointer to the
** memory, the size of each page buffer (sz), and the number of pages (N).
** The sz argument must be a power of two between 512 and 32768.  The first
** argument should point to an allocation of at least sz*N bytes of memory.
** SQLite will use the memory provided by the first argument to satisfy its
** memory needs for the first N pages that it adds to cache.  If additional
** page cache memory is needed beyond what is provided by this option, then
** SQLite goes to [sqlite3_malloc()] for the additional storage space.
** The implementation might use one or more of the N buffers to hold 
** memory accounting information. </dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP</dt>
** <dd>This option specifies a static memory buffer that SQLite will use
** for all of its dynamic memory allocation needs beyond those provided
** for by [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH] and [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE].
** There are three arguments: A pointer to the memory, the number of
** bytes in the memory buffer, and the minimum allocation size.  If
** the first pointer (the memory pointer) is NULL, then SQLite reverts
** to using its default memory allocator (the system malloc() implementation),
** undoing any prior invocation of [SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC].  If the
** memory pointer is not NULL and either [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3] or
** [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5] are defined, then the alternative memory
** allocator is engaged to handle all of SQLites memory allocation needs.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX</dt>
** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
** instance of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure.  The argument specifies
** alternative low-level mutex routines to be used in place
** the mutex routines built into SQLite.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX</dt>
** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
** instance of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure.  The
** [sqlite3_mutex_methods]
** structure is filled with the currently defined mutex routines.
** This option can be used to overload the default mutex allocation
** routines with a wrapper used to track mutex usage for performance
** profiling or testing, for example.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE</dt>
** <dd>This option takes two arguments that determine the default
** memory allcation lookaside optimization.  The first argument is the
** size of each lookaside buffer slot and the second is the number of
** slots allocated to each database connection.</dd>
**
** </dl>
*/
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD  1  /* nil */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD   2  /* nil */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED    3  /* nil */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC        4  /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC     5  /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH       6  /* void*, int sz, int N */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE     7  /* void*, int sz, int N */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP          8  /* void*, int nByte, int min */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS     9  /* boolean */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX        10  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX     11  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_CHUNKALLOC   12  /* int threshold */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE    13  /* int int */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Configuration Options {H10170} <S20000>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** These constants are the available integer configuration options that
** can be passed as the second argument to the [sqlite3_db_config()] interface.
**
** New configuration options may be added in future releases of SQLite.
** Existing configuration options might be discontinued.  Applications
** should check the return code from [sqlite3_db_config()] to make sure that
** the call worked.  The [sqlite3_db_config()] interface will return a
** non-zero [error code] if a discontinued or unsupported configuration option
** is invoked.
**
** <dl>
** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE</dt>
** <dd>This option takes three additional arguments that determine the 
** [lookaside memory allocator] configuration for the [database connection].
** The first argument (the third parameter to [sqlite3_db_config()] is a
** pointer to a memory buffer to use for lookaside memory.  The first
** argument may be NULL in which case SQLite will allocate the lookaside
** buffer itself using [sqlite3_malloc()].  The second argument is the
** size of each lookaside buffer slot and the third argument is the number of
** slots.  The size of the buffer in the first argument must be greater than
** or equal to the product of the second and third arguments.</dd>
**
** </dl>
*/
#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE    1001  /* void* int int */


/*
** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes {H12200} <S10700>
**
** The sqlite3_extended_result_codes() routine enables or disables the
** [extended result codes] feature of SQLite. The extended result
** codes are disabled by default for historical compatibility considerations.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12201} Each new [database connection] shall have the
**          [extended result codes] feature disabled by default.
**
** {H12202} The [sqlite3_extended_result_codes(D,F)] interface shall enable
**          [extended result codes] for the  [database connection] D
**          if the F parameter is true, or disable them if F is false.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_extended_result_codes(sqlite3*, int onoff);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Last Insert Rowid {H12220} <S10700>
**
** Each entry in an SQLite table has a unique 64-bit signed
** integer key called the "rowid". The rowid is always available
** as an undeclared column named ROWID, OID, or _ROWID_ as long as those
** names are not also used by explicitly declared columns. If
** the table has a column of type INTEGER PRIMARY KEY then that column
** is another alias for the rowid.
**
** This routine returns the rowid of the most recent
** successful INSERT into the database from the [database connection]
** in the first argument.  If no successful INSERTs
** have ever occurred on that database connection, zero is returned.
**
** If an INSERT occurs within a trigger, then the rowid of the inserted
** row is returned by this routine as long as the trigger is running.
** But once the trigger terminates, the value returned by this routine
** reverts to the last value inserted before the trigger fired.
**
** An INSERT that fails due to a constraint violation is not a
** successful INSERT and does not change the value returned by this
** routine.  Thus INSERT OR FAIL, INSERT OR IGNORE, INSERT OR ROLLBACK,
** and INSERT OR ABORT make no changes to the return value of this
** routine when their insertion fails.  When INSERT OR REPLACE
** encounters a constraint violation, it does not fail.  The
** INSERT continues to completion after deleting rows that caused
** the constraint problem so INSERT OR REPLACE will always change
** the return value of this interface.
**
** For the purposes of this routine, an INSERT is considered to
** be successful even if it is subsequently rolled back.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12221} The [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] function returns the rowid
**          of the most recent successful INSERT performed on the same
**          [database connection] and within the same or higher level
**          trigger context, or zero if there have been no qualifying inserts.
**
** {H12223} The [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] function returns the
**          same value when called from the same trigger context
**          immediately before and after a ROLLBACK.
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A12232} If a separate thread performs a new INSERT on the same
**          database connection while the [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()]
**          function is running and thus changes the last insert rowid,
**          then the value returned by [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] is
**          unpredictable and might not equal either the old or the new
**          last insert rowid.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_last_insert_rowid(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Count The Number Of Rows Modified {H12240} <S10600>
**
** This function returns the number of database rows that were changed
** or inserted or deleted by the most recently completed SQL statement
** on the [database connection] specified by the first parameter.
** Only changes that are directly specified by the INSERT, UPDATE,
** or DELETE statement are counted.  Auxiliary changes caused by
** triggers are not counted. Use the [sqlite3_total_changes()] function
** to find the total number of changes including changes caused by triggers.
**
** A "row change" is a change to a single row of a single table
** caused by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statement.  Rows that
** are changed as side effects of REPLACE constraint resolution,
** rollback, ABORT processing, DROP TABLE, or by any other
** mechanisms do not count as direct row changes.
**
** A "trigger context" is a scope of execution that begins and
** ends with the script of a trigger.  Most SQL statements are
** evaluated outside of any trigger.  This is the "top level"
** trigger context.  If a trigger fires from the top level, a
** new trigger context is entered for the duration of that one
** trigger.  Subtriggers create subcontexts for their duration.
**
** Calling [sqlite3_exec()] or [sqlite3_step()] recursively does
** not create a new trigger context.
**
** This function returns the number of direct row changes in the
** most recent INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement within the same
** trigger context.
**
** Thus, when called from the top level, this function returns the
** number of changes in the most recent INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
** that also occurred at the top level.  Within the body of a trigger,
** the sqlite3_changes() interface can be called to find the number of
** changes in the most recently completed INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
** statement within the body of the same trigger.
** However, the number returned does not include changes
** caused by subtriggers since those have their own context.
**
** SQLite implements the command "DELETE FROM table" without a WHERE clause
** by dropping and recreating the table.  (This is much faster than going
** through and deleting individual elements from the table.)  Because of this
** optimization, the deletions in "DELETE FROM table" are not row changes and
** will not be counted by the sqlite3_changes() or [sqlite3_total_changes()]
** functions, regardless of the number of elements that were originally
** in the table.  To get an accurate count of the number of rows deleted, use
** "DELETE FROM table WHERE 1" instead.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12241} The [sqlite3_changes()] function shall return the number of
**          row changes caused by the most recent INSERT, UPDATE,
**          or DELETE statement on the same database connection and
**          within the same or higher trigger context, or zero if there have
**          not been any qualifying row changes.
**
** {H12243} Statements of the form "DELETE FROM tablename" with no
**          WHERE clause shall cause subsequent calls to
**          [sqlite3_changes()] to return zero, regardless of the
**          number of rows originally in the table.
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A12252} If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
**          while [sqlite3_changes()] is running then the value returned
**          is unpredictable and not meaningful.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_changes(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Total Number Of Rows Modified {H12260} <S10600>
**
** This function returns the number of row changes caused by INSERT,
** UPDATE or DELETE statements since the [database connection] was opened.
** The count includes all changes from all trigger contexts.  However,
** the count does not include changes used to implement REPLACE constraints,
** do rollbacks or ABORT processing, or DROP table processing.
** The changes are counted as soon as the statement that makes them is
** completed (when the statement handle is passed to [sqlite3_reset()] or
** [sqlite3_finalize()]).
**
** SQLite implements the command "DELETE FROM table" without a WHERE clause
** by dropping and recreating the table.  (This is much faster than going
** through and deleting individual elements from the table.)  Because of this
** optimization, the deletions in "DELETE FROM table" are not row changes and
** will not be counted by the sqlite3_changes() or [sqlite3_total_changes()]
** functions, regardless of the number of elements that were originally
** in the table.  To get an accurate count of the number of rows deleted, use
** "DELETE FROM table WHERE 1" instead.
**
** See also the [sqlite3_changes()] interface.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12261} The [sqlite3_total_changes()] returns the total number
**          of row changes caused by INSERT, UPDATE, and/or DELETE
**          statements on the same [database connection], in any
**          trigger context, since the database connection was created.
**
** {H12263} Statements of the form "DELETE FROM tablename" with no
**          WHERE clause shall not change the value returned
**          by [sqlite3_total_changes()].
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A12264} If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
**          while [sqlite3_total_changes()] is running then the value
**          returned is unpredictable and not meaningful.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_total_changes(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Interrupt A Long-Running Query {H12270} <S30500>
**
** This function causes any pending database operation to abort and
** return at its earliest opportunity. This routine is typically
** called in response to a user action such as pressing "Cancel"
** or Ctrl-C where the user wants a long query operation to halt
** immediately.
**
** It is safe to call this routine from a thread different from the
** thread that is currently running the database operation.  But it
** is not safe to call this routine with a [database connection] that
** is closed or might close before sqlite3_interrupt() returns.
**
** If an SQL operation is very nearly finished at the time when
** sqlite3_interrupt() is called, then it might not have an opportunity
** to be interrupted and might continue to completion.
**
** An SQL operation that is interrupted will return [SQLITE_INTERRUPT].
** If the interrupted SQL operation is an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
** that is inside an explicit transaction, then the entire transaction
** will be rolled back automatically.
**
** A call to sqlite3_interrupt() has no effect on SQL statements
** that are started after sqlite3_interrupt() returns.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12271} The [sqlite3_interrupt()] interface will force all running
**          SQL statements associated with the same database connection
**          to halt after processing at most one additional row of data.
**
** {H12272} Any SQL statement that is interrupted by [sqlite3_interrupt()]
**          will return [SQLITE_INTERRUPT].
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A12279} If the database connection closes while [sqlite3_interrupt()]
**          is running then bad things will likely happen.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_interrupt(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Determine If An SQL Statement Is Complete {H10510} <S70200>
**
** These routines are useful for command-line input to determine if the
** currently entered text seems to form complete a SQL statement or
** if additional input is needed before sending the text into
** SQLite for parsing.  These routines return true if the input string
** appears to be a complete SQL statement.  A statement is judged to be
** complete if it ends with a semicolon token and is not a fragment of a
** CREATE TRIGGER statement.  Semicolons that are embedded within
** string literals or quoted identifier names or comments are not
** independent tokens (they are part of the token in which they are
** embedded) and thus do not count as a statement terminator.
**
** These routines do not parse the SQL statements thus
** will not detect syntactically incorrect SQL.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H10511} A successful evaluation of [sqlite3_complete()] or
**          [sqlite3_complete16()] functions shall
**          return a numeric 1 if and only if the last non-whitespace
**          token in their input is a semicolon that is not in between
**          the BEGIN and END of a CREATE TRIGGER statement.
**
** {H10512} If a memory allocation error occurs during an invocation
**          of [sqlite3_complete()] or [sqlite3_complete16()] then the
**          routine shall return [SQLITE_NOMEM].
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A10512} The input to [sqlite3_complete()] must be a zero-terminated
**          UTF-8 string.
**
** {A10513} The input to [sqlite3_complete16()] must be a zero-terminated
**          UTF-16 string in native byte order.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete(const char *sql);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete16(const void *sql);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Register A Callback To Handle SQLITE_BUSY Errors {H12310} <S40400>
**
** This routine sets a callback function that might be invoked whenever
** an attempt is made to open a database table that another thread
** or process has locked.
**
** If the busy callback is NULL, then [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED]
** is returned immediately upon encountering the lock. If the busy callback
** is not NULL, then the callback will be invoked with two arguments.
**
** The first argument to the handler is a copy of the void* pointer which
** is the third argument to sqlite3_busy_handler().  The second argument to
** the handler callback is the number of times that the busy handler has
** been invoked for this locking event.  If the
** busy callback returns 0, then no additional attempts are made to
** access the database and [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] is returned.
** If the callback returns non-zero, then another attempt
** is made to open the database for reading and the cycle repeats.
**
** The presence of a busy handler does not guarantee that it will be invoked
** when there is lock contention. If SQLite determines that invoking the busy
** handler could result in a deadlock, it will go ahead and return [SQLITE_BUSY]
** or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] instead of invoking the busy handler.
** Consider a scenario where one process is holding a read lock that
** it is trying to promote to a reserved lock and
** a second process is holding a reserved lock that it is trying
** to promote to an exclusive lock.  The first process cannot proceed
** because it is blocked by the second and the second process cannot
** proceed because it is blocked by the first.  If both processes
** invoke the busy handlers, neither will make any progress.  Therefore,
** SQLite returns [SQLITE_BUSY] for the first process, hoping that this
** will induce the first process to release its read lock and allow
** the second process to proceed.
**
** The default busy callback is NULL.
**
** The [SQLITE_BUSY] error is converted to [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED]
** when SQLite is in the middle of a large transaction where all the
** changes will not fit into the in-memory cache.  SQLite will
** already hold a RESERVED lock on the database file, but it needs
** to promote this lock to EXCLUSIVE so that it can spill cache
** pages into the database file without harm to concurrent
** readers.  If it is unable to promote the lock, then the in-memory
** cache will be left in an inconsistent state and so the error
** code is promoted from the relatively benign [SQLITE_BUSY] to
** the more severe [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED].  This error code promotion
** forces an automatic rollback of the changes.  See the
** <a href="/cvstrac/wiki?p=CorruptionFollowingBusyError">
** CorruptionFollowingBusyError</a> wiki page for a discussion of why
** this is important.
**
** There can only be a single busy handler defined for each
** [database connection].  Setting a new busy handler clears any
** previously set handler.  Note that calling [sqlite3_busy_timeout()]
** will also set or clear the busy handler.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12311} The [sqlite3_busy_handler(D,C,A)] function shall replace
**          busy callback in the [database connection] D with a new
**          a new busy handler C and application data pointer A.
**
** {H12312} Newly created [database connections] shall have a busy
**          handler of NULL.
**
** {H12314} When two or more [database connections] share a
**          [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache | common cache],
**          the busy handler for the database connection currently using
**          the cache shall be invoked when the cache encounters a lock.
**
** {H12316} If a busy handler callback returns zero, then the SQLite interface
**          that provoked the locking event shall return [SQLITE_BUSY].
**
** {H12318} SQLite shall invokes the busy handler with two arguments which
**          are a copy of the pointer supplied by the 3rd parameter to
**          [sqlite3_busy_handler()] and a count of the number of prior
**          invocations of the busy handler for the same locking event.
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A12319} A busy handler must not close the database connection
**          or [prepared statement] that invoked the busy handler.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_handler(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*,int), void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Set A Busy Timeout {H12340} <S40410>
**
** This routine sets a [sqlite3_busy_handler | busy handler] that sleeps
** for a specified amount of time when a table is locked.  The handler
** will sleep multiple times until at least "ms" milliseconds of sleeping
** have accumulated. {H12343} After "ms" milliseconds of sleeping,
** the handler returns 0 which causes [sqlite3_step()] to return
** [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED].
**
** Calling this routine with an argument less than or equal to zero
** turns off all busy handlers.
**
** There can only be a single busy handler for a particular
** [database connection] any any given moment.  If another busy handler
** was defined  (using [sqlite3_busy_handler()]) prior to calling
** this routine, that other busy handler is cleared.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12341} The [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] function shall override any prior
**          [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] or [sqlite3_busy_handler()] setting
**          on the same [database connection].
**
** {H12343} If the 2nd parameter to [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] is less than
**          or equal to zero, then the busy handler shall be cleared so that
**          all subsequent locking events immediately return [SQLITE_BUSY].
**
** {H12344} If the 2nd parameter to [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] is a positive
**          number N, then a busy handler shall be set that repeatedly calls
**          the xSleep() method in the [sqlite3_vfs | VFS interface] until
**          either the lock clears or until the cumulative sleep time
**          reported back by xSleep() exceeds N milliseconds.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_timeout(sqlite3*, int ms);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Convenience Routines For Running Queries {H12370} <S10000>
**
** Definition: A <b>result table</b> is memory data structure created by the
** [sqlite3_get_table()] interface.  A result table records the
** complete query results from one or more queries.
**
** The table conceptually has a number of rows and columns.  But
** these numbers are not part of the result table itself.  These
** numbers are obtained separately.  Let N be the number of rows
** and M be the number of columns.
**
** A result table is an array of pointers to zero-terminated UTF-8 strings.
** There are (N+1)*M elements in the array.  The first M pointers point
** to zero-terminated strings that  contain the names of the columns.
** The remaining entries all point to query results.  NULL values result
** in NULL pointers.  All other values are in their UTF-8 zero-terminated
** string representation as returned by [sqlite3_column_text()].
**
** A result table might consist of one or more memory allocations.
** It is not safe to pass a result table directly to [sqlite3_free()].
** A result table should be deallocated using [sqlite3_free_table()].
**
** As an example of the result table format, suppose a query result
** is as follows:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**        Name        | Age
**        -----------------------
**        Alice       | 43
**        Bob         | 28
**        Cindy       | 21
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** There are two column (M==2) and three rows (N==3).  Thus the
** result table has 8 entries.  Suppose the result table is stored
** in an array names azResult.  Then azResult holds this content:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**        azResult&#91;0] = "Name";
**        azResult&#91;1] = "Age";
**        azResult&#91;2] = "Alice";
**        azResult&#91;3] = "43";
**        azResult&#91;4] = "Bob";
**        azResult&#91;5] = "28";
**        azResult&#91;6] = "Cindy";
**        azResult&#91;7] = "21";
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** The sqlite3_get_table() function evaluates one or more
** semicolon-separated SQL statements in the zero-terminated UTF-8
** string of its 2nd parameter.  It returns a result table to the
** pointer given in its 3rd parameter.
**
** After the calling function has finished using the result, it should
** pass the pointer to the result table to sqlite3_free_table() in order to
** release the memory that was malloced.  Because of the way the
** [sqlite3_malloc()] happens within sqlite3_get_table(), the calling
** function must not try to call [sqlite3_free()] directly.  Only
** [sqlite3_free_table()] is able to release the memory properly and safely.
**
** The sqlite3_get_table() interface is implemented as a wrapper around
** [sqlite3_exec()].  The sqlite3_get_table() routine does not have access
** to any internal data structures of SQLite.  It uses only the public
** interface defined here.  As a consequence, errors that occur in the
** wrapper layer outside of the internal [sqlite3_exec()] call are not
** reflected in subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] or [sqlite3_errmsg()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12371} If a [sqlite3_get_table()] fails a memory allocation, then
**          it shall free the result table under construction, abort the
**          query in process, skip any subsequent queries, set the
**          *pazResult output pointer to NULL and return [SQLITE_NOMEM].
**
** {H12373} If the pnColumn parameter to [sqlite3_get_table()] is not NULL
**          then a successful invocation of [sqlite3_get_table()] shall
**          write the number of columns in the
**          result set of the query into *pnColumn.
**
** {H12374} If the pnRow parameter to [sqlite3_get_table()] is not NULL
**          then a successful invocation of [sqlite3_get_table()] shall
**          writes the number of rows in the
**          result set of the query into *pnRow.
**
** {H12376} A successful invocation of [sqlite3_get_table()] that computes
**          N rows of result with C columns per row shall make *pazResult
**          point to an array of pointers to (N+1)*C strings where the first
**          C strings are column names as obtained from
**          [sqlite3_column_name()] and the rest are column result values
**          obtained from [sqlite3_column_text()].
**
** {H12379} The values in the pazResult array returned by [sqlite3_get_table()]
**          shall remain valid until cleared by [sqlite3_free_table()].
**
** {H12382} When an error occurs during evaluation of [sqlite3_get_table()]
**          the function shall set *pazResult to NULL, write an error message
**          into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()], make
**          **pzErrmsg point to that error message, and return a
**          appropriate [error code].
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_get_table(
  sqlite3 *db,          /* An open database */
  const char *zSql,     /* SQL to be evaluated */
  char ***pazResult,    /* Results of the query */
  int *pnRow,           /* Number of result rows written here */
  int *pnColumn,        /* Number of result columns written here */
  char **pzErrmsg       /* Error msg written here */
);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free_table(char **result);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Formatted String Printing Functions {H17400} <S70000><S20000>
**
** These routines are workalikes of the "printf()" family of functions
** from the standard C library.
**
** The sqlite3_mprintf() and sqlite3_vmprintf() routines write their
** results into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].
** The strings returned by these two routines should be
** released by [sqlite3_free()].  Both routines return a
** NULL pointer if [sqlite3_malloc()] is unable to allocate enough
** memory to hold the resulting string.
**
** In sqlite3_snprintf() routine is similar to "snprintf()" from
** the standard C library.  The result is written into the
** buffer supplied as the second parameter whose size is given by
** the first parameter. Note that the order of the
** first two parameters is reversed from snprintf().  This is an
** historical accident that cannot be fixed without breaking
** backwards compatibility.  Note also that sqlite3_snprintf()
** returns a pointer to its buffer instead of the number of
** characters actually written into the buffer.  We admit that
** the number of characters written would be a more useful return
** value but we cannot change the implementation of sqlite3_snprintf()
** now without breaking compatibility.
**
** As long as the buffer size is greater than zero, sqlite3_snprintf()
** guarantees that the buffer is always zero-terminated.  The first
** parameter "n" is the total size of the buffer, including space for
** the zero terminator.  So the longest string that can be completely
** written will be n-1 characters.
**
** These routines all implement some additional formatting
** options that are useful for constructing SQL statements.
** All of the usual printf() formatting options apply.  In addition, there
** is are "%q", "%Q", and "%z" options.
**
** The %q option works like %s in that it substitutes a null-terminated
** string from the argument list.  But %q also doubles every '\'' character.
** %q is designed for use inside a string literal.  By doubling each '\''
** character it escapes that character and allows it to be inserted into
** the string.
**
** For example, assume the string variable zText contains text as follows:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  char *zText = "It's a happy day!";
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** One can use this text in an SQL statement as follows:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES('%q')", zText);
**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** Because the %q format string is used, the '\'' character in zText
** is escaped and the SQL generated is as follows:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It''s a happy day!')
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** This is correct.  Had we used %s instead of %q, the generated SQL
** would have looked like this:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It's a happy day!');
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** This second example is an SQL syntax error.  As a general rule you should
** always use %q instead of %s when inserting text into a string literal.
**
** The %Q option works like %q except it also adds single quotes around
** the outside of the total string.  Additionally, if the parameter in the
** argument list is a NULL pointer, %Q substitutes the text "NULL" (without
** single quotes) in place of the %Q option.  So, for example, one could say:
**
** <blockquote><pre>
**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES(%Q)", zText);
**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
** </pre></blockquote>
**
** The code above will render a correct SQL statement in the zSQL
** variable even if the zText variable is a NULL pointer.
**
** The "%z" formatting option works exactly like "%s" with the
** addition that after the string has been read and copied into
** the result, [sqlite3_free()] is called on the input string. {END}
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17403}  The [sqlite3_mprintf()] and [sqlite3_vmprintf()] interfaces
**           return either pointers to zero-terminated UTF-8 strings held in
**           memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()] or NULL pointers if
**           a call to [sqlite3_malloc()] fails.
**
** {H17406}  The [sqlite3_snprintf()] interface writes a zero-terminated
**           UTF-8 string into the buffer pointed to by the second parameter
**           provided that the first parameter is greater than zero.
**
** {H17407}  The [sqlite3_snprintf()] interface does not write slots of
**           its output buffer (the second parameter) outside the range
**           of 0 through N-1 (where N is the first parameter)
**           regardless of the length of the string
**           requested by the format specification.
*/
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_mprintf(const char*,...);
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_vmprintf(const char*, va_list);
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int,char*,const char*, ...);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Subsystem {H17300} <S20000>
**
** The SQLite core  uses these three routines for all of its own
** internal memory allocation needs. "Core" in the previous sentence
** does not include operating-system specific VFS implementation.  The
** Windows VFS uses native malloc() and free() for some operations.
**
** The sqlite3_malloc() routine returns a pointer to a block
** of memory at least N bytes in length, where N is the parameter.
** If sqlite3_malloc() is unable to obtain sufficient free
** memory, it returns a NULL pointer.  If the parameter N to
** sqlite3_malloc() is zero or negative then sqlite3_malloc() returns
** a NULL pointer.
**
** Calling sqlite3_free() with a pointer previously returned
** by sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_realloc() releases that memory so
** that it might be reused.  The sqlite3_free() routine is
** a no-op if is called with a NULL pointer.  Passing a NULL pointer
** to sqlite3_free() is harmless.  After being freed, memory
** should neither be read nor written.  Even reading previously freed
** memory might result in a segmentation fault or other severe error.
** Memory corruption, a segmentation fault, or other severe error
** might result if sqlite3_free() is called with a non-NULL pointer that
** was not obtained from sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_free().
**
** The sqlite3_realloc() interface attempts to resize a
** prior memory allocation to be at least N bytes, where N is the
** second parameter.  The memory allocation to be resized is the first
** parameter.  If the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc()
** is a NULL pointer then its behavior is identical to calling
** sqlite3_malloc(N) where N is the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
** If the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc() is zero or
** negative then the behavior is exactly the same as calling
** sqlite3_free(P) where P is the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
** sqlite3_realloc() returns a pointer to a memory allocation
** of at least N bytes in size or NULL if sufficient memory is unavailable.
** If M is the size of the prior allocation, then min(N,M) bytes
** of the prior allocation are copied into the beginning of buffer returned
** by sqlite3_realloc() and the prior allocation is freed.
** If sqlite3_realloc() returns NULL, then the prior allocation
** is not freed.
**
** The memory returned by sqlite3_malloc() and sqlite3_realloc()
** is always aligned to at least an 8 byte boundary. {END}
**
** The default implementation of the memory allocation subsystem uses
** the malloc(), realloc() and free() provided by the standard C library.
** {H17382} However, if SQLite is compiled with the
** SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE=<i>NNN</i> C preprocessor macro (where <i>NNN</i>
** is an integer), then SQLite create a static array of at least
** <i>NNN</i> bytes in size and uses that array for all of its dynamic
** memory allocation needs. {END}  Additional memory allocator options
** may be added in future releases.
**
** In SQLite version 3.5.0 and 3.5.1, it was possible to define
** the SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION which would cause the built-in
** implementation of these routines to be omitted.  That capability
** is no longer provided.  Only built-in memory allocators can be used.
**
** The Windows OS interface layer calls
** the system malloc() and free() directly when converting
** filenames between the UTF-8 encoding used by SQLite
** and whatever filename encoding is used by the particular Windows
** installation.  Memory allocation errors are detected, but
** they are reported back as [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] or
** [SQLITE_IOERR] rather than [SQLITE_NOMEM].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17303}  The [sqlite3_malloc(N)] interface returns either a pointer to
**           a newly checked-out block of at least N bytes of memory
**           that is 8-byte aligned, or it returns NULL if it is unable
**           to fulfill the request.
**
** {H17304}  The [sqlite3_malloc(N)] interface returns a NULL pointer if
**           N is less than or equal to zero.
**
** {H17305}  The [sqlite3_free(P)] interface releases memory previously
**           returned from [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()],
**           making it available for reuse.
**
** {H17306}  A call to [sqlite3_free(NULL)] is a harmless no-op.
**
** {H17310}  A call to [sqlite3_realloc(0,N)] is equivalent to a call
**           to [sqlite3_malloc(N)].
**
** {H17312}  A call to [sqlite3_realloc(P,0)] is equivalent to a call
**           to [sqlite3_free(P)].
**
** {H17315}  The SQLite core uses [sqlite3_malloc()], [sqlite3_realloc()],
**           and [sqlite3_free()] for all of its memory allocation and
**           deallocation needs.
**
** {H17318}  The [sqlite3_realloc(P,N)] interface returns either a pointer
**           to a block of checked-out memory of at least N bytes in size
**           that is 8-byte aligned, or a NULL pointer.
**
** {H17321}  When [sqlite3_realloc(P,N)] returns a non-NULL pointer, it first
**           copies the first K bytes of content from P into the newly
**           allocated block, where K is the lesser of N and the size of
**           the buffer P.
**
** {H17322}  When [sqlite3_realloc(P,N)] returns a non-NULL pointer, it first
**           releases the buffer P.
**
** {H17323}  When [sqlite3_realloc(P,N)] returns NULL, the buffer P is
**           not modified or released.
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A17350}  The pointer arguments to [sqlite3_free()] and [sqlite3_realloc()]
**           must be either NULL or else pointers obtained from a prior
**           invocation of [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] that have
**           not yet been released.
**
** {A17351}  The application must not read or write any part of
**           a block of memory after it has been released using
**           [sqlite3_free()] or [sqlite3_realloc()].
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_malloc(int);
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_realloc(void*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free(void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocator Statistics {H17370} <S30210>
**
** SQLite provides these two interfaces for reporting on the status
** of the [sqlite3_malloc()], [sqlite3_free()], and [sqlite3_realloc()]
** routines, which form the built-in memory allocation subsystem.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17371} The [sqlite3_memory_used()] routine returns the number of bytes
**          of memory currently outstanding (malloced but not freed).
**
** {H17373} The [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] routine returns the maximum
**          value of [sqlite3_memory_used()] since the high-water mark
**          was last reset.
**
** {H17374} The values returned by [sqlite3_memory_used()] and
**          [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] include any overhead
**          added by SQLite in its implementation of [sqlite3_malloc()],
**          but not overhead added by the any underlying system library
**          routines that [sqlite3_malloc()] may call.
**
** {H17375} The memory high-water mark is reset to the current value of
**          [sqlite3_memory_used()] if and only if the parameter to
**          [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] is true.  The value returned
**          by [sqlite3_memory_highwater(1)] is the high-water mark
**          prior to the reset.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_used(void);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_highwater(int resetFlag);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Pseudo-Random Number Generator {H17390} <S20000>
**
** SQLite contains a high-quality pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) used to
** select random ROWIDs when inserting new records into a table that
** already uses the largest possible ROWID.  The PRNG is also used for
** the build-in random() and randomblob() SQL functions.  This interface allows
** applications to access the same PRNG for other purposes.
**
** A call to this routine stores N bytes of randomness into buffer P.
**
** The first time this routine is invoked (either internally or by
** the application) the PRNG is seeded using randomness obtained
** from the xRandomness method of the default [sqlite3_vfs] object.
** On all subsequent invocations, the pseudo-randomness is generated
** internally and without recourse to the [sqlite3_vfs] xRandomness
** method.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17392} The [sqlite3_randomness(N,P)] interface writes N bytes of
**          high-quality pseudo-randomness into buffer P.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_randomness(int N, void *P);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Authorization Callbacks {H12500} <S70100>
**
** This routine registers a authorizer callback with a particular
** [database connection], supplied in the first argument.
** The authorizer callback is invoked as SQL statements are being compiled
** by [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants [sqlite3_prepare_v2()],
** [sqlite3_prepare16()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].  At various
** points during the compilation process, as logic is being created
** to perform various actions, the authorizer callback is invoked to
** see if those actions are allowed.  The authorizer callback should
** return [SQLITE_OK] to allow the action, [SQLITE_IGNORE] to disallow the
** specific action but allow the SQL statement to continue to be
** compiled, or [SQLITE_DENY] to cause the entire SQL statement to be
** rejected with an error.  If the authorizer callback returns
** any value other than [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_OK], or [SQLITE_DENY]
** then the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered
** the authorizer will fail with an error message.
**
** When the callback returns [SQLITE_OK], that means the operation
** requested is ok.  When the callback returns [SQLITE_DENY], the
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered the
** authorizer will fail with an error message explaining that
** access is denied.  If the authorizer code is [SQLITE_READ]
** and the callback returns [SQLITE_IGNORE] then the
** [prepared statement] statement is constructed to substitute
** a NULL value in place of the table column that would have
** been read if [SQLITE_OK] had been returned.  The [SQLITE_IGNORE]
** return can be used to deny an untrusted user access to individual
** columns of a table.
**
** The first parameter to the authorizer callback is a copy of the third
** parameter to the sqlite3_set_authorizer() interface. The second parameter
** to the callback is an integer [SQLITE_COPY | action code] that specifies
** the particular action to be authorized. The third through sixth parameters
** to the callback are zero-terminated strings that contain additional
** details about the action to be authorized.
**
** An authorizer is used when [sqlite3_prepare | preparing]
** SQL statements from an untrusted source, to ensure that the SQL statements
** do not try to access data they are not allowed to see, or that they do not
** try to execute malicious statements that damage the database.  For
** example, an application may allow a user to enter arbitrary
** SQL queries for evaluation by a database.  But the application does
** not want the user to be able to make arbitrary changes to the
** database.  An authorizer could then be put in place while the
** user-entered SQL is being [sqlite3_prepare | prepared] that
** disallows everything except [SELECT] statements.
**
** Applications that need to process SQL from untrusted sources
** might also consider lowering resource limits using [sqlite3_limit()]
** and limiting database size using the [max_page_count] [PRAGMA]
** in addition to using an authorizer.
**
** Only a single authorizer can be in place on a database connection
** at a time.  Each call to sqlite3_set_authorizer overrides the
** previous call.  Disable the authorizer by installing a NULL callback.
** The authorizer is disabled by default.
**
** When [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] is used to prepare a statement, the
** statement might be reprepared during [sqlite3_step()] due to a 
** schema change.  Hence, the application should ensure that the
** correct authorizer callback remains in place during the [sqlite3_step()].
**
** Note that the authorizer callback is invoked only during
** [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants.  Authorization is not
** performed during statement evaluation in [sqlite3_step()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12501} The [sqlite3_set_authorizer(D,...)] interface registers a
**          authorizer callback with database connection D.
**
** {H12502} The authorizer callback is invoked as SQL statements are
**          being parseed and compiled.
**
** {H12503} If the authorizer callback returns any value other than
**          [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_OK], or [SQLITE_DENY], then
**          the application interface call that caused
**          the authorizer callback to run shall fail with an
**          [SQLITE_ERROR] error code and an appropriate error message.
**
** {H12504} When the authorizer callback returns [SQLITE_OK], the operation
**          described is processed normally.
**
** {H12505} When the authorizer callback returns [SQLITE_DENY], the
**          application interface call that caused the
**          authorizer callback to run shall fail
**          with an [SQLITE_ERROR] error code and an error message
**          explaining that access is denied.
**
** {H12506} If the authorizer code (the 2nd parameter to the authorizer
**          callback) is [SQLITE_READ] and the authorizer callback returns
**          [SQLITE_IGNORE], then the prepared statement is constructed to
**          insert a NULL value in place of the table column that would have
**          been read if [SQLITE_OK] had been returned.
**
** {H12507} If the authorizer code (the 2nd parameter to the authorizer
**          callback) is anything other than [SQLITE_READ], then
**          a return of [SQLITE_IGNORE] has the same effect as [SQLITE_DENY].
**
** {H12510} The first parameter to the authorizer callback is a copy of
**          the third parameter to the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] interface.
**
** {H12511} The second parameter to the callback is an integer
**          [SQLITE_COPY | action code] that specifies the particular action
**          to be authorized.
**
** {H12512} The third through sixth parameters to the callback are
**          zero-terminated strings that contain
**          additional details about the action to be authorized.
**
** {H12520} Each call to [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] overrides
**          any previously installed authorizer.
**
** {H12521} A NULL authorizer means that no authorization
**          callback is invoked.
**
** {H12522} The default authorizer is NULL.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_set_authorizer(
  sqlite3*,
  int (*xAuth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,const char*),
  void *pUserData
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Return Codes {H12590} <H12500>
**
** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback function] must
** return either [SQLITE_OK] or one of these two constants in order
** to signal SQLite whether or not the action is permitted.  See the
** [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer documentation] for additional
** information.
*/
#define SQLITE_DENY   1   /* Abort the SQL statement with an error */
#define SQLITE_IGNORE 2   /* Don't allow access, but don't generate an error */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Action Codes {H12550} <H12500>
**
** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] interface registers a callback function
** that is invoked to authorize certain SQL statement actions.  The
** second parameter to the callback is an integer code that specifies
** what action is being authorized.  These are the integer action codes that
** the authorizer callback may be passed.
**
** These action code values signify what kind of operation is to be
** authorized.  The 3rd and 4th parameters to the authorization
** callback function will be parameters or NULL depending on which of these
** codes is used as the second parameter.  The 5th parameter to the
** authorizer callback is the name of the database ("main", "temp",
** etc.) if applicable.  The 6th parameter to the authorizer callback
** is the name of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for
** the access attempt or NULL if this access attempt is directly from
** top-level SQL code.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12551} The second parameter to an
**          [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback] shall be an integer
**          [SQLITE_COPY | authorizer code] that specifies what action
**          is being authorized.
**
** {H12552} The 3rd and 4th parameters to the
**          [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorization callback]
**          shall be parameters or NULL depending on which
**          [SQLITE_COPY | authorizer code] is used as the second parameter.
**
** {H12553} The 5th parameter to the
**          [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback] shall be the name
**          of the database (example: "main", "temp", etc.) if applicable.
**
** {H12554} The 6th parameter to the
**          [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback] shall be the name
**          of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for
**          the access attempt or NULL if this access attempt is directly from
**          top-level SQL code.
*/
/******************************************* 3rd ************ 4th ***********/
#define SQLITE_CREATE_INDEX          1   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TABLE          2   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_INDEX     3   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TABLE     4   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TRIGGER   5   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_VIEW      6   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TRIGGER        7   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_VIEW           8   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DELETE                9   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_INDEX           10   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TABLE           11   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_INDEX      12   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TABLE      13   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TRIGGER    14   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_VIEW       15   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TRIGGER         16   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_VIEW            17   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_INSERT               18   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_PRAGMA               19   /* Pragma Name     1st arg or NULL */
#define SQLITE_READ                 20   /* Table Name      Column Name     */
#define SQLITE_SELECT               21   /* NULL            NULL            */
#define SQLITE_TRANSACTION          22   /* NULL            NULL            */
#define SQLITE_UPDATE               23   /* Table Name      Column Name     */
#define SQLITE_ATTACH               24   /* Filename        NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DETACH               25   /* Database Name   NULL            */
#define SQLITE_ALTER_TABLE          26   /* Database Name   Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_REINDEX              27   /* Index Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_ANALYZE              28   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_VTABLE        29   /* Table Name      Module Name     */
#define SQLITE_DROP_VTABLE          30   /* Table Name      Module Name     */
#define SQLITE_FUNCTION             31   /* Function Name   NULL            */
#define SQLITE_COPY                  0   /* No longer used */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Tracing And Profiling Functions {H12280} <S60400>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** These routines register callback functions that can be used for
** tracing and profiling the execution of SQL statements.
**
** The callback function registered by sqlite3_trace() is invoked at
** various times when an SQL statement is being run by [sqlite3_step()].
** The callback returns a UTF-8 rendering of the SQL statement text
** as the statement first begins executing.  Additional callbacks occur
** as each triggered subprogram is entered.  The callbacks for triggers
** contain a UTF-8 SQL comment that identifies the trigger.
**
** The callback function registered by sqlite3_profile() is invoked
** as each SQL statement finishes.  The profile callback contains
** the original statement text and an estimate of wall-clock time
** of how long that statement took to run.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12281} The callback function registered by [sqlite3_trace()] 
**          shall be invoked
**          whenever an SQL statement first begins to execute and
**          whenever a trigger subprogram first begins to run.
**
** {H12282} Each call to [sqlite3_trace()] shall override the previously
**          registered trace callback.
**
** {H12283} A NULL trace callback shall disable tracing.
**
** {H12284} The first argument to the trace callback shall be a copy of
**          the pointer which was the 3rd argument to [sqlite3_trace()].
**
** {H12285} The second argument to the trace callback is a
**          zero-terminated UTF-8 string containing the original text
**          of the SQL statement as it was passed into [sqlite3_prepare_v2()]
**          or the equivalent, or an SQL comment indicating the beginning
**          of a trigger subprogram.
**
** {H12287} The callback function registered by [sqlite3_profile()] is invoked
**          as each SQL statement finishes.
**
** {H12288} The first parameter to the profile callback is a copy of
**          the 3rd parameter to [sqlite3_profile()].
**
** {H12289} The second parameter to the profile callback is a
**          zero-terminated UTF-8 string that contains the complete text of
**          the SQL statement as it was processed by [sqlite3_prepare_v2()]
**          or the equivalent.
**
** {H12290} The third parameter to the profile callback is an estimate
**          of the number of nanoseconds of wall-clock time required to
**          run the SQL statement from start to finish.
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL void *sqlite3_trace(sqlite3*, void(*xTrace)(void*,const char*), void*);
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL void *sqlite3_profile(sqlite3*,
   void(*xProfile)(void*,const char*,sqlite3_uint64), void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Query Progress Callbacks {H12910} <S60400>
**
** This routine configures a callback function - the
** progress callback - that is invoked periodically during long
** running calls to [sqlite3_exec()], [sqlite3_step()] and
** [sqlite3_get_table()].  An example use for this
** interface is to keep a GUI updated during a large query.
**
** If the progress callback returns non-zero, the operation is
** interrupted.  This feature can be used to implement a
** "Cancel" button on a GUI dialog box.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12911} The callback function registered by sqlite3_progress_handler()
**          is invoked periodically during long running calls to
**          [sqlite3_step()].
**
** {H12912} The progress callback is invoked once for every N virtual
**          machine opcodes, where N is the second argument to
**          the [sqlite3_progress_handler()] call that registered
**          the callback.  If N is less than 1, sqlite3_progress_handler()
**          acts as if a NULL progress handler had been specified.
**
** {H12913} The progress callback itself is identified by the third
**          argument to sqlite3_progress_handler().
**
** {H12914} The fourth argument to sqlite3_progress_handler() is a
**          void pointer passed to the progress callback
**          function each time it is invoked.
**
** {H12915} If a call to [sqlite3_step()] results in fewer than N opcodes
**          being executed, then the progress callback is never invoked.
**
** {H12916} Every call to [sqlite3_progress_handler()]
**          overwrites any previously registered progress handler.
**
** {H12917} If the progress handler callback is NULL then no progress
**          handler is invoked.
**
** {H12918} If the progress callback returns a result other than 0, then
**          the behavior is a if [sqlite3_interrupt()] had been called.
**          <S30500>
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_progress_handler(sqlite3*, int, int(*)(void*), void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Opening A New Database Connection {H12700} <S40200>
**
** These routines open an SQLite database file whose name is given by the
** filename argument. The filename argument is interpreted as UTF-8 for
** sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open_v2() and as UTF-16 in the native byte
** order for sqlite3_open16(). A [database connection] handle is usually
** returned in *ppDb, even if an error occurs.  The only exception is that
** if SQLite is unable to allocate memory to hold the [sqlite3] object,
** a NULL will be written into *ppDb instead of a pointer to the [sqlite3]
** object. If the database is opened (and/or created) successfully, then
** [SQLITE_OK] is returned.  Otherwise an [error code] is returned.  The
** [sqlite3_errmsg()] or [sqlite3_errmsg16()] routines can be used to obtain
** an English language description of the error.
**
** The default encoding for the database will be UTF-8 if
** sqlite3_open() or sqlite3_open_v2() is called and
** UTF-16 in the native byte order if sqlite3_open16() is used.
**
** Whether or not an error occurs when it is opened, resources
** associated with the [database connection] handle should be released by
** passing it to [sqlite3_close()] when it is no longer required.
**
** The sqlite3_open_v2() interface works like sqlite3_open()
** except that it accepts two additional parameters for additional control
** over the new database connection.  The flags parameter can take one of
** the following three values, optionally combined with the 
** [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX] flag:
**
** <dl>
** <dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY]</dt>
** <dd>The database is opened in read-only mode.  If the database does not
** already exist, an error is returned.</dd>
**
** <dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE]</dt>
** <dd>The database is opened for reading and writing if possible, or reading
** only if the file is write protected by the operating system.  In either
** case the database must already exist, otherwise an error is returned.</dd>
**
** <dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE] | [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE]</dt>
** <dd>The database is opened for reading and writing, and is creates it if
** it does not already exist. This is the behavior that is always used for
** sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open16().</dd>
** </dl>
**
** If the 3rd parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is not one of the
** combinations shown above or one of the combinations shown above combined
** with the [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX] flag, then the behavior is undefined.
**
** If the [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX] flag is set, then mutexes on the
** opened [database connection] are disabled and the appliation must
** insure that access to the [database connection] and its associated
** [prepared statements] is serialized.  The [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX] flag
** is the default behavior is SQLite is configured using the
** [SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD] or [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD] options
** to [sqlite3_config()].  The [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX] flag only makes a
** difference when SQLite is in its default [SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED] mode.
**
** If the filename is ":memory:", then a private, temporary in-memory database
** is created for the connection.  This in-memory database will vanish when
** the database connection is closed.  Future versions of SQLite might
** make use of additional special filenames that begin with the ":" character.
** It is recommended that when a database filename actually does begin with
** a ":" character you should prefix the filename with a pathname such as
** "./" to avoid ambiguity.
**
** If the filename is an empty string, then a private, temporary
** on-disk database will be created.  This private database will be
** automatically deleted as soon as the database connection is closed.
**
** The fourth parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is the name of the
** [sqlite3_vfs] object that defines the operating system interface that
** the new database connection should use.  If the fourth parameter is
** a NULL pointer then the default [sqlite3_vfs] object is used.
**
** <b>Note to Windows users:</b>  The encoding used for the filename argument
** of sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open_v2() must be UTF-8, not whatever
** codepage is currently defined.  Filenames containing international
** characters must be converted to UTF-8 prior to passing them into
** sqlite3_open() or sqlite3_open_v2().
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12701} The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
**          [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces create a new
**          [database connection] associated with
**          the database file given in their first parameter.
**
** {H12702} The filename argument is interpreted as UTF-8
**          for [sqlite3_open()] and [sqlite3_open_v2()] and as UTF-16
**          in the native byte order for [sqlite3_open16()].
**
** {H12703} A successful invocation of [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()],
**          or [sqlite3_open_v2()] writes a pointer to a new
**          [database connection] into *ppDb.
**
** {H12704} The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
**          [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces return [SQLITE_OK] upon success,
**          or an appropriate [error code] on failure.
**
** {H12706} The default text encoding for a new database created using
**          [sqlite3_open()] or [sqlite3_open_v2()] will be UTF-8.
**
** {H12707} The default text encoding for a new database created using
**          [sqlite3_open16()] will be UTF-16.
**
** {H12709} The [sqlite3_open(F,D)] interface is equivalent to
**          [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,0)] where the G parameter is
**          [SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE]|[SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE].
**
** {H12711} If the G parameter to [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)] contains the
**          bit value [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY] then the database is opened
**          for reading only.
**
** {H12712} If the G parameter to [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)] contains the
**          bit value [SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE] then the database is opened
**          reading and writing if possible, or for reading only if the
**          file is write protected by the operating system.
**
** {H12713} If the G parameter to [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)] omits the
**          bit value [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE] and the database does not
**          previously exist, an error is returned.
**
** {H12714} If the G parameter to [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)] contains the
**          bit value [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE] and the database does not
**          previously exist, then an attempt is made to create and
**          initialize the database.
**
** {H12717} If the filename argument to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()],
**          or [sqlite3_open_v2()] is ":memory:", then an private,
**          ephemeral, in-memory database is created for the connection.
**          <todo>Is SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE|SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE required
**          in sqlite3_open_v2()?</todo>
**
** {H12719} If the filename is NULL or an empty string, then a private,
**          ephemeral on-disk database will be created.
**          <todo>Is SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE|SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE required
**          in sqlite3_open_v2()?</todo>
**
** {H12721} The [database connection] created by [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)]
**          will use the [sqlite3_vfs] object identified by the V parameter,
**          or the default [sqlite3_vfs] object if V is a NULL pointer.
**
** {H12723} Two [database connections] will share a common cache if both were
**          opened with the same VFS while [shared cache mode] was enabled and
**          if both filenames compare equal using memcmp() after having been
**          processed by the [sqlite3_vfs | xFullPathname] method of the VFS.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open(
  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open16(
  const void *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-16) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open_v2(
  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb,         /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
  int flags,              /* Flags */
  const char *zVfs        /* Name of VFS module to use */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Error Codes And Messages {H12800} <S60200>
**
** The sqlite3_errcode() interface returns the numeric [result code] or
** [extended result code] for the most recent failed sqlite3_* API call
** associated with a [database connection]. If a prior API call failed
** but the most recent API call succeeded, the return value from
** sqlite3_errcode() is undefined.
**
** The sqlite3_errmsg() and sqlite3_errmsg16() return English-language
** text that describes the error, as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 respectively.
** Memory to hold the error message string is managed internally.
** The application does not need to worry about freeing the result.
** However, the error string might be overwritten or deallocated by
** subsequent calls to other SQLite interface functions.
**
** If an interface fails with SQLITE_MISUSE, that means the interface
** was invoked incorrectly by the application.  In that case, the
** error code and message may or may not be set.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12801} The [sqlite3_errcode(D)] interface returns the numeric
**          [result code] or [extended result code] for the most recently
**          failed interface call associated with the [database connection] D.
**
** {H12803} The [sqlite3_errmsg(D)] and [sqlite3_errmsg16(D)]
**          interfaces return English-language text that describes
**          the error in the mostly recently failed interface call,
**          encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 respectively.
**
** {H12807} The strings returned by [sqlite3_errmsg()] and [sqlite3_errmsg16()]
**          are valid until the next SQLite interface call.
**
** {H12808} Calls to API routines that do not return an error code
**          (example: [sqlite3_data_count()]) do not
**          change the error code or message returned by
**          [sqlite3_errcode()], [sqlite3_errmsg()], or [sqlite3_errmsg16()].
**
** {H12809} Interfaces that are not associated with a specific
**          [database connection] (examples:
**          [sqlite3_mprintf()] or [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache()]
**          do not change the values returned by
**          [sqlite3_errcode()], [sqlite3_errmsg()], or [sqlite3_errmsg16()].
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_errcode(sqlite3 *db);
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_errmsg(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_errmsg16(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: SQL Statement Object {H13000} <H13010>
** KEYWORDS: {prepared statement} {prepared statements}
**
** An instance of this object represents a single SQL statement.
** This object is variously known as a "prepared statement" or a
** "compiled SQL statement" or simply as a "statement".
**
** The life of a statement object goes something like this:
**
** <ol>
** <li> Create the object using [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or a related
**      function.
** <li> Bind values to [host parameters] using the sqlite3_bind_*()
**      interfaces.
** <li> Run the SQL by calling [sqlite3_step()] one or more times.
** <li> Reset the statement using [sqlite3_reset()] then go back
**      to step 2.  Do this zero or more times.
** <li> Destroy the object using [sqlite3_finalize()].
** </ol>
**
** Refer to documentation on individual methods above for additional
** information.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_stmt sqlite3_stmt;

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-time Limits {H12760} <S20600>
**
** This interface allows the size of various constructs to be limited
** on a connection by connection basis.  The first parameter is the
** [database connection] whose limit is to be set or queried.  The
** second parameter is one of the [limit categories] that define a
** class of constructs to be size limited.  The third parameter is the
** new limit for that construct.  The function returns the old limit.
**
** If the new limit is a negative number, the limit is unchanged.
** For the limit category of SQLITE_LIMIT_XYZ there is a hard upper
** bound set by a compile-time C preprocessor macro named SQLITE_MAX_XYZ.
** (The "_LIMIT_" in the name is changed to "_MAX_".)
** Attempts to increase a limit above its hard upper bound are
** silently truncated to the hard upper limit.
**
** Run time limits are intended for use in applications that manage
** both their own internal database and also databases that are controlled
** by untrusted external sources.  An example application might be a
** webbrowser that has its own databases for storing history and
** separate databases controlled by JavaScript applications downloaded
** off the Internet.  The internal databases can be given the
** large, default limits.  Databases managed by external sources can
** be given much smaller limits designed to prevent a denial of service
** attack.  Developers might also want to use the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()]
** interface to further control untrusted SQL.  The size of the database
** created by an untrusted script can be contained using the
** [max_page_count] [PRAGMA].
**
** New run-time limit categories may be added in future releases.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12762} A successful call to [sqlite3_limit(D,C,V)] where V is
**          positive changes the limit on the size of construct C in the
**          [database connection] D to the lesser of V and the hard upper
**          bound on the size of C that is set at compile-time.
**
** {H12766} A successful call to [sqlite3_limit(D,C,V)] where V is negative
**          leaves the state of the [database connection] D unchanged.
**
** {H12769} A successful call to [sqlite3_limit(D,C,V)] returns the
**          value of the limit on the size of construct C in the
**          [database connection] D as it was prior to the call.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_limit(sqlite3*, int id, int newVal);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Limit Categories {H12790} <H12760>
** KEYWORDS: {limit category} {limit categories}
**
** These constants define various aspects of a [database connection]
** that can be limited in size by calls to [sqlite3_limit()].
** The meanings of the various limits are as follows:
**
** <dl>
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH</dt>
** <dd>The maximum size of any string or BLOB or table row.<dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH</dt>
** <dd>The maximum length of an SQL statement.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN</dt>
** <dd>The maximum number of columns in a table definition or in the
** result set of a SELECT or the maximum number of columns in an index
** or in an ORDER BY or GROUP BY clause.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_EXPR_DEPTH</dt>
** <dd>The maximum depth of the parse tree on any expression.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT</dt>
** <dd>The maximum number of terms in a compound SELECT statement.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_VDBE_OP</dt>
** <dd>The maximum number of instructions in a virtual machine program
** used to implement an SQL statement.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG</dt>
** <dd>The maximum number of arguments on a function.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_ATTACHED</dt>
** <dd>The maximum number of attached databases.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH</dt>
** <dd>The maximum length of the pattern argument to the LIKE or
** GLOB operators.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER</dt>
** <dd>The maximum number of variables in an SQL statement that can
** be bound.</dd>
** </dl>
*/
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH                    0
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH                1
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN                    2
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_EXPR_DEPTH                3
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT           4
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_VDBE_OP                   5
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG              6
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_ATTACHED                  7
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH       8
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER           9

/*
** CAPI3REF: Compiling An SQL Statement {H13010} <S10000>
** KEYWORDS: {SQL statement compiler}
**
** To execute an SQL query, it must first be compiled into a byte-code
** program using one of these routines.
**
** The first argument, "db", is a [database connection] obtained from a
** prior call to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()] or [sqlite3_open16()].
**
** The second argument, "zSql", is the statement to be compiled, encoded
** as either UTF-8 or UTF-16.  The sqlite3_prepare() and sqlite3_prepare_v2()
** interfaces use UTF-8, and sqlite3_prepare16() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2()
** use UTF-16.
**
** If the nByte argument is less than zero, then zSql is read up to the
** first zero terminator. If nByte is non-negative, then it is the maximum
** number of  bytes read from zSql.  When nByte is non-negative, the
** zSql string ends at either the first '\000' or '\u0000' character or
** the nByte-th byte, whichever comes first. If the caller knows
** that the supplied string is nul-terminated, then there is a small
** performance advantage to be gained by passing an nByte parameter that
** is equal to the number of bytes in the input string <i>including</i>
** the nul-terminator bytes.
**
** *pzTail is made to point to the first byte past the end of the
** first SQL statement in zSql.  These routines only compile the first
** statement in zSql, so *pzTail is left pointing to what remains
** uncompiled.
**
** *ppStmt is left pointing to a compiled [prepared statement] that can be
** executed using [sqlite3_step()].  If there is an error, *ppStmt is set
** to NULL.  If the input text contains no SQL (if the input is an empty
** string or a comment) then *ppStmt is set to NULL.
** {A13018} The calling procedure is responsible for deleting the compiled
** SQL statement using [sqlite3_finalize()] after it has finished with it.
**
** On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned, otherwise an [error code] is returned.
**
** The sqlite3_prepare_v2() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2() interfaces are
** recommended for all new programs. The two older interfaces are retained
** for backwards compatibility, but their use is discouraged.
** In the "v2" interfaces, the prepared statement
** that is returned (the [sqlite3_stmt] object) contains a copy of the
** original SQL text. This causes the [sqlite3_step()] interface to
** behave a differently in two ways:
**
** <ol>
** <li>
** If the database schema changes, instead of returning [SQLITE_SCHEMA] as it
** always used to do, [sqlite3_step()] will automatically recompile the SQL
** statement and try to run it again.  If the schema has changed in
** a way that makes the statement no longer valid, [sqlite3_step()] will still
** return [SQLITE_SCHEMA].  But unlike the legacy behavior, [SQLITE_SCHEMA] is
** now a fatal error.  Calling [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] again will not make the
** error go away.  Note: use [sqlite3_errmsg()] to find the text
** of the parsing error that results in an [SQLITE_SCHEMA] return.
** </li>
**
** <li>
** When an error occurs, [sqlite3_step()] will return one of the detailed
** [error codes] or [extended error codes].  The legacy behavior was that
** [sqlite3_step()] would only return a generic [SQLITE_ERROR] result code
** and you would have to make a second call to [sqlite3_reset()] in order
** to find the underlying cause of the problem. With the "v2" prepare
** interfaces, the underlying reason for the error is returned immediately.
** </li>
** </ol>
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13011} The [sqlite3_prepare(db,zSql,...)] and
**          [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,...)] interfaces interpret the
**          text in their zSql parameter as UTF-8.
**
** {H13012} The [sqlite3_prepare16(db,zSql,...)] and
**          [sqlite3_prepare16_v2(db,zSql,...)] interfaces interpret the
**          text in their zSql parameter as UTF-16 in the native byte order.
**
** {H13013} If the nByte argument to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,nByte,...)]
**          and its variants is less than zero, the SQL text is
**          read from zSql is read up to the first zero terminator.
**
** {H13014} If the nByte argument to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,nByte,...)]
**          and its variants is non-negative, then at most nBytes bytes of
**          SQL text is read from zSql.
**
** {H13015} In [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,N,P,pzTail)] and its variants
**          if the zSql input text contains more than one SQL statement
**          and pzTail is not NULL, then *pzTail is made to point to the
**          first byte past the end of the first SQL statement in zSql.
**          <todo>What does *pzTail point to if there is one statement?</todo>
**
** {H13016} A successful call to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,N,ppStmt,...)]
**          or one of its variants writes into *ppStmt a pointer to a new
**          [prepared statement] or a pointer to NULL if zSql contains
**          nothing other than whitespace or comments.
**
** {H13019} The [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] interface and its variants return
**          [SQLITE_OK] or an appropriate [error code] upon failure.
**
** {H13021} Before [sqlite3_prepare(db,zSql,nByte,ppStmt,pzTail)] or its
**          variants returns an error (any value other than [SQLITE_OK]),
**          they first set *ppStmt to NULL.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare_v2(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare16(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const void *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare16_v2(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const void *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);

/*
** CAPIREF: Retrieving Statement SQL {H13100} <H13000>
**
** This interface can be used to retrieve a saved copy of the original
** SQL text used to create a [prepared statement] if that statement was
** compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13101} If the [prepared statement] passed as the argument to
**          [sqlite3_sql()] was compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or
**          [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()], then [sqlite3_sql()] returns
**          a pointer to a zero-terminated string containing a UTF-8 rendering
**          of the original SQL statement.
**
** {H13102} If the [prepared statement] passed as the argument to
**          [sqlite3_sql()] was compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare()] or
**          [sqlite3_prepare16()], then [sqlite3_sql()] returns a NULL pointer.
**
** {H13103} The string returned by [sqlite3_sql(S)] is valid until the
**          [prepared statement] S is deleted using [sqlite3_finalize(S)].
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_sql(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Dynamically Typed Value Object {H15000} <S20200>
** KEYWORDS: {protected sqlite3_value} {unprotected sqlite3_value}
**
** SQLite uses the sqlite3_value object to represent all values
** that can be stored in a database table. SQLite uses dynamic typing
** for the values it stores. Values stored in sqlite3_value objects
** can be integers, floating point values, strings, BLOBs, or NULL.
**
** An sqlite3_value object may be either "protected" or "unprotected".
** Some interfaces require a protected sqlite3_value.  Other interfaces
** will accept either a protected or an unprotected sqlite3_value.
** Every interface that accepts sqlite3_value arguments specifies
** whether or not it requires a protected sqlite3_value.
**
** The terms "protected" and "unprotected" refer to whether or not
** a mutex is held.  A internal mutex is held for a protected
** sqlite3_value object but no mutex is held for an unprotected
** sqlite3_value object.  If SQLite is compiled to be single-threaded
** (with [SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] and with [sqlite3_threadsafe()] returning 0)
** or if SQLite is run in one of reduced mutex modes 
** [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD] or [SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD]
** then there is no distinction between protected and unprotected
** sqlite3_value objects and they can be used interchangeably.  However,
** for maximum code portability it is recommended that applications
** still make the distinction between between protected and unprotected
** sqlite3_value objects even when not strictly required.
**
** The sqlite3_value objects that are passed as parameters into the
** implementation of [application-defined SQL functions] are protected.
** The sqlite3_value object returned by
** [sqlite3_column_value()] is unprotected.
** Unprotected sqlite3_value objects may only be used with
** [sqlite3_result_value()] and [sqlite3_bind_value()].
** The [sqlite3_value_blob | sqlite3_value_type()] family of
** interfaces require protected sqlite3_value objects.
*/
typedef struct Mem sqlite3_value;

/*
** CAPI3REF: SQL Function Context Object {H16001} <S20200>
**
** The context in which an SQL function executes is stored in an
** sqlite3_context object.  A pointer to an sqlite3_context object
** is always first parameter to [application-defined SQL functions].
** The application-defined SQL function implementation will pass this
** pointer through into calls to [sqlite3_result_int | sqlite3_result()],
** [sqlite3_aggregate_context()], [sqlite3_user_data()],
** [sqlite3_context_db_handle()], [sqlite3_get_auxdata()],
** and/or [sqlite3_set_auxdata()].
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_context sqlite3_context;

/*
** CAPI3REF: Binding Values To Prepared Statements {H13500} <S70300>
** KEYWORDS: {host parameter} {host parameters} {host parameter name}
** KEYWORDS: {SQL parameter} {SQL parameters} {parameter binding}
**
** In the SQL strings input to [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and its variants,
** literals may be replaced by a parameter in one of these forms:
**
** <ul>
** <li>  ?
** <li>  ?NNN
** <li>  :VVV
** <li>  @VVV
** <li>  $VVV
** </ul>
**
** In the parameter forms shown above NNN is an integer literal,
** and VVV is an alpha-numeric parameter name. The values of these
** parameters (also called "host parameter names" or "SQL parameters")
** can be set using the sqlite3_bind_*() routines defined here.
**
** The first argument to the sqlite3_bind_*() routines is always
** a pointer to the [sqlite3_stmt] object returned from
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or its variants.
**
** The second argument is the index of the SQL parameter to be set.
** The leftmost SQL parameter has an index of 1.  When the same named
** SQL parameter is used more than once, second and subsequent
** occurrences have the same index as the first occurrence.
** The index for named parameters can be looked up using the
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()] API if desired.  The index
** for "?NNN" parameters is the value of NNN.
** The NNN value must be between 1 and the [sqlite3_limit()]
** parameter [SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER] (default value: 999).
**
** The third argument is the value to bind to the parameter.
**
** In those routines that have a fourth argument, its value is the
** number of bytes in the parameter.  To be clear: the value is the
** number of <u>bytes</u> in the value, not the number of characters.
** If the fourth parameter is negative, the length of the string is
** the number of bytes up to the first zero terminator.
**
** The fifth argument to sqlite3_bind_blob(), sqlite3_bind_text(), and
** sqlite3_bind_text16() is a destructor used to dispose of the BLOB or
** string after SQLite has finished with it. If the fifth argument is
** the special value [SQLITE_STATIC], then SQLite assumes that the
** information is in static, unmanaged space and does not need to be freed.
** If the fifth argument has the value [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], then
** SQLite makes its own private copy of the data immediately, before
** the sqlite3_bind_*() routine returns.
**
** The sqlite3_bind_zeroblob() routine binds a BLOB of length N that
** is filled with zeroes.  A zeroblob uses a fixed amount of memory
** (just an integer to hold its size) while it is being processed.
** Zeroblobs are intended to serve as placeholders for BLOBs whose
** content is later written using
** [sqlite3_blob_open | incremental BLOB I/O] routines.
** A negative value for the zeroblob results in a zero-length BLOB.
**
** The sqlite3_bind_*() routines must be called after
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] (and its variants) or [sqlite3_reset()] and
** before [sqlite3_step()].
** Bindings are not cleared by the [sqlite3_reset()] routine.
** Unbound parameters are interpreted as NULL.
**
** These routines return [SQLITE_OK] on success or an error code if
** anything goes wrong.  [SQLITE_RANGE] is returned if the parameter
** index is out of range.  [SQLITE_NOMEM] is returned if malloc() fails.
** [SQLITE_MISUSE] might be returned if these routines are called on a
** virtual machine that is the wrong state or which has already been finalized.
** Detection of misuse is unreliable.  Applications should not depend
** on SQLITE_MISUSE returns.  SQLITE_MISUSE is intended to indicate a
** a logic error in the application.  Future versions of SQLite might
** panic rather than return SQLITE_MISUSE.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13506} The [SQL statement compiler] recognizes tokens of the forms
**          "?", "?NNN", "$VVV", ":VVV", and "@VVV" as SQL parameters,
**          where NNN is any sequence of one or more digits
**          and where VVV is any sequence of one or more alphanumeric
**          characters or "::" optionally followed by a string containing
**          no spaces and contained within parentheses.
**
** {H13509} The initial value of an SQL parameter is NULL.
**
** {H13512} The index of an "?" SQL parameter is one larger than the
**          largest index of SQL parameter to the left, or 1 if
**          the "?" is the leftmost SQL parameter.
**
** {H13515} The index of an "?NNN" SQL parameter is the integer NNN.
**
** {H13518} The index of an ":VVV", "$VVV", or "@VVV" SQL parameter is
**          the same as the index of leftmost occurrences of the same
**          parameter, or one more than the largest index over all
**          parameters to the left if this is the first occurrence
**          of this parameter, or 1 if this is the leftmost parameter.
**
** {H13521} The [SQL statement compiler] fails with an [SQLITE_RANGE]
**          error if the index of an SQL parameter is less than 1
**          or greater than the compile-time SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER
**          parameter.
**
** {H13524} Calls to [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,N,V,...)]
**          associate the value V with all SQL parameters having an
**          index of N in the [prepared statement] S.
**
** {H13527} Calls to [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,N,...)]
**          override prior calls with the same values of S and N.
**
** {H13530} Bindings established by [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,...)]
**          persist across calls to [sqlite3_reset(S)].
**
** {H13533} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] SQLite binds the first L
**          bytes of the BLOB or string pointed to by V, when L
**          is non-negative.
**
** {H13536} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)] or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] SQLite binds characters
**          from V through the first zero character when L is negative.
**
** {H13539} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is the special
**          constant [SQLITE_STATIC], SQLite assumes that the value V
**          is held in static unmanaged space that will not change
**          during the lifetime of the binding.
**
** {H13542} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is the special
**          constant [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], the routine makes a
**          private copy of the value V before it returns.
**
** {H13545} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is a pointer to
**          a function, SQLite invokes that function to destroy the
**          value V after it has finished using the value V.
**
** {H13548} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(S,N,V,L)] the value bound
**          is a BLOB of L bytes, or a zero-length BLOB if L is negative.
**
** {H13551} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_value(S,N,V)] the V argument may
**          be either a [protected sqlite3_value] object or an
**          [unprotected sqlite3_value] object.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int n, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int, double);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int, sqlite3_int64);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_null(sqlite3_stmt*, int);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_text(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const char*, int n, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int n);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number Of SQL Parameters {H13600} <S70300>
**
** This routine can be used to find the number of [SQL parameters]
** in a [prepared statement].  SQL parameters are tokens of the
** form "?", "?NNN", ":AAA", "$AAA", or "@AAA" that serve as
** placeholders for values that are [sqlite3_bind_blob | bound]
** to the parameters at a later time.
**
** This routine actually returns the index of the largest (rightmost)
** parameter. For all forms except ?NNN, this will correspond to the
** number of unique parameters.  If parameters of the ?NNN are used,
** there may be gaps in the list.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13601} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(S)] interface returns
**          the largest index of all SQL parameters in the
**          [prepared statement] S, or 0 if S contains no SQL parameters.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Name Of A Host Parameter {H13620} <S70300>
**
** This routine returns a pointer to the name of the n-th
** [SQL parameter] in a [prepared statement].
** SQL parameters of the form "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
** have a name which is the string "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
** respectively.
** In other words, the initial ":" or "$" or "@" or "?"
** is included as part of the name.
** Parameters of the form "?" without a following integer have no name
** and are also referred to as "anonymous parameters".
**
** The first host parameter has an index of 1, not 0.
**
** If the value n is out of range or if the n-th parameter is
** nameless, then NULL is returned.  The returned string is
** always in UTF-8 encoding even if the named parameter was
** originally specified as UTF-16 in [sqlite3_prepare16()] or
** [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13621} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(S,N)] interface returns
**          a UTF-8 rendering of the name of the SQL parameter in
**          the [prepared statement] S having index N, or
**          NULL if there is no SQL parameter with index N or if the
**          parameter with index N is an anonymous parameter "?".
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Index Of A Parameter With A Given Name {H13640} <S70300>
**
** Return the index of an SQL parameter given its name.  The
** index value returned is suitable for use as the second
** parameter to [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()].  A zero
** is returned if no matching parameter is found.  The parameter
** name must be given in UTF-8 even if the original statement
** was prepared from UTF-16 text using [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13641} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(S,N)] interface returns
**          the index of SQL parameter in the [prepared statement]
**          S whose name matches the UTF-8 string N, or 0 if there is
**          no match.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(sqlite3_stmt*, const char *zName);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Reset All Bindings On A Prepared Statement {H13660} <S70300>
**
** Contrary to the intuition of many, [sqlite3_reset()] does not reset
** the [sqlite3_bind_blob | bindings] on a [prepared statement].
** Use this routine to reset all host parameters to NULL.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13661} The [sqlite3_clear_bindings(S)] interface resets all SQL
**          parameter bindings in the [prepared statement] S back to NULL.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_clear_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number Of Columns In A Result Set {H13710} <S10700>
**
** Return the number of columns in the result set returned by the
** [prepared statement]. This routine returns 0 if pStmt is an SQL
** statement that does not return data (for example an [UPDATE]).
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13711} The [sqlite3_column_count(S)] interface returns the number of
**          columns in the result set generated by the [prepared statement] S,
**          or 0 if S does not generate a result set.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Column Names In A Result Set {H13720} <S10700>
**
** These routines return the name assigned to a particular column
** in the result set of a [SELECT] statement.  The sqlite3_column_name()
** interface returns a pointer to a zero-terminated UTF-8 string
** and sqlite3_column_name16() returns a pointer to a zero-terminated
** UTF-16 string.  The first parameter is the [prepared statement]
** that implements the [SELECT] statement. The second parameter is the
** column number.  The leftmost column is number 0.
**
** The returned string pointer is valid until either the [prepared statement]
** is destroyed by [sqlite3_finalize()] or until the next call to
** sqlite3_column_name() or sqlite3_column_name16() on the same column.
**
** If sqlite3_malloc() fails during the processing of either routine
** (for example during a conversion from UTF-8 to UTF-16) then a
** NULL pointer is returned.
**
** The name of a result column is the value of the "AS" clause for
** that column, if there is an AS clause.  If there is no AS clause
** then the name of the column is unspecified and may change from
** one release of SQLite to the next.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13721} A successful invocation of the [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)]
**          interface returns the name of the Nth column (where 0 is
**          the leftmost column) for the result set of the
**          [prepared statement] S as a zero-terminated UTF-8 string.
**
** {H13723} A successful invocation of the [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)]
**          interface returns the name of the Nth column (where 0 is
**          the leftmost column) for the result set of the
**          [prepared statement] S as a zero-terminated UTF-16 string
**          in the native byte order.
**
** {H13724} The [sqlite3_column_name()] and [sqlite3_column_name16()]
**          interfaces return a NULL pointer if they are unable to
**          allocate memory to hold their normal return strings.
**
** {H13725} If the N parameter to [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)] or
**          [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)] is out of range, then the
**          interfaces return a NULL pointer.
**
** {H13726} The strings returned by [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)] and
**          [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)] are valid until the next
**          call to either routine with the same S and N parameters
**          or until [sqlite3_finalize(S)] is called.
**
** {H13727} When a result column of a [SELECT] statement contains
**          an AS clause, the name of that column is the identifier
**          to the right of the AS keyword.
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_name16(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Source Of Data In A Query Result {H13740} <S10700>
**
** These routines provide a means to determine what column of what
** table in which database a result of a [SELECT] statement comes from.
** The name of the database or table or column can be returned as
** either a UTF-8 or UTF-16 string.  The _database_ routines return
** the database name, the _table_ routines return the table name, and
** the origin_ routines return the column name.
** The returned string is valid until the [prepared statement] is destroyed
** using [sqlite3_finalize()] or until the same information is requested
** again in a different encoding.
**
** The names returned are the original un-aliased names of the
** database, table, and column.
**
** The first argument to the following calls is a [prepared statement].
** These functions return information about the Nth column returned by
** the statement, where N is the second function argument.
**
** If the Nth column returned by the statement is an expression or
** subquery and is not a column value, then all of these functions return
** NULL.  These routine might also return NULL if a memory allocation error
** occurs.  Otherwise, they return the name of the attached database, table
** and column that query result column was extracted from.
**
** As with all other SQLite APIs, those postfixed with "16" return
** UTF-16 encoded strings, the other functions return UTF-8. {END}
**
** These APIs are only available if the library was compiled with the
** [SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA] C-preprocessor symbol defined.
**
** {A13751}
** If two or more threads call one or more of these routines against the same
** prepared statement and column at the same time then the results are
** undefined.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13741} The [sqlite3_column_database_name(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-8 zero-terminated name of the database from which the
**          Nth result column of the [prepared statement] S is extracted,
**          or NULL if the Nth column of S is a general expression
**          or if unable to allocate memory to store the name.
**
** {H13742} The [sqlite3_column_database_name16(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-16 native byte order zero-terminated name of the database
**          from which the Nth result column of the [prepared statement] S is
**          extracted, or NULL if the Nth column of S is a general expression
**          or if unable to allocate memory to store the name.
**
** {H13743} The [sqlite3_column_table_name(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-8 zero-terminated name of the table from which the
**          Nth result column of the [prepared statement] S is extracted,
**          or NULL if the Nth column of S is a general expression
**          or if unable to allocate memory to store the name.
**
** {H13744} The [sqlite3_column_table_name16(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-16 native byte order zero-terminated name of the table
**          from which the Nth result column of the [prepared statement] S is
**          extracted, or NULL if the Nth column of S is a general expression
**          or if unable to allocate memory to store the name.
**
** {H13745} The [sqlite3_column_origin_name(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-8 zero-terminated name of the table column from which the
**          Nth result column of the [prepared statement] S is extracted,
**          or NULL if the Nth column of S is a general expression
**          or if unable to allocate memory to store the name.
**
** {H13746} The [sqlite3_column_origin_name16(S,N)] interface returns either
**          the UTF-16 native byte order zero-terminated name of the table
**          column from which the Nth result column of the
**          [prepared statement] S is extracted, or NULL if the Nth column
**          of S is a general expression or if unable to allocate memory
**          to store the name.
**
** {H13748} The return values from
**          [sqlite3_column_database_name | column metadata interfaces]
**          are valid for the lifetime of the [prepared statement]
**          or until the encoding is changed by another metadata
**          interface call for the same prepared statement and column.
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A13751} If two or more threads call one or more
**          [sqlite3_column_database_name | column metadata interfaces]
**          for the same [prepared statement] and result column
**          at the same time then the results are undefined.
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_database_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_database_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_table_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_table_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_origin_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_origin_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Declared Datatype Of A Query Result {H13760} <S10700>
**
** The first parameter is a [prepared statement].
** If this statement is a [SELECT] statement and the Nth column of the
** returned result set of that [SELECT] is a table column (not an
** expression or subquery) then the declared type of the table
** column is returned.  If the Nth column of the result set is an
** expression or subquery, then a NULL pointer is returned.
** The returned string is always UTF-8 encoded. {END}
**
** For example, given the database schema:
**
** CREATE TABLE t1(c1 VARIANT);
**
** and the following statement to be compiled:
**
** SELECT c1 + 1, c1 FROM t1;
**
** this routine would return the string "VARIANT" for the second result
** column (i==1), and a NULL pointer for the first result column (i==0).
**
** SQLite uses dynamic run-time typing.  So just because a column
** is declared to contain a particular type does not mean that the
** data stored in that column is of the declared type.  SQLite is
** strongly typed, but the typing is dynamic not static.  Type
** is associated with individual values, not with the containers
** used to hold those values.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13761}  A successful call to [sqlite3_column_decltype(S,N)] returns a
**           zero-terminated UTF-8 string containing the declared datatype
**           of the table column that appears as the Nth column (numbered
**           from 0) of the result set to the [prepared statement] S.
**
** {H13762}  A successful call to [sqlite3_column_decltype16(S,N)]
**           returns a zero-terminated UTF-16 native byte order string
**           containing the declared datatype of the table column that appears
**           as the Nth column (numbered from 0) of the result set to the
**           [prepared statement] S.
**
** {H13763}  If N is less than 0 or N is greater than or equal to
**           the number of columns in the [prepared statement] S,
**           or if the Nth column of S is an expression or subquery rather
**           than a table column, or if a memory allocation failure
**           occurs during encoding conversions, then
**           calls to [sqlite3_column_decltype(S,N)] or
**           [sqlite3_column_decltype16(S,N)] return NULL.
*/
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_decltype(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_decltype16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Evaluate An SQL Statement {H13200} <S10000>
**
** After a [prepared statement] has been prepared using either
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or one of the legacy
** interfaces [sqlite3_prepare()] or [sqlite3_prepare16()], this function
** must be called one or more times to evaluate the statement.
**
** The details of the behavior of the sqlite3_step() interface depend
** on whether the statement was prepared using the newer "v2" interface
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or the older legacy
** interface [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()].  The use of the
** new "v2" interface is recommended for new applications but the legacy
** interface will continue to be supported.
**
** In the legacy interface, the return value will be either [SQLITE_BUSY],
** [SQLITE_DONE], [SQLITE_ROW], [SQLITE_ERROR], or [SQLITE_MISUSE].
** With the "v2" interface, any of the other [result codes] or
** [extended result codes] might be returned as well.
**
** [SQLITE_BUSY] means that the database engine was unable to acquire the
** database locks it needs to do its job.  If the statement is a [COMMIT]
** or occurs outside of an explicit transaction, then you can retry the
** statement.  If the statement is not a [COMMIT] and occurs within a
** explicit transaction then you should rollback the transaction before
** continuing.
**
** [SQLITE_DONE] means that the statement has finished executing
** successfully.  sqlite3_step() should not be called again on this virtual
** machine without first calling [sqlite3_reset()] to reset the virtual
** machine back to its initial state.
**
** If the SQL statement being executed returns any data, then [SQLITE_ROW]
** is returned each time a new row of data is ready for processing by the
** caller. The values may be accessed using the [column access functions].
** sqlite3_step() is called again to retrieve the next row of data.
**
** [SQLITE_ERROR] means that a run-time error (such as a constraint
** violation) has occurred.  sqlite3_step() should not be called again on
** the VM. More information may be found by calling [sqlite3_errmsg()].
** With the legacy interface, a more specific error code (for example,
** [SQLITE_INTERRUPT], [SQLITE_SCHEMA], [SQLITE_CORRUPT], and so forth)
** can be obtained by calling [sqlite3_reset()] on the
** [prepared statement].  In the "v2" interface,
** the more specific error code is returned directly by sqlite3_step().
**
** [SQLITE_MISUSE] means that the this routine was called inappropriately.
** Perhaps it was called on a [prepared statement] that has
** already been [sqlite3_finalize | finalized] or on one that had
** previously returned [SQLITE_ERROR] or [SQLITE_DONE].  Or it could
** be the case that the same database connection is being used by two or
** more threads at the same moment in time.
**
** <b>Goofy Interface Alert:</b> In the legacy interface, the sqlite3_step()
** API always returns a generic error code, [SQLITE_ERROR], following any
** error other than [SQLITE_BUSY] and [SQLITE_MISUSE].  You must call
** [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()] in order to find one of the
** specific [error codes] that better describes the error.
** We admit that this is a goofy design.  The problem has been fixed
** with the "v2" interface.  If you prepare all of your SQL statements
** using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] instead
** of the legacy [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()] interfaces,
** then the more specific [error codes] are returned directly
** by sqlite3_step().  The use of the "v2" interface is recommended.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13202}  If the [prepared statement] S is ready to be run, then
**           [sqlite3_step(S)] advances that prepared statement until
**           completion or until it is ready to return another row of the
**           result set, or until an [sqlite3_interrupt | interrupt]
**           or a run-time error occurs.
**
** {H15304}  When a call to [sqlite3_step(S)] causes the [prepared statement]
**           S to run to completion, the function returns [SQLITE_DONE].
**
** {H15306}  When a call to [sqlite3_step(S)] stops because it is ready to
**           return another row of the result set, it returns [SQLITE_ROW].
**
** {H15308}  If a call to [sqlite3_step(S)] encounters an
**           [sqlite3_interrupt | interrupt] or a run-time error,
**           it returns an appropriate error code that is not one of
**           [SQLITE_OK], [SQLITE_ROW], or [SQLITE_DONE].
**
** {H15310}  If an [sqlite3_interrupt | interrupt] or a run-time error
**           occurs during a call to [sqlite3_step(S)]
**           for a [prepared statement] S created using
**           legacy interfaces [sqlite3_prepare()] or
**           [sqlite3_prepare16()], then the function returns either
**           [SQLITE_ERROR], [SQLITE_BUSY], or [SQLITE_MISUSE].
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_step(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number of columns in a result set {H13770} <S10700>
**
** Returns the number of values in the current row of the result set.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13771}  After a call to [sqlite3_step(S)] that returns [SQLITE_ROW],
**           the [sqlite3_data_count(S)] routine will return the same value
**           as the [sqlite3_column_count(S)] function.
**
** {H13772}  After [sqlite3_step(S)] has returned any value other than
**           [SQLITE_ROW] or before [sqlite3_step(S)] has been called on the
**           [prepared statement] for the first time since it was
**           [sqlite3_prepare | prepared] or [sqlite3_reset | reset],
**           the [sqlite3_data_count(S)] routine returns zero.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_data_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Fundamental Datatypes {H10265} <S10110><S10120>
** KEYWORDS: SQLITE_TEXT
**
** {H10266} Every value in SQLite has one of five fundamental datatypes:
**
** <ul>
** <li> 64-bit signed integer
** <li> 64-bit IEEE floating point number
** <li> string
** <li> BLOB
** <li> NULL
** </ul> {END}
**
** These constants are codes for each of those types.
**
** Note that the SQLITE_TEXT constant was also used in SQLite version 2
** for a completely different meaning.  Software that links against both
** SQLite version 2 and SQLite version 3 should use SQLITE3_TEXT, not
** SQLITE_TEXT.
*/
#define SQLITE_INTEGER  1
#define SQLITE_FLOAT    2
#define SQLITE_BLOB     4
#define SQLITE_NULL     5
#ifdef SQLITE_TEXT
# undef SQLITE_TEXT
#else
# define SQLITE_TEXT     3
#endif
#define SQLITE3_TEXT     3

/*
** CAPI3REF: Result Values From A Query {H13800} <S10700>
** KEYWORDS: {column access functions}
**
** These routines form the "result set query" interface.
**
** These routines return information about a single column of the current
** result row of a query.  In every case the first argument is a pointer
** to the [prepared statement] that is being evaluated (the [sqlite3_stmt*]
** that was returned from [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or one of its variants)
** and the second argument is the index of the column for which information
** should be returned.  The leftmost column of the result set has the index 0.
**
** If the SQL statement does not currently point to a valid row, or if the
** column index is out of range, the result is undefined.
** These routines may only be called when the most recent call to
** [sqlite3_step()] has returned [SQLITE_ROW] and neither
** [sqlite3_reset()] nor [sqlite3_finalize()] have been called subsequently.
** If any of these routines are called after [sqlite3_reset()] or
** [sqlite3_finalize()] or after [sqlite3_step()] has returned
** something other than [SQLITE_ROW], the results are undefined.
** If [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()]
** are called from a different thread while any of these routines
** are pending, then the results are undefined.
**
** The sqlite3_column_type() routine returns the
** [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype code] for the initial data type
** of the result column.  The returned value is one of [SQLITE_INTEGER],
** [SQLITE_FLOAT], [SQLITE_TEXT], [SQLITE_BLOB], or [SQLITE_NULL].  The value
** returned by sqlite3_column_type() is only meaningful if no type
** conversions have occurred as described below.  After a type conversion,
** the value returned by sqlite3_column_type() is undefined.  Future
** versions of SQLite may change the behavior of sqlite3_column_type()
** following a type conversion.
**
** If the result is a BLOB or UTF-8 string then the sqlite3_column_bytes()
** routine returns the number of bytes in that BLOB or string.
** If the result is a UTF-16 string, then sqlite3_column_bytes() converts
** the string to UTF-8 and then returns the number of bytes.
** If the result is a numeric value then sqlite3_column_bytes() uses
** [sqlite3_snprintf()] to convert that value to a UTF-8 string and returns
** the number of bytes in that string.
** The value returned does not include the zero terminator at the end
** of the string.  For clarity: the value returned is the number of
** bytes in the string, not the number of characters.
**
** Strings returned by sqlite3_column_text() and sqlite3_column_text16(),
** even empty strings, are always zero terminated.  The return
** value from sqlite3_column_blob() for a zero-length BLOB is an arbitrary
** pointer, possibly even a NULL pointer.
**
** The sqlite3_column_bytes16() routine is similar to sqlite3_column_bytes()
** but leaves the result in UTF-16 in native byte order instead of UTF-8.
** The zero terminator is not included in this count.
**
** The object returned by [sqlite3_column_value()] is an
** [unprotected sqlite3_value] object.  An unprotected sqlite3_value object
** may only be used with [sqlite3_bind_value()] and [sqlite3_result_value()].
** If the [unprotected sqlite3_value] object returned by
** [sqlite3_column_value()] is used in any other way, including calls
** to routines like [sqlite3_value_int()], [sqlite3_value_text()],
** or [sqlite3_value_bytes()], then the behavior is undefined.
**
** These routines attempt to convert the value where appropriate.  For
** example, if the internal representation is FLOAT and a text result
** is requested, [sqlite3_snprintf()] is used internally to perform the
** conversion automatically.  The following table details the conversions
** that are applied:
**
** <blockquote>
** <table border="1">
** <tr><th> Internal<br>Type <th> Requested<br>Type <th>  Conversion
**
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td> INTEGER   <td> Result is 0
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Result is 0.0
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>   TEXT    <td> Result is NULL pointer
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>   BLOB    <td> Result is NULL pointer
** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>  FLOAT    <td> Convert from integer to float
** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>   TEXT    <td> ASCII rendering of the integer
** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>   BLOB    <td> Same as INTEGER->TEXT
** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td> INTEGER   <td> Convert from float to integer
** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td>   TEXT    <td> ASCII rendering of the float
** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td>   BLOB    <td> Same as FLOAT->TEXT
** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td> INTEGER   <td> Use atoi()
** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Use atof()
** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td>   BLOB    <td> No change
** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td> INTEGER   <td> Convert to TEXT then use atoi()
** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Convert to TEXT then use atof()
** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td>   TEXT    <td> Add a zero terminator if needed
** </table>
** </blockquote>
**
** The table above makes reference to standard C library functions atoi()
** and atof().  SQLite does not really use these functions.  It has its
** own equivalent internal routines.  The atoi() and atof() names are
** used in the table for brevity and because they are familiar to most
** C programmers.
**
** Note that when type conversions occur, pointers returned by prior
** calls to sqlite3_column_blob(), sqlite3_column_text(), and/or
** sqlite3_column_text16() may be invalidated.
** Type conversions and pointer invalidations might occur
** in the following cases:
**
** <ul>
** <li> The initial content is a BLOB and sqlite3_column_text() or
**      sqlite3_column_text16() is called.  A zero-terminator might
**      need to be added to the string.</li>
** <li> The initial content is UTF-8 text and sqlite3_column_bytes16() or
**      sqlite3_column_text16() is called.  The content must be converted
**      to UTF-16.</li>
** <li> The initial content is UTF-16 text and sqlite3_column_bytes() or
**      sqlite3_column_text() is called.  The content must be converted
**      to UTF-8.</li>
** </ul>
**
** Conversions between UTF-16be and UTF-16le are always done in place and do
** not invalidate a prior pointer, though of course the content of the buffer
** that the prior pointer points to will have been modified.  Other kinds
** of conversion are done in place when it is possible, but sometimes they
** are not possible and in those cases prior pointers are invalidated.
**
** The safest and easiest to remember policy is to invoke these routines
** in one of the following ways:
**
** <ul>
**  <li>sqlite3_column_text() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
**  <li>sqlite3_column_blob() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
**  <li>sqlite3_column_text16() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes16()</li>
** </ul>
**
** In other words, you should call sqlite3_column_text(),
** sqlite3_column_blob(), or sqlite3_column_text16() first to force the result
** into the desired format, then invoke sqlite3_column_bytes() or
** sqlite3_column_bytes16() to find the size of the result.  Do not mix calls
** to sqlite3_column_text() or sqlite3_column_blob() with calls to
** sqlite3_column_bytes16(), and do not mix calls to sqlite3_column_text16()
** with calls to sqlite3_column_bytes().
**
** The pointers returned are valid until a type conversion occurs as
** described above, or until [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or
** [sqlite3_finalize()] is called.  The memory space used to hold strings
** and BLOBs is freed automatically.  Do <b>not</b> pass the pointers returned
** [sqlite3_column_blob()], [sqlite3_column_text()], etc. into
** [sqlite3_free()].
**
** If a memory allocation error occurs during the evaluation of any
** of these routines, a default value is returned.  The default value
** is either the integer 0, the floating point number 0.0, or a NULL
** pointer.  Subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] will return
** [SQLITE_NOMEM].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13803} The [sqlite3_column_blob(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          the [prepared statement] S into a BLOB and then returns a
**          pointer to the converted value.
**
** {H13806} The [sqlite3_column_bytes(S,N)] interface returns the
**          number of bytes in the BLOB or string (exclusive of the
**          zero terminator on the string) that was returned by the
**          most recent call to [sqlite3_column_blob(S,N)] or
**          [sqlite3_column_text(S,N)].
**
** {H13809} The [sqlite3_column_bytes16(S,N)] interface returns the
**          number of bytes in the string (exclusive of the
**          zero terminator on the string) that was returned by the
**          most recent call to [sqlite3_column_text16(S,N)].
**
** {H13812} The [sqlite3_column_double(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for the
**          [prepared statement] S into a floating point value and
**          returns a copy of that value.
**
** {H13815} The [sqlite3_column_int(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for the
**          [prepared statement] S into a 64-bit signed integer and
**          returns the lower 32 bits of that integer.
**
** {H13818} The [sqlite3_column_int64(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for the
**          [prepared statement] S into a 64-bit signed integer and
**          returns a copy of that integer.
**
** {H13821} The [sqlite3_column_text(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          the [prepared statement] S into a zero-terminated UTF-8
**          string and returns a pointer to that string.
**
** {H13824} The [sqlite3_column_text16(S,N)] interface converts the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for the
**          [prepared statement] S into a zero-terminated 2-byte
**          aligned UTF-16 native byte order string and returns
**          a pointer to that string.
**
** {H13827} The [sqlite3_column_type(S,N)] interface returns
**          one of [SQLITE_NULL], [SQLITE_INTEGER], [SQLITE_FLOAT],
**          [SQLITE_TEXT], or [SQLITE_BLOB] as appropriate for
**          the Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          the [prepared statement] S.
**
** {H13830} The [sqlite3_column_value(S,N)] interface returns a
**          pointer to an [unprotected sqlite3_value] object for the
**          Nth column in the current row of the result set for
**          the [prepared statement] S.
*/
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_bytes(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_bytes16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API double sqlite3_column_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_column_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API const unsigned char *sqlite3_column_text(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_type(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_value *sqlite3_column_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Destroy A Prepared Statement Object {H13300} <S70300><S30100>
**
** The sqlite3_finalize() function is called to delete a [prepared statement].
** If the statement was executed successfully or not executed at all, then
** SQLITE_OK is returned. If execution of the statement failed then an
** [error code] or [extended error code] is returned.
**
** This routine can be called at any point during the execution of the
** [prepared statement].  If the virtual machine has not
** completed execution when this routine is called, that is like
** encountering an error or an [sqlite3_interrupt | interrupt].
** Incomplete updates may be rolled back and transactions canceled,
** depending on the circumstances, and the
** [error code] returned will be [SQLITE_ABORT].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H11302} The [sqlite3_finalize(S)] interface destroys the
**          [prepared statement] S and releases all
**          memory and file resources held by that object.
**
** {H11304} If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for the
**          [prepared statement] S returned an error,
**          then [sqlite3_finalize(S)] returns that same error.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_finalize(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Reset A Prepared Statement Object {H13330} <S70300>
**
** The sqlite3_reset() function is called to reset a [prepared statement]
** object back to its initial state, ready to be re-executed.
** Any SQL statement variables that had values bound to them using
** the [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_*() API] retain their values.
** Use [sqlite3_clear_bindings()] to reset the bindings.
**
** {H11332} The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface resets the [prepared statement] S
**          back to the beginning of its program.
**
** {H11334} If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for the
**          [prepared statement] S returned [SQLITE_ROW] or [SQLITE_DONE],
**          or if [sqlite3_step(S)] has never before been called on S,
**          then [sqlite3_reset(S)] returns [SQLITE_OK].
**
** {H11336} If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for the
**          [prepared statement] S indicated an error, then
**          [sqlite3_reset(S)] returns an appropriate [error code].
**
** {H11338} The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface does not change the values
**          of any [sqlite3_bind_blob|bindings] on the [prepared statement] S.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_reset(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Create Or Redefine SQL Functions {H16100} <S20200>
** KEYWORDS: {function creation routines}
** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL function}
** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL functions}
**
** These two functions (collectively known as "function creation routines")
** are used to add SQL functions or aggregates or to redefine the behavior
** of existing SQL functions or aggregates.  The only difference between the
** two is that the second parameter, the name of the (scalar) function or
** aggregate, is encoded in UTF-8 for sqlite3_create_function() and UTF-16
** for sqlite3_create_function16().
**
** The first parameter is the [database connection] to which the SQL
** function is to be added.  If a single program uses more than one database
** connection internally, then SQL functions must be added individually to
** each database connection.
**
** The second parameter is the name of the SQL function to be created or
** redefined.  The length of the name is limited to 255 bytes, exclusive of
** the zero-terminator.  Note that the name length limit is in bytes, not
** characters.  Any attempt to create a function with a longer name
** will result in [SQLITE_ERROR] being returned.
**
** The third parameter is the number of arguments that the SQL function or
** aggregate takes. If this parameter is negative, then the SQL function or
** aggregate may take any number of arguments.
**
** The fourth parameter, eTextRep, specifies what
** [SQLITE_UTF8 | text encoding] this SQL function prefers for
** its parameters.  Any SQL function implementation should be able to work
** work with UTF-8, UTF-16le, or UTF-16be.  But some implementations may be
** more efficient with one encoding than another.  It is allowed to
** invoke sqlite3_create_function() or sqlite3_create_function16() multiple
** times with the same function but with different values of eTextRep.
** When multiple implementations of the same function are available, SQLite
** will pick the one that involves the least amount of data conversion.
** If there is only a single implementation which does not care what text
** encoding is used, then the fourth argument should be [SQLITE_ANY].
**
** The fifth parameter is an arbitrary pointer.  The implementation of the
** function can gain access to this pointer using [sqlite3_user_data()].
**
** The seventh, eighth and ninth parameters, xFunc, xStep and xFinal, are
** pointers to C-language functions that implement the SQL function or
** aggregate. A scalar SQL function requires an implementation of the xFunc
** callback only, NULL pointers should be passed as the xStep and xFinal
** parameters. An aggregate SQL function requires an implementation of xStep
** and xFinal and NULL should be passed for xFunc. To delete an existing
** SQL function or aggregate, pass NULL for all three function callbacks.
**
** It is permitted to register multiple implementations of the same
** functions with the same name but with either differing numbers of
** arguments or differing preferred text encodings.  SQLite will use
** the implementation most closely matches the way in which the
** SQL function is used.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H16103} The [sqlite3_create_function16()] interface behaves exactly
**          like [sqlite3_create_function()] in every way except that it
**          interprets the zFunctionName argument as zero-terminated UTF-16
**          native byte order instead of as zero-terminated UTF-8.
**
** {H16106} A successful invocation of
**          the [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,E,...)] interface registers
**          or replaces callback functions in the [database connection] D
**          used to implement the SQL function named X with N parameters
**          and having a preferred text encoding of E.
**
** {H16109} A successful call to [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,E,P,F,S,L)]
**          replaces the P, F, S, and L values from any prior calls with
**          the same D, X, N, and E values.
**
** {H16112} The [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,...)] interface fails with
**          a return code of [SQLITE_ERROR] if the SQL function name X is
**          longer than 255 bytes exclusive of the zero terminator.
**
** {H16118} Either F must be NULL and S and L are non-NULL or else F
**          is non-NULL and S and L are NULL, otherwise
**          [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,E,P,F,S,L)] returns [SQLITE_ERROR].
**
** {H16121} The [sqlite3_create_function(D,...)] interface fails with an
**          error code of [SQLITE_BUSY] if there exist [prepared statements]
**          associated with the [database connection] D.
**
** {H16124} The [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,...)] interface fails with an
**          error code of [SQLITE_ERROR] if parameter N (specifying the number
**          of arguments to the SQL function being registered) is less
**          than -1 or greater than 127.
**
** {H16127} When N is non-negative, the [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,...)]
**          interface causes callbacks to be invoked for the SQL function
**          named X when the number of arguments to the SQL function is
**          exactly N.
**
** {H16130} When N is -1, the [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,...)]
**          interface causes callbacks to be invoked for the SQL function
**          named X with any number of arguments.
**
** {H16133} When calls to [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,...)]
**          specify multiple implementations of the same function X
**          and when one implementation has N>=0 and the other has N=(-1)
**          the implementation with a non-zero N is preferred.
**
** {H16136} When calls to [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,E,...)]
**          specify multiple implementations of the same function X with
**          the same number of arguments N but with different
**          encodings E, then the implementation where E matches the
**          database encoding is preferred.
**
** {H16139} For an aggregate SQL function created using
**          [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,E,P,0,S,L)] the finalizer
**          function L will always be invoked exactly once if the
**          step function S is called one or more times.
**
** {H16142} When SQLite invokes either the xFunc or xStep function of
**          an application-defined SQL function or aggregate created
**          by [sqlite3_create_function()] or [sqlite3_create_function16()],
**          then the array of [sqlite3_value] objects passed as the
**          third parameter are always [protected sqlite3_value] objects.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function(
  sqlite3 *db,
  const char *zFunctionName,
  int nArg,
  int eTextRep,
  void *pApp,
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function16(
  sqlite3 *db,
  const void *zFunctionName,
  int nArg,
  int eTextRep,
  void *pApp,
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Text Encodings {H10267} <S50200> <H16100>
**
** These constant define integer codes that represent the various
** text encodings supported by SQLite.
*/
#define SQLITE_UTF8           1
#define SQLITE_UTF16LE        2
#define SQLITE_UTF16BE        3
#define SQLITE_UTF16          4    /* Use native byte order */
#define SQLITE_ANY            5    /* sqlite3_create_function only */
#define SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED  8    /* sqlite3_create_collation only */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Deprecated Functions
** DEPRECATED
**
** These functions are [deprecated].  In order to maintain
** backwards compatibility with older code, these functions continue 
** to be supported.  However, new applications should avoid
** the use of these functions.  To help encourage people to avoid
** using these functions, we are not going to tell you want they do.
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_aggregate_count(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_expired(sqlite3_stmt*);
SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_transfer_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*, sqlite3_stmt*);
SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_global_recover(void);
SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED void sqlite3_thread_cleanup(void);
SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_memory_alarm(void(*)(void*,sqlite3_int64,int),void*,sqlite3_int64);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Obtaining SQL Function Parameter Values {H15100} <S20200>
**
** The C-language implementation of SQL functions and aggregates uses
** this set of interface routines to access the parameter values on
** the function or aggregate.
**
** The xFunc (for scalar functions) or xStep (for aggregates) parameters
** to [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
** define callbacks that implement the SQL functions and aggregates.
** The 4th parameter to these callbacks is an array of pointers to
** [protected sqlite3_value] objects.  There is one [sqlite3_value] object for
** each parameter to the SQL function.  These routines are used to
** extract values from the [sqlite3_value] objects.
**
** These routines work only with [protected sqlite3_value] objects.
** Any attempt to use these routines on an [unprotected sqlite3_value]
** object results in undefined behavior.
**
** These routines work just like the corresponding [column access functions]
** except that  these routines take a single [protected sqlite3_value] object
** pointer instead of a [sqlite3_stmt*] pointer and an integer column number.
**
** The sqlite3_value_text16() interface extracts a UTF-16 string
** in the native byte-order of the host machine.  The
** sqlite3_value_text16be() and sqlite3_value_text16le() interfaces
** extract UTF-16 strings as big-endian and little-endian respectively.
**
** The sqlite3_value_numeric_type() interface attempts to apply
** numeric affinity to the value.  This means that an attempt is
** made to convert the value to an integer or floating point.  If
** such a conversion is possible without loss of information (in other
** words, if the value is a string that looks like a number)
** then the conversion is performed.  Otherwise no conversion occurs.
** The [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype] after conversion is returned.
**
** Please pay particular attention to the fact that the pointer returned
** from [sqlite3_value_blob()], [sqlite3_value_text()], or
** [sqlite3_value_text16()] can be invalidated by a subsequent call to
** [sqlite3_value_bytes()], [sqlite3_value_bytes16()], [sqlite3_value_text()],
** or [sqlite3_value_text16()].
**
** These routines must be called from the same thread as
** the SQL function that supplied the [sqlite3_value*] parameters.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H15103} The [sqlite3_value_blob(V)] interface converts the
**          [protected sqlite3_value] object V into a BLOB and then
**          returns a pointer to the converted value.
**
** {H15106} The [sqlite3_value_bytes(V)] interface returns the
**          number of bytes in the BLOB or string (exclusive of the
**          zero terminator on the string) that was returned by the
**          most recent call to [sqlite3_value_blob(V)] or
**          [sqlite3_value_text(V)].
**
** {H15109} The [sqlite3_value_bytes16(V)] interface returns the
**          number of bytes in the string (exclusive of the
**          zero terminator on the string) that was returned by the
**          most recent call to [sqlite3_value_text16(V)],
**          [sqlite3_value_text16be(V)], or [sqlite3_value_text16le(V)].
**
** {H15112} The [sqlite3_value_double(V)] interface converts the
**          [protected sqlite3_value] object V into a floating point value and
**          returns a copy of that value.
**
** {H15115} The [sqlite3_value_int(V)] interface converts the
**          [protected sqlite3_value] object V into a 64-bit signed integer and
**          returns the lower 32 bits of that integer.
**
** {H15118} The [sqlite3_value_int64(V)] interface converts the
**          [protected sqlite3_value] object V into a 64-bit signed integer and
**          returns a copy of that integer.
**
** {H15121} The [sqlite3_value_text(V)] interface converts the
**          [protected sqlite3_value] object V into a zero-terminated UTF-8
**          string and returns a pointer to that string.
**
** {H15124} The [sqlite3_value_text16(V)] interface converts the
**          [protected sqlite3_value] object V into a zero-terminated 2-byte
**          aligned UTF-16 native byte order
**          string and returns a pointer to that string.
**
** {H15127} The [sqlite3_value_text16be(V)] interface converts the
**          [protected sqlite3_value] object V into a zero-terminated 2-byte
**          aligned UTF-16 big-endian
**          string and returns a pointer to that string.
**
** {H15130} The [sqlite3_value_text16le(V)] interface converts the
**          [protected sqlite3_value] object V into a zero-terminated 2-byte
**          aligned UTF-16 little-endian
**          string and returns a pointer to that string.
**
** {H15133} The [sqlite3_value_type(V)] interface returns
**          one of [SQLITE_NULL], [SQLITE_INTEGER], [SQLITE_FLOAT],
**          [SQLITE_TEXT], or [SQLITE_BLOB] as appropriate for
**          the [sqlite3_value] object V.
**
** {H15136} The [sqlite3_value_numeric_type(V)] interface converts
**          the [protected sqlite3_value] object V into either an integer or
**          a floating point value if it can do so without loss of
**          information, and returns one of [SQLITE_NULL],
**          [SQLITE_INTEGER], [SQLITE_FLOAT], [SQLITE_TEXT], or
**          [SQLITE_BLOB] as appropriate for the
**          [protected sqlite3_value] object V after the conversion attempt.
*/
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_blob(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_bytes(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_bytes16(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API double sqlite3_value_double(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_int(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_value_int64(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const unsigned char *sqlite3_value_text(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16le(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16be(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_type(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_numeric_type(sqlite3_value*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Obtain Aggregate Function Context {H16210} <S20200>
**
** The implementation of aggregate SQL functions use this routine to allocate
** a structure for storing their state.
**
** The first time the sqlite3_aggregate_context() routine is called for a
** particular aggregate, SQLite allocates nBytes of memory, zeroes out that
** memory, and returns a pointer to it. On second and subsequent calls to
** sqlite3_aggregate_context() for the same aggregate function index,
** the same buffer is returned. The implementation of the aggregate can use
** the returned buffer to accumulate data.
**
** SQLite automatically frees the allocated buffer when the aggregate
** query concludes.
**
** The first parameter should be a copy of the
** [sqlite3_context | SQL function context] that is the first parameter
** to the callback routine that implements the aggregate function.
**
** This routine must be called from the same thread in which
** the aggregate SQL function is running.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H16211} The first invocation of [sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N)] for
**          a particular instance of an aggregate function (for a particular
**          context C) causes SQLite to allocate N bytes of memory,
**          zero that memory, and return a pointer to the allocated memory.
**
** {H16213} If a memory allocation error occurs during
**          [sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N)] then the function returns 0.
**
** {H16215} Second and subsequent invocations of
**          [sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N)] for the same context pointer C
**          ignore the N parameter and return a pointer to the same
**          block of memory returned by the first invocation.
**
** {H16217} The memory allocated by [sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N)] is
**          automatically freed on the next call to [sqlite3_reset()]
**          or [sqlite3_finalize()] for the [prepared statement] containing
**          the aggregate function associated with context C.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_aggregate_context(sqlite3_context*, int nBytes);

/*
** CAPI3REF: User Data For Functions {H16240} <S20200>
**
** The sqlite3_user_data() interface returns a copy of
** the pointer that was the pUserData parameter (the 5th parameter)
** of the [sqlite3_create_function()]
** and [sqlite3_create_function16()] routines that originally
** registered the application defined function. {END}
**
** This routine must be called from the same thread in which
** the application-defined function is running.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H16243} The [sqlite3_user_data(C)] interface returns a copy of the
**          P pointer from the [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,E,P,F,S,L)]
**          or [sqlite3_create_function16(D,X,N,E,P,F,S,L)] call that
**          registered the SQL function associated with [sqlite3_context] C.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_user_data(sqlite3_context*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Database Connection For Functions {H16250} <S60600><S20200>
**
** The sqlite3_context_db_handle() interface returns a copy of
** the pointer to the [database connection] (the 1st parameter)
** of the [sqlite3_create_function()]
** and [sqlite3_create_function16()] routines that originally
** registered the application defined function.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H16253} The [sqlite3_context_db_handle(C)] interface returns a copy of the
**          D pointer from the [sqlite3_create_function(D,X,N,E,P,F,S,L)]
**          or [sqlite3_create_function16(D,X,N,E,P,F,S,L)] call that
**          registered the SQL function associated with [sqlite3_context] C.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3 *sqlite3_context_db_handle(sqlite3_context*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Function Auxiliary Data {H16270} <S20200>
**
** The following two functions may be used by scalar SQL functions to
** associate metadata with argument values. If the same value is passed to
** multiple invocations of the same SQL function during query execution, under
** some circumstances the associated metadata may be preserved. This may
** be used, for example, to add a regular-expression matching scalar
** function. The compiled version of the regular expression is stored as
** metadata associated with the SQL value passed as the regular expression
** pattern.  The compiled regular expression can be reused on multiple
** invocations of the same function so that the original pattern string
** does not need to be recompiled on each invocation.
**
** The sqlite3_get_auxdata() interface returns a pointer to the metadata
** associated by the sqlite3_set_auxdata() function with the Nth argument
** value to the application-defined function. If no metadata has been ever
** been set for the Nth argument of the function, or if the corresponding
** function parameter has changed since the meta-data was set,
** then sqlite3_get_auxdata() returns a NULL pointer.
**
** The sqlite3_set_auxdata() interface saves the metadata
** pointed to by its 3rd parameter as the metadata for the N-th
** argument of the application-defined function.  Subsequent
** calls to sqlite3_get_auxdata() might return this data, if it has
** not been destroyed.
** If it is not NULL, SQLite will invoke the destructor
** function given by the 4th parameter to sqlite3_set_auxdata() on
** the metadata when the corresponding function parameter changes
** or when the SQL statement completes, whichever comes first.
**
** SQLite is free to call the destructor and drop metadata on any
** parameter of any function at any time.  The only guarantee is that
** the destructor will be called before the metadata is dropped.
**
** In practice, metadata is preserved between function calls for
** expressions that are constant at compile time. This includes literal
** values and SQL variables.
**
** These routines must be called from the same thread in which
** the SQL function is running.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H16272} The [sqlite3_get_auxdata(C,N)] interface returns a pointer
**          to metadata associated with the Nth parameter of the SQL function
**          whose context is C, or NULL if there is no metadata associated
**          with that parameter.
**
** {H16274} The [sqlite3_set_auxdata(C,N,P,D)] interface assigns a metadata
**          pointer P to the Nth parameter of the SQL function with context C.
**
** {H16276} SQLite will invoke the destructor D with a single argument
**          which is the metadata pointer P following a call to
**          [sqlite3_set_auxdata(C,N,P,D)] when SQLite ceases to hold
**          the metadata.
**
** {H16277} SQLite ceases to hold metadata for an SQL function parameter
**          when the value of that parameter changes.
**
** {H16278} When [sqlite3_set_auxdata(C,N,P,D)] is invoked, the destructor
**          is called for any prior metadata associated with the same function
**          context C and parameter N.
**
** {H16279} SQLite will call destructors for any metadata it is holding
**          in a particular [prepared statement] S when either
**          [sqlite3_reset(S)] or [sqlite3_finalize(S)] is called.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_get_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_set_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N, void*, void (*)(void*));


/*
** CAPI3REF: Constants Defining Special Destructor Behavior {H10280} <S30100>
**
** These are special values for the destructor that is passed in as the
** final argument to routines like [sqlite3_result_blob()].  If the destructor
** argument is SQLITE_STATIC, it means that the content pointer is constant
** and will never change.  It does not need to be destroyed.  The
** SQLITE_TRANSIENT value means that the content will likely change in
** the near future and that SQLite should make its own private copy of
** the content before returning.
**
** The typedef is necessary to work around problems in certain
** C++ compilers.  See ticket #2191.
*/
typedef void (*sqlite3_destructor_type)(void*);
#define SQLITE_STATIC      ((sqlite3_destructor_type)0)
#define SQLITE_TRANSIENT   ((sqlite3_destructor_type)-1)

/*
** CAPI3REF: Setting The Result Of An SQL Function {H16400} <S20200>
**
** These routines are used by the xFunc or xFinal callbacks that
** implement SQL functions and aggregates.  See
** [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
** for additional information.
**
** These functions work very much like the [parameter binding] family of
** functions used to bind values to host parameters in prepared statements.
** Refer to the [SQL parameter] documentation for additional information.
**
** The sqlite3_result_blob() interface sets the result from
** an application-defined function to be the BLOB whose content is pointed
** to by the second parameter and which is N bytes long where N is the
** third parameter.
**
** The sqlite3_result_zeroblob() interfaces set the result of
** the application-defined function to be a BLOB containing all zero
** bytes and N bytes in size, where N is the value of the 2nd parameter.
**
** The sqlite3_result_double() interface sets the result from
** an application-defined function to be a floating point value specified
** by its 2nd argument.
**
** The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16() functions
** cause the implemented SQL function to throw an exception.
** SQLite uses the string pointed to by the
** 2nd parameter of sqlite3_result_error() or sqlite3_result_error16()
** as the text of an error message.  SQLite interprets the error
** message string from sqlite3_result_error() as UTF-8. SQLite
** interprets the string from sqlite3_result_error16() as UTF-16 in native
** byte order.  If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error()
** or sqlite3_result_error16() is negative then SQLite takes as the error
** message all text up through the first zero character.
** If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error() or
** sqlite3_result_error16() is non-negative then SQLite takes that many
** bytes (not characters) from the 2nd parameter as the error message.
** The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16()
** routines make a private copy of the error message text before
** they return.  Hence, the calling function can deallocate or
** modify the text after they return without harm.
** The sqlite3_result_error_code() function changes the error code
** returned by SQLite as a result of an error in a function.  By default,
** the error code is SQLITE_ERROR.  A subsequent call to sqlite3_result_error()
** or sqlite3_result_error16() resets the error code to SQLITE_ERROR.
**
** The sqlite3_result_toobig() interface causes SQLite to throw an error
** indicating that a string or BLOB is to long to represent.
**
** The sqlite3_result_nomem() interface causes SQLite to throw an error
** indicating that a memory allocation failed.
**
** The sqlite3_result_int() interface sets the return value
** of the application-defined function to be the 32-bit signed integer
** value given in the 2nd argument.
** The sqlite3_result_int64() interface sets the return value
** of the application-defined function to be the 64-bit signed integer
** value given in the 2nd argument.
**
** The sqlite3_result_null() interface sets the return value
** of the application-defined function to be NULL.
**
** The sqlite3_result_text(), sqlite3_result_text16(),
** sqlite3_result_text16le(), and sqlite3_result_text16be() interfaces
** set the return value of the application-defined function to be
** a text string which is represented as UTF-8, UTF-16 native byte order,
** UTF-16 little endian, or UTF-16 big endian, respectively.
** SQLite takes the text result from the application from
** the 2nd parameter of the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces.
** If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** is negative, then SQLite takes result text from the 2nd parameter
** through the first zero character.
** If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** is non-negative, then as many bytes (not characters) of the text
** pointed to by the 2nd parameter are taken as the application-defined
** function result.
** If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** or sqlite3_result_blob is a non-NULL pointer, then SQLite calls that
** function as the destructor on the text or BLOB result when it has
** finished using that result.
** If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces or
** sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_STATIC, then SQLite
** assumes that the text or BLOB result is in constant space and does not
** copy the it or call a destructor when it has finished using that result.
** If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** or sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_TRANSIENT
** then SQLite makes a copy of the result into space obtained from
** from [sqlite3_malloc()] before it returns.
**
** The sqlite3_result_value() interface sets the result of
** the application-defined function to be a copy the
** [unprotected sqlite3_value] object specified by the 2nd parameter.  The
** sqlite3_result_value() interface makes a copy of the [sqlite3_value]
** so that the [sqlite3_value] specified in the parameter may change or
** be deallocated after sqlite3_result_value() returns without harm.
** A [protected sqlite3_value] object may always be used where an
** [unprotected sqlite3_value] object is required, so either
** kind of [sqlite3_value] object can be used with this interface.
**
** If these routines are called from within the different thread
** than the one containing the application-defined function that received
** the [sqlite3_context] pointer, the results are undefined.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H16403} The default return value from any SQL function is NULL.
**
** {H16406} The [sqlite3_result_blob(C,V,N,D)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be a BLOB that is N bytes
**          in length and with content pointed to by V.
**
** {H16409} The [sqlite3_result_double(C,V)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be the floating point value V.
**
** {H16412} The [sqlite3_result_error(C,V,N)] interface changes the return
**          value of function C to be an exception with error code
**          [SQLITE_ERROR] and a UTF-8 error message copied from V up to the
**          first zero byte or until N bytes are read if N is positive.
**
** {H16415} The [sqlite3_result_error16(C,V,N)] interface changes the return
**          value of function C to be an exception with error code
**          [SQLITE_ERROR] and a UTF-16 native byte order error message
**          copied from V up to the first zero terminator or until N bytes
**          are read if N is positive.
**
** {H16418} The [sqlite3_result_error_toobig(C)] interface changes the return
**          value of the function C to be an exception with error code
**          [SQLITE_TOOBIG] and an appropriate error message.
**
** {H16421} The [sqlite3_result_error_nomem(C)] interface changes the return
**          value of the function C to be an exception with error code
**          [SQLITE_NOMEM] and an appropriate error message.
**
** {H16424} The [sqlite3_result_error_code(C,E)] interface changes the return
**          value of the function C to be an exception with error code E.
**          The error message text is unchanged.
**
** {H16427} The [sqlite3_result_int(C,V)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be the 32-bit integer value V.
**
** {H16430} The [sqlite3_result_int64(C,V)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be the 64-bit integer value V.
**
** {H16433} The [sqlite3_result_null(C)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be NULL.
**
** {H16436} The [sqlite3_result_text(C,V,N,D)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be the UTF-8 string
**          V up to the first zero if N is negative
**          or the first N bytes of V if N is non-negative.
**
** {H16439} The [sqlite3_result_text16(C,V,N,D)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be the UTF-16 native byte order
**          string V up to the first zero if N is negative
**          or the first N bytes of V if N is non-negative.
**
** {H16442} The [sqlite3_result_text16be(C,V,N,D)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be the UTF-16 big-endian
**          string V up to the first zero if N is negative
**          or the first N bytes or V if N is non-negative.
**
** {H16445} The [sqlite3_result_text16le(C,V,N,D)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be the UTF-16 little-endian
**          string V up to the first zero if N is negative
**          or the first N bytes of V if N is non-negative.
**
** {H16448} The [sqlite3_result_value(C,V)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be the [unprotected sqlite3_value]
**          object V.
**
** {H16451} The [sqlite3_result_zeroblob(C,N)] interface changes the
**          return value of function C to be an N-byte BLOB of all zeros.
**
** {H16454} The [sqlite3_result_error()] and [sqlite3_result_error16()]
**          interfaces make a copy of their error message strings before
**          returning.
**
** {H16457} If the D destructor parameter to [sqlite3_result_blob(C,V,N,D)],
**          [sqlite3_result_text(C,V,N,D)], [sqlite3_result_text16(C,V,N,D)],
**          [sqlite3_result_text16be(C,V,N,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_result_text16le(C,V,N,D)] is the constant [SQLITE_STATIC]
**          then no destructor is ever called on the pointer V and SQLite
**          assumes that V is immutable.
**
** {H16460} If the D destructor parameter to [sqlite3_result_blob(C,V,N,D)],
**          [sqlite3_result_text(C,V,N,D)], [sqlite3_result_text16(C,V,N,D)],
**          [sqlite3_result_text16be(C,V,N,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_result_text16le(C,V,N,D)] is the constant
**          [SQLITE_TRANSIENT] then the interfaces makes a copy of the
**          content of V and retains the copy.
**
** {H16463} If the D destructor parameter to [sqlite3_result_blob(C,V,N,D)],
**          [sqlite3_result_text(C,V,N,D)], [sqlite3_result_text16(C,V,N,D)],
**          [sqlite3_result_text16be(C,V,N,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_result_text16le(C,V,N,D)] is some value other than
**          the constants [SQLITE_STATIC] and [SQLITE_TRANSIENT] then
**          SQLite will invoke the destructor D with V as its only argument
**          when it has finished with the V value.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_blob(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_double(sqlite3_context*, double);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_toobig(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_nomem(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_code(sqlite3_context*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_int(sqlite3_context*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_int64(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_int64);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_null(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16le(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16be(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_value(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_zeroblob(sqlite3_context*, int n);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Define New Collating Sequences {H16600} <S20300>
**
** These functions are used to add new collation sequences to the
** [database connection] specified as the first argument.
**
** The name of the new collation sequence is specified as a UTF-8 string
** for sqlite3_create_collation() and sqlite3_create_collation_v2()
** and a UTF-16 string for sqlite3_create_collation16(). In all cases
** the name is passed as the second function argument.
**
** The third argument may be one of the constants [SQLITE_UTF8],
** [SQLITE_UTF16LE] or [SQLITE_UTF16BE], indicating that the user-supplied
** routine expects to be passed pointers to strings encoded using UTF-8,
** UTF-16 little-endian, or UTF-16 big-endian, respectively. The
** third argument might also be [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED] to indicate that
** the routine expects pointers to 16-bit word aligned strings
** of UTF-16 in the native byte order of the host computer.
**
** A pointer to the user supplied routine must be passed as the fifth
** argument.  If it is NULL, this is the same as deleting the collation
** sequence (so that SQLite cannot call it anymore).
** Each time the application supplied function is invoked, it is passed
** as its first parameter a copy of the void* passed as the fourth argument
** to sqlite3_create_collation() or sqlite3_create_collation16().
**
** The remaining arguments to the application-supplied routine are two strings,
** each represented by a (length, data) pair and encoded in the encoding
** that was passed as the third argument when the collation sequence was
** registered. {END}  The application defined collation routine should
** return negative, zero or positive if the first string is less than,
** equal to, or greater than the second string. i.e. (STRING1 - STRING2).
**
** The sqlite3_create_collation_v2() works like sqlite3_create_collation()
** except that it takes an extra argument which is a destructor for
** the collation.  The destructor is called when the collation is
** destroyed and is passed a copy of the fourth parameter void* pointer
** of the sqlite3_create_collation_v2().
** Collations are destroyed when they are overridden by later calls to the
** collation creation functions or when the [database connection] is closed
** using [sqlite3_close()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H16603} A successful call to the
**          [sqlite3_create_collation_v2(B,X,E,P,F,D)] interface
**          registers function F as the comparison function used to
**          implement collation X on the [database connection] B for
**          databases having encoding E.
**
** {H16604} SQLite understands the X parameter to
**          [sqlite3_create_collation_v2(B,X,E,P,F,D)] as a zero-terminated
**          UTF-8 string in which case is ignored for ASCII characters and
**          is significant for non-ASCII characters.
**
** {H16606} Successive calls to [sqlite3_create_collation_v2(B,X,E,P,F,D)]
**          with the same values for B, X, and E, override prior values
**          of P, F, and D.
**
** {H16609} If the destructor D in [sqlite3_create_collation_v2(B,X,E,P,F,D)]
**          is not NULL then it is called with argument P when the
**          collating function is dropped by SQLite.
**
** {H16612} A collating function is dropped when it is overloaded.
**
** {H16615} A collating function is dropped when the database connection
**          is closed using [sqlite3_close()].
**
** {H16618} The pointer P in [sqlite3_create_collation_v2(B,X,E,P,F,D)]
**          is passed through as the first parameter to the comparison
**          function F for all subsequent invocations of F.
**
** {H16621} A call to [sqlite3_create_collation(B,X,E,P,F)] is exactly
**          the same as a call to [sqlite3_create_collation_v2()] with
**          the same parameters and a NULL destructor.
**
** {H16624} Following a [sqlite3_create_collation_v2(B,X,E,P,F,D)],
**          SQLite uses the comparison function F for all text comparison
**          operations on the [database connection] B on text values that
**          use the collating sequence named X.
**
** {H16627} The [sqlite3_create_collation16(B,X,E,P,F)] works the same
**          as [sqlite3_create_collation(B,X,E,P,F)] except that the
**          collation name X is understood as UTF-16 in native byte order
**          instead of UTF-8.
**
** {H16630} When multiple comparison functions are available for the same
**          collating sequence, SQLite chooses the one whose text encoding
**          requires the least amount of conversion from the default
**          text encoding of the database.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation(
  sqlite3*, 
  const char *zName, 
  int eTextRep, 
  void*,
  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation_v2(
  sqlite3*, 
  const char *zName, 
  int eTextRep, 
  void*,
  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*),
  void(*xDestroy)(void*)
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation16(
  sqlite3*, 
  const void *zName,
  int eTextRep, 
  void*,
  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Collation Needed Callbacks {H16700} <S20300>
**
** To avoid having to register all collation sequences before a database
** can be used, a single callback function may be registered with the
** [database connection] to be called whenever an undefined collation
** sequence is required.
**
** If the function is registered using the sqlite3_collation_needed() API,
** then it is passed the names of undefined collation sequences as strings
** encoded in UTF-8. {H16703} If sqlite3_collation_needed16() is used,
** the names are passed as UTF-16 in machine native byte order.
** A call to either function replaces any existing callback.
**
** When the callback is invoked, the first argument passed is a copy
** of the second argument to sqlite3_collation_needed() or
** sqlite3_collation_needed16().  The second argument is the database
** connection.  The third argument is one of [SQLITE_UTF8], [SQLITE_UTF16BE],
** or [SQLITE_UTF16LE], indicating the most desirable form of the collation
** sequence function required.  The fourth parameter is the name of the
** required collation sequence.
**
** The callback function should register the desired collation using
** [sqlite3_create_collation()], [sqlite3_create_collation16()], or
** [sqlite3_create_collation_v2()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H16702} A successful call to [sqlite3_collation_needed(D,P,F)]
**          or [sqlite3_collation_needed16(D,P,F)] causes
**          the [database connection] D to invoke callback F with first
**          parameter P whenever it needs a comparison function for a
**          collating sequence that it does not know about.
**
** {H16704} Each successful call to [sqlite3_collation_needed()] or
**          [sqlite3_collation_needed16()] overrides the callback registered
**          on the same [database connection] by prior calls to either
**          interface.
**
** {H16706} The name of the requested collating function passed in the
**          4th parameter to the callback is in UTF-8 if the callback
**          was registered using [sqlite3_collation_needed()] and
**          is in UTF-16 native byte order if the callback was
**          registered using [sqlite3_collation_needed16()].
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_collation_needed(
  sqlite3*, 
  void*, 
  void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*)
);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_collation_needed16(
  sqlite3*, 
  void*,
  void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*)
);

/*
** Specify the key for an encrypted database.  This routine should be
** called right after sqlite3_open().
**
** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
** of SQLite.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_key(
  sqlite3 *db,                   /* Database to be rekeyed */
  const void *pKey, int nKey     /* The key */
);

/*
** Change the key on an open database.  If the current database is not
** encrypted, this routine will encrypt it.  If pNew==0 or nNew==0, the
** database is decrypted.
**
** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
** of SQLite.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_rekey(
  sqlite3 *db,                   /* Database to be rekeyed */
  const void *pKey, int nKey     /* The new key */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Suspend Execution For A Short Time {H10530} <S40410>
**
** The sqlite3_sleep() function causes the current thread to suspend execution
** for at least a number of milliseconds specified in its parameter.
**
** If the operating system does not support sleep requests with
** millisecond time resolution, then the time will be rounded up to
** the nearest second. The number of milliseconds of sleep actually
** requested from the operating system is returned.
**
** SQLite implements this interface by calling the xSleep()
** method of the default [sqlite3_vfs] object.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H10533} The [sqlite3_sleep(M)] interface invokes the xSleep
**          method of the default [sqlite3_vfs|VFS] in order to
**          suspend execution of the current thread for at least
**          M milliseconds.
**
** {H10536} The [sqlite3_sleep(M)] interface returns the number of
**          milliseconds of sleep actually requested of the operating
**          system, which might be larger than the parameter M.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_sleep(int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Name Of The Folder Holding Temporary Files {H10310} <S20000>
**
** If this global variable is made to point to a string which is
** the name of a folder (a.k.a. directory), then all temporary files
** created by SQLite will be placed in that directory.  If this variable
** is a NULL pointer, then SQLite performs a search for an appropriate
** temporary file directory.
**
** It is not safe to modify this variable once a [database connection]
** has been opened.  It is intended that this variable be set once
** as part of process initialization and before any SQLite interface
** routines have been call and remain unchanged thereafter.
*/
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_temp_directory;

/*
** CAPI3REF: Test For Auto-Commit Mode {H12930} <S60200>
** KEYWORDS: {autocommit mode}
**
** The sqlite3_get_autocommit() interface returns non-zero or
** zero if the given database connection is or is not in autocommit mode,
** respectively.  Autocommit mode is on by default.
** Autocommit mode is disabled by a [BEGIN] statement.
** Autocommit mode is re-enabled by a [COMMIT] or [ROLLBACK].
**
** If certain kinds of errors occur on a statement within a multi-statement
** transaction (errors including [SQLITE_FULL], [SQLITE_IOERR],
** [SQLITE_NOMEM], [SQLITE_BUSY], and [SQLITE_INTERRUPT]) then the
** transaction might be rolled back automatically.  The only way to
** find out whether SQLite automatically rolled back the transaction after
** an error is to use this function.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12931} The [sqlite3_get_autocommit(D)] interface returns non-zero or
**          zero if the [database connection] D is or is not in autocommit
**          mode, respectively.
**
** {H12932} Autocommit mode is on by default.
**
** {H12933} Autocommit mode is disabled by a successful [BEGIN] statement.
**
** {H12934} Autocommit mode is enabled by a successful [COMMIT] or [ROLLBACK]
**          statement.
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A12936} If another thread changes the autocommit status of the database
**          connection while this routine is running, then the return value
**          is undefined.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_get_autocommit(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Find The Database Handle Of A Prepared Statement {H13120} <S60600>
**
** The sqlite3_db_handle interface returns the [database connection] handle
** to which a [prepared statement] belongs.  The database handle returned by
** sqlite3_db_handle is the same database handle that was the first argument
** to the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] call (or its variants) that was used to
** create the statement in the first place.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13123} The [sqlite3_db_handle(S)] interface returns a pointer
**          to the [database connection] associated with the
**          [prepared statement] S.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3 *sqlite3_db_handle(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Find the next prepared statement {H13140} <S60600>
**
** This interface returns a pointer to the next [prepared statement] after
** pStmt associated with the [database connection] pDb.  If pStmt is NULL
** then this interface returns a pointer to the first prepared statement
** associated with the database connection pDb.  If no prepared statement
** satisfies the conditions of this routine, it returns NULL.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H13143} If D is a [database connection] that holds one or more
**          unfinalized [prepared statements] and S is a NULL pointer,
**          then [sqlite3_next_stmt(D, S)] routine shall return a pointer
**          to one of the prepared statements associated with D.
**
** {H13146} If D is a [database connection] that holds no unfinalized
**          [prepared statements] and S is a NULL pointer, then
**          [sqlite3_next_stmt(D, S)] routine shall return a NULL pointer.
**
** {H13149} If S is a [prepared statement] in the [database connection] D
**          and S is not the last prepared statement in D, then
**          [sqlite3_next_stmt(D, S)] routine shall return a pointer
**          to the next prepared statement in D after S.
**
** {H13152} If S is the last [prepared statement] in the
**          [database connection] D then the [sqlite3_next_stmt(D, S)]
**          routine shall return a NULL pointer.
**
** ASSUMPTIONS:
**
** {A13154} The [database connection] pointer D in a call to
**          [sqlite3_next_stmt(D,S)] must refer to an open database
**          connection and in particular must not be a NULL pointer.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_stmt *sqlite3_next_stmt(sqlite3 *pDb, sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Commit And Rollback Notification Callbacks {H12950} <S60400>
**
** The sqlite3_commit_hook() interface registers a callback
** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is committed.
** Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_commit_hook()
** for the same database connection is overridden.
** The sqlite3_rollback_hook() interface registers a callback
** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is committed.
** Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_commit_hook()
** for the same database connection is overridden.
** The pArg argument is passed through to the callback.
** If the callback on a commit hook function returns non-zero,
** then the commit is converted into a rollback.
**
** If another function was previously registered, its
** pArg value is returned.  Otherwise NULL is returned.
**
** Registering a NULL function disables the callback.
**
** For the purposes of this API, a transaction is said to have been
** rolled back if an explicit "ROLLBACK" statement is executed, or
** an error or constraint causes an implicit rollback to occur.
** The rollback callback is not invoked if a transaction is
** automatically rolled back because the database connection is closed.
** The rollback callback is not invoked if a transaction is
** rolled back because a commit callback returned non-zero.
** <todo> Check on this </todo>
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12951} The [sqlite3_commit_hook(D,F,P)] interface registers the
**          callback function F to be invoked with argument P whenever
**          a transaction commits on the [database connection] D.
**
** {H12952} The [sqlite3_commit_hook(D,F,P)] interface returns the P argument
**          from the previous call with the same [database connection] D,
**          or NULL on the first call for a particular database connection D.
**
** {H12953} Each call to [sqlite3_commit_hook()] overwrites the callback
**          registered by prior calls.
**
** {H12954} If the F argument to [sqlite3_commit_hook(D,F,P)] is NULL
**          then the commit hook callback is canceled and no callback
**          is invoked when a transaction commits.
**
** {H12955} If the commit callback returns non-zero then the commit is
**          converted into a rollback.
**
** {H12961} The [sqlite3_rollback_hook(D,F,P)] interface registers the
**          callback function F to be invoked with argument P whenever
**          a transaction rolls back on the [database connection] D.
**
** {H12962} The [sqlite3_rollback_hook(D,F,P)] interface returns the P
**          argument from the previous call with the same
**          [database connection] D, or NULL on the first call
**          for a particular database connection D.
**
** {H12963} Each call to [sqlite3_rollback_hook()] overwrites the callback
**          registered by prior calls.
**
** {H12964} If the F argument to [sqlite3_rollback_hook(D,F,P)] is NULL
**          then the rollback hook callback is canceled and no callback
**          is invoked when a transaction rolls back.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_commit_hook(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*), void*);
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_rollback_hook(sqlite3*, void(*)(void *), void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Data Change Notification Callbacks {H12970} <S60400>
**
** The sqlite3_update_hook() interface registers a callback function
** with the [database connection] identified by the first argument
** to be invoked whenever a row is updated, inserted or deleted.
** Any callback set by a previous call to this function
** for the same database connection is overridden.
**
** The second argument is a pointer to the function to invoke when a
** row is updated, inserted or deleted.
** The first argument to the callback is a copy of the third argument
** to sqlite3_update_hook().
** The second callback argument is one of [SQLITE_INSERT], [SQLITE_DELETE],
** or [SQLITE_UPDATE], depending on the operation that caused the callback
** to be invoked.
** The third and fourth arguments to the callback contain pointers to the
** database and table name containing the affected row.
** The final callback parameter is the rowid of the row. In the case of
** an update, this is the rowid after the update takes place.
**
** The update hook is not invoked when internal system tables are
** modified (i.e. sqlite_master and sqlite_sequence).
**
** If another function was previously registered, its pArg value
** is returned.  Otherwise NULL is returned.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H12971} The [sqlite3_update_hook(D,F,P)] interface causes the callback
**          function F to be invoked with first parameter P whenever
**          a table row is modified, inserted, or deleted on
**          the [database connection] D.
**
** {H12973} The [sqlite3_update_hook(D,F,P)] interface returns the value
**          of P for the previous call on the same [database connection] D,
**          or NULL for the first call.
**
** {H12975} If the update hook callback F in [sqlite3_update_hook(D,F,P)]
**          is NULL then the no update callbacks are made.
**
** {H12977} Each call to [sqlite3_update_hook(D,F,P)] overrides prior calls
**          to the same interface on the same [database connection] D.
**
** {H12979} The update hook callback is not invoked when internal system
**          tables such as sqlite_master and sqlite_sequence are modified.
**
** {H12981} The second parameter to the update callback
**          is one of [SQLITE_INSERT], [SQLITE_DELETE] or [SQLITE_UPDATE],
**          depending on the operation that caused the callback to be invoked.
**
** {H12983} The third and fourth arguments to the callback contain pointers
**          to zero-terminated UTF-8 strings which are the names of the
**          database and table that is being updated.

** {H12985} The final callback parameter is the rowid of the row after
**          the change occurs.
*/
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_update_hook(
  sqlite3*, 
  void(*)(void *,int ,char const *,char const *,sqlite3_int64),
  void*
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Shared Pager Cache {H10330} <S30900>
** KEYWORDS: {shared cache} {shared cache mode}
**
** This routine enables or disables the sharing of the database cache
** and schema data structures between [database connection | connections]
** to the same database. Sharing is enabled if the argument is true
** and disabled if the argument is false.
**
** Cache sharing is enabled and disabled for an entire process. {END}
** This is a change as of SQLite version 3.5.0. In prior versions of SQLite,
** sharing was enabled or disabled for each thread separately.
**
** The cache sharing mode set by this interface effects all subsequent
** calls to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()], and [sqlite3_open16()].
** Existing database connections continue use the sharing mode
** that was in effect at the time they were opened.
**
** Virtual tables cannot be used with a shared cache.  When shared
** cache is enabled, the [sqlite3_create_module()] API used to register
** virtual tables will always return an error.
**
** This routine returns [SQLITE_OK] if shared cache was enabled or disabled
** successfully.  An [error code] is returned otherwise.
**
** Shared cache is disabled by default. But this might change in
** future releases of SQLite.  Applications that care about shared
** cache setting should set it explicitly.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H10331} A successful invocation of [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache(B)]
**          will enable or disable shared cache mode for any subsequently
**          created [database connection] in the same process.
**
** {H10336} When shared cache is enabled, the [sqlite3_create_module()]
**          interface will always return an error.
**
** {H10337} The [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache(B)] interface returns
**          [SQLITE_OK] if shared cache was enabled or disabled successfully.
**
** {H10339} Shared cache is disabled by default.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_enable_shared_cache(int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Attempt To Free Heap Memory {H17340} <S30220>
**
** The sqlite3_release_memory() interface attempts to free N bytes
** of heap memory by deallocating non-essential memory allocations
** held by the database library. {END}  Memory used to cache database
** pages to improve performance is an example of non-essential memory.
** sqlite3_release_memory() returns the number of bytes actually freed,
** which might be more or less than the amount requested.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17341} The [sqlite3_release_memory(N)] interface attempts to
**          free N bytes of heap memory by deallocating non-essential
**          memory allocations held by the database library.
**
** {H16342} The [sqlite3_release_memory(N)] returns the number
**          of bytes actually freed, which might be more or less
**          than the amount requested.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_release_memory(int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Impose A Limit On Heap Size {H17350} <S30220>
**
** The sqlite3_soft_heap_limit() interface places a "soft" limit
** on the amount of heap memory that may be allocated by SQLite.
** If an internal allocation is requested that would exceed the
** soft heap limit, [sqlite3_release_memory()] is invoked one or
** more times to free up some space before the allocation is performed.
**
** The limit is called "soft", because if [sqlite3_release_memory()]
** cannot free sufficient memory to prevent the limit from being exceeded,
** the memory is allocated anyway and the current operation proceeds.
**
** A negative or zero value for N means that there is no soft heap limit and
** [sqlite3_release_memory()] will only be called when memory is exhausted.
** The default value for the soft heap limit is zero.
**
** SQLite makes a best effort to honor the soft heap limit.
** But if the soft heap limit cannot be honored, execution will
** continue without error or notification.  This is why the limit is
** called a "soft" limit.  It is advisory only.
**
** Prior to SQLite version 3.5.0, this routine only constrained the memory
** allocated by a single thread - the same thread in which this routine
** runs.  Beginning with SQLite version 3.5.0, the soft heap limit is
** applied to all threads. The value specified for the soft heap limit
** is an upper bound on the total memory allocation for all threads. In
** version 3.5.0 there is no mechanism for limiting the heap usage for
** individual threads.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H16351} The [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(N)] interface places a soft limit
**          of N bytes on the amount of heap memory that may be allocated
**          using [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] at any point
**          in time.
**
** {H16352} If a call to [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] would
**          cause the total amount of allocated memory to exceed the
**          soft heap limit, then [sqlite3_release_memory()] is invoked
**          in an attempt to reduce the memory usage prior to proceeding
**          with the memory allocation attempt.
**
** {H16353} Calls to [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] that trigger
**          attempts to reduce memory usage through the soft heap limit
**          mechanism continue even if the attempt to reduce memory
**          usage is unsuccessful.
**
** {H16354} A negative or zero value for N in a call to
**          [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(N)] means that there is no soft
**          heap limit and [sqlite3_release_memory()] will only be
**          called when memory is completely exhausted.
**
** {H16355} The default value for the soft heap limit is zero.
**
** {H16358} Each call to [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(N)] overrides the
**          values set by all prior calls.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Extract Metadata About A Column Of A Table {H12850} <S60300>
**
** This routine returns metadata about a specific column of a specific
** database table accessible using the [database connection] handle
** passed as the first function argument.
**
** The column is identified by the second, third and fourth parameters to
** this function. The second parameter is either the name of the database
** (i.e. "main", "temp" or an attached database) containing the specified
** table or NULL. If it is NULL, then all attached databases are searched
** for the table using the same algorithm used by the database engine to
** resolve unqualified table references.
**
** The third and fourth parameters to this function are the table and column
** name of the desired column, respectively. Neither of these parameters
** may be NULL.
**
** Metadata is returned by writing to the memory locations passed as the 5th
** and subsequent parameters to this function. Any of these arguments may be
** NULL, in which case the corresponding element of metadata is omitted.
**
** <blockquote>
** <table border="1">
** <tr><th> Parameter <th> Output<br>Type <th>  Description
**
** <tr><td> 5th <td> const char* <td> Data type
** <tr><td> 6th <td> const char* <td> Name of default collation sequence
** <tr><td> 7th <td> int         <td> True if column has a NOT NULL constraint
** <tr><td> 8th <td> int         <td> True if column is part of the PRIMARY KEY
** <tr><td> 9th <td> int         <td> True if column is AUTOINCREMENT
** </table>
** </blockquote>
**
** The memory pointed to by the character pointers returned for the
** declaration type and collation sequence is valid only until the next
** call to any SQLite API function.
**
** If the specified table is actually a view, an [error code] is returned.
**
** If the specified column is "rowid", "oid" or "_rowid_" and an
** INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column has been explicitly declared, then the output
** parameters are set for the explicitly declared column. If there is no
** explicitly declared INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column, then the output
** parameters are set as follows:
**
** <pre>
**     data type: "INTEGER"
**     collation sequence: "BINARY"
**     not null: 0
**     primary key: 1
**     auto increment: 0
** </pre>
**
** This function may load one or more schemas from database files. If an
** error occurs during this process, or if the requested table or column
** cannot be found, an [error code] is returned and an error message left
** in the [database connection] (to be retrieved using sqlite3_errmsg()).
**
** This API is only available if the library was compiled with the
** [SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA] C-preprocessor symbol defined.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_table_column_metadata(
  sqlite3 *db,                /* Connection handle */
  const char *zDbName,        /* Database name or NULL */
  const char *zTableName,     /* Table name */
  const char *zColumnName,    /* Column name */
  char const **pzDataType,    /* OUTPUT: Declared data type */
  char const **pzCollSeq,     /* OUTPUT: Collation sequence name */
  int *pNotNull,              /* OUTPUT: True if NOT NULL constraint exists */
  int *pPrimaryKey,           /* OUTPUT: True if column part of PK */
  int *pAutoinc               /* OUTPUT: True if column is auto-increment */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Load An Extension {H12600} <S20500>
**
** This interface loads an SQLite extension library from the named file.
**
** {H12601} The sqlite3_load_extension() interface attempts to load an
**          SQLite extension library contained in the file zFile.
**
** {H12602} The entry point is zProc.
**
** {H12603} zProc may be 0, in which case the name of the entry point
**          defaults to "sqlite3_extension_init".
**
** {H12604} The sqlite3_load_extension() interface shall return
**          [SQLITE_OK] on success and [SQLITE_ERROR] if something goes wrong.
**
** {H12605} If an error occurs and pzErrMsg is not 0, then the
**          [sqlite3_load_extension()] interface shall attempt to
**          fill *pzErrMsg with error message text stored in memory
**          obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()]. {END}  The calling function
**          should free this memory by calling [sqlite3_free()].
**
** {H12606} Extension loading must be enabled using
**          [sqlite3_enable_load_extension()] prior to calling this API,
**          otherwise an error will be returned.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_load_extension(
  sqlite3 *db,          /* Load the extension into this database connection */
  const char *zFile,    /* Name of the shared library containing extension */
  const char *zProc,    /* Entry point.  Derived from zFile if 0 */
  char **pzErrMsg       /* Put error message here if not 0 */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extension Loading {H12620} <S20500>
**
** So as not to open security holes in older applications that are
** unprepared to deal with extension loading, and as a means of disabling
** extension loading while evaluating user-entered SQL, the following API
** is provided to turn the [sqlite3_load_extension()] mechanism on and off.
**
** Extension loading is off by default. See ticket #1863.
**
** {H12621} Call the sqlite3_enable_load_extension() routine with onoff==1
**          to turn extension loading on and call it with onoff==0 to turn
**          it back off again.
**
** {H12622} Extension loading is off by default.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_enable_load_extension(sqlite3 *db, int onoff);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Automatically Load An Extensions {H12640} <S20500>
**
** This API can be invoked at program startup in order to register
** one or more statically linked extensions that will be available
** to all new [database connections]. {END}
**
** This routine stores a pointer to the extension in an array that is
** obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].  If you run a memory leak checker
** on your program and it reports a leak because of this array, invoke
** [sqlite3_reset_auto_extension()] prior to shutdown to free the memory.
**
** {H12641} This function registers an extension entry point that is
**          automatically invoked whenever a new [database connection]
**          is opened using [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()],
**          or [sqlite3_open_v2()].
**
** {H12642} Duplicate extensions are detected so calling this routine
**          multiple times with the same extension is harmless.
**
** {H12643} This routine stores a pointer to the extension in an array
**          that is obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].
**
** {H12644} Automatic extensions apply across all threads.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_auto_extension(void *xEntryPoint);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Reset Automatic Extension Loading {H12660} <S20500>
**
** This function disables all previously registered automatic
** extensions. {END}  It undoes the effect of all prior
** [sqlite3_auto_extension()] calls.
**
** {H12661} This function disables all previously registered
**          automatic extensions.
**
** {H12662} This function disables automatic extensions in all threads.
*/
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_reset_auto_extension(void);

/*
****** EXPERIMENTAL - subject to change without notice **************
**
** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism is currently considered
** to be experimental.  The interface might change in incompatible ways.
** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
**
** When the virtual-table mechanism stabilizes, we will declare the
** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.
*/

/*
** Structures used by the virtual table interface
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_vtab sqlite3_vtab;
typedef struct sqlite3_index_info sqlite3_index_info;
typedef struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor sqlite3_vtab_cursor;
typedef struct sqlite3_module sqlite3_module;

/*
** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Object {H18000} <S20400>
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_module
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** A module is a class of virtual tables.  Each module is defined
** by an instance of the following structure.  This structure consists
** mostly of methods for the module.
**
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
*/
struct sqlite3_module {
  int iVersion;
  int (*xCreate)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
               int argc, const char *const*argv,
               sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
  int (*xConnect)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
               int argc, const char *const*argv,
               sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
  int (*xBestIndex)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_index_info*);
  int (*xDisconnect)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xDestroy)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_vtab_cursor **ppCursor);
  int (*xClose)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
  int (*xFilter)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, int idxNum, const char *idxStr,
                int argc, sqlite3_value **argv);
  int (*xNext)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
  int (*xEof)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
  int (*xColumn)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_context*, int);
  int (*xRowid)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_int64 *pRowid);
  int (*xUpdate)(sqlite3_vtab *, int, sqlite3_value **, sqlite3_int64 *);
  int (*xBegin)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xSync)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xCommit)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xRollback)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xFindFunction)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, int nArg, const char *zName,
                       void (**pxFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
                       void **ppArg);
  int (*xRename)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, const char *zNew);
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Indexing Information {H18100} <S20400>
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_index_info
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** The sqlite3_index_info structure and its substructures is used to
** pass information into and receive the reply from the xBestIndex
** method of an sqlite3_module.  The fields under **Inputs** are the
** inputs to xBestIndex and are read-only.  xBestIndex inserts its
** results into the **Outputs** fields.
**
** The aConstraint[] array records WHERE clause constraints of the form:
**
** <pre>column OP expr</pre>
**
** where OP is =, &lt;, &lt;=, &gt;, or &gt;=.  The particular operator is
** stored in aConstraint[].op.  The index of the column is stored in
** aConstraint[].iColumn.  aConstraint[].usable is TRUE if the
** expr on the right-hand side can be evaluated (and thus the constraint
** is usable) and false if it cannot.
**
** The optimizer automatically inverts terms of the form "expr OP column"
** and makes other simplifications to the WHERE clause in an attempt to
** get as many WHERE clause terms into the form shown above as possible.
** The aConstraint[] array only reports WHERE clause terms in the correct
** form that refer to the particular virtual table being queried.
**
** Information about the ORDER BY clause is stored in aOrderBy[].
** Each term of aOrderBy records a column of the ORDER BY clause.
**
** The xBestIndex method must fill aConstraintUsage[] with information
** about what parameters to pass to xFilter.  If argvIndex>0 then
** the right-hand side of the corresponding aConstraint[] is evaluated
** and becomes the argvIndex-th entry in argv.  If aConstraintUsage[].omit
** is true, then the constraint is assumed to be fully handled by the
** virtual table and is not checked again by SQLite.
**
** The idxNum and idxPtr values are recorded and passed into xFilter.
** sqlite3_free() is used to free idxPtr if needToFreeIdxPtr is true.
**
** The orderByConsumed means that output from xFilter will occur in
** the correct order to satisfy the ORDER BY clause so that no separate
** sorting step is required.
**
** The estimatedCost value is an estimate of the cost of doing the
** particular lookup.  A full scan of a table with N entries should have
** a cost of N.  A binary search of a table of N entries should have a
** cost of approximately log(N).
**
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
*/
struct sqlite3_index_info {
  /* Inputs */
  int nConstraint;           /* Number of entries in aConstraint */
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint {
     int iColumn;              /* Column on left-hand side of constraint */
     unsigned char op;         /* Constraint operator */
     unsigned char usable;     /* True if this constraint is usable */
     int iTermOffset;          /* Used internally - xBestIndex should ignore */
  } *aConstraint;            /* Table of WHERE clause constraints */
  int nOrderBy;              /* Number of terms in the ORDER BY clause */
  struct sqlite3_index_orderby {
     int iColumn;              /* Column number */
     unsigned char desc;       /* True for DESC.  False for ASC. */
  } *aOrderBy;               /* The ORDER BY clause */
  /* Outputs */
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage {
    int argvIndex;           /* if >0, constraint is part of argv to xFilter */
    unsigned char omit;      /* Do not code a test for this constraint */
  } *aConstraintUsage;
  int idxNum;                /* Number used to identify the index */
  char *idxStr;              /* String, possibly obtained from sqlite3_malloc */
  int needToFreeIdxStr;      /* Free idxStr using sqlite3_free() if true */
  int orderByConsumed;       /* True if output is already ordered */
  double estimatedCost;      /* Estimated cost of using this index */
};
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_EQ    2
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GT    4
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LE    8
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LT    16
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GE    32
#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_MATCH 64

/*
** CAPI3REF: Register A Virtual Table Implementation {H18200} <S20400>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** This routine is used to register a new module name with a
** [database connection].  Module names must be registered before
** creating new virtual tables on the module, or before using
** preexisting virtual tables of the module.
**
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_create_module(
  sqlite3 *db,               /* SQLite connection to register module with */
  const char *zName,         /* Name of the module */
  const sqlite3_module *,    /* Methods for the module */
  void *                     /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Register A Virtual Table Implementation {H18210} <S20400>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** This routine is identical to the [sqlite3_create_module()] method above,
** except that it allows a destructor function to be specified. It is
** even more experimental than the rest of the virtual tables API.
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_create_module_v2(
  sqlite3 *db,               /* SQLite connection to register module with */
  const char *zName,         /* Name of the module */
  const sqlite3_module *,    /* Methods for the module */
  void *,                    /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */
  void(*xDestroy)(void*)     /* Module destructor function */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Instance Object {H18010} <S20400>
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_vtab
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** Every module implementation uses a subclass of the following structure
** to describe a particular instance of the module.  Each subclass will
** be tailored to the specific needs of the module implementation.
** The purpose of this superclass is to define certain fields that are
** common to all module implementations.
**
** Virtual tables methods can set an error message by assigning a
** string obtained from [sqlite3_mprintf()] to zErrMsg.  The method should
** take care that any prior string is freed by a call to [sqlite3_free()]
** prior to assigning a new string to zErrMsg.  After the error message
** is delivered up to the client application, the string will be automatically
** freed by sqlite3_free() and the zErrMsg field will be zeroed.  Note
** that sqlite3_mprintf() and sqlite3_free() are used on the zErrMsg field
** since virtual tables are commonly implemented in loadable extensions which
** do not have access to sqlite3MPrintf() or sqlite3Free().
**
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
*/
struct sqlite3_vtab {
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;  /* The module for this virtual table */
  int nRef;                       /* Used internally */
  char *zErrMsg;                  /* Error message from sqlite3_mprintf() */
  /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Cursor Object  {H18020} <S20400>
** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_vtab_cursor
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** Every module implementation uses a subclass of the following structure
** to describe cursors that point into the virtual table and are used
** to loop through the virtual table.  Cursors are created using the
** xOpen method of the module.  Each module implementation will define
** the content of a cursor structure to suit its own needs.
**
** This superclass exists in order to define fields of the cursor that
** are common to all implementations.
**
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
*/
struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor {
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Virtual table of this cursor */
  /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: Declare The Schema Of A Virtual Table {H18280} <S20400>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** The xCreate and xConnect methods of a module use the following API
** to declare the format (the names and datatypes of the columns) of
** the virtual tables they implement.
**
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_declare_vtab(sqlite3*, const char *zCreateTable);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Overload A Function For A Virtual Table {H18300} <S20400>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** Virtual tables can provide alternative implementations of functions
** using the xFindFunction method.  But global versions of those functions
** must exist in order to be overloaded.
**
** This API makes sure a global version of a function with a particular
** name and number of parameters exists.  If no such function exists
** before this API is called, a new function is created.  The implementation
** of the new function always causes an exception to be thrown.  So
** the new function is not good for anything by itself.  Its only
** purpose is to be a placeholder function that can be overloaded
** by virtual tables.
**
** This API should be considered part of the virtual table interface,
** which is experimental and subject to change.
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_overload_function(sqlite3*, const char *zFuncName, int nArg);

/*
** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism defined above (back up
** to a comment remarkably similar to this one) is currently considered
** to be experimental.  The interface might change in incompatible ways.
** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
**
** When the virtual-table mechanism stabilizes, we will declare the
** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.
**
****** EXPERIMENTAL - subject to change without notice **************
*/

/*
** CAPI3REF: A Handle To An Open BLOB {H17800} <S30230>
** KEYWORDS: {BLOB handle} {BLOB handles}
**
** An instance of this object represents an open BLOB on which
** [sqlite3_blob_open | incremental BLOB I/O] can be performed.
** Objects of this type are created by [sqlite3_blob_open()]
** and destroyed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].
** The [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] interfaces
** can be used to read or write small subsections of the BLOB.
** The [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface returns the size of the BLOB in bytes.
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_blob sqlite3_blob;

/*
** CAPI3REF: Open A BLOB For Incremental I/O {H17810} <S30230>
**
** This interfaces opens a [BLOB handle | handle] to the BLOB located
** in row iRow, column zColumn, table zTable in database zDb;
** in other words, the same BLOB that would be selected by:
**
** <pre>
**     SELECT zColumn FROM zDb.zTable WHERE rowid = iRow;
** </pre> {END}
**
** If the flags parameter is non-zero, the the BLOB is opened for read
** and write access. If it is zero, the BLOB is opened for read access.
**
** Note that the database name is not the filename that contains
** the database but rather the symbolic name of the database that
** is assigned when the database is connected using [ATTACH].
** For the main database file, the database name is "main".
** For TEMP tables, the database name is "temp".
**
** On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned and the new [BLOB handle] is written
** to *ppBlob. Otherwise an [error code] is returned and any value written
** to *ppBlob should not be used by the caller.
** This function sets the [database connection] error code and message
** accessible via [sqlite3_errcode()] and [sqlite3_errmsg()].
**
** If the row that a BLOB handle points to is modified by an
** [UPDATE], [DELETE], or by [ON CONFLICT] side-effects
** then the BLOB handle is marked as "expired".
** This is true if any column of the row is changed, even a column
** other than the one the BLOB handle is open on.
** Calls to [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] for
** a expired BLOB handle fail with an return code of [SQLITE_ABORT].
** Changes written into a BLOB prior to the BLOB expiring are not
** rollback by the expiration of the BLOB.  Such changes will eventually
** commit if the transaction continues to completion.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17813} A successful invocation of the [sqlite3_blob_open(D,B,T,C,R,F,P)]
**          interface shall open an [sqlite3_blob] object P on the BLOB
**          in column C of the table T in the database B on
**          the [database connection] D.
**
** {H17814} A successful invocation of [sqlite3_blob_open(D,...)] shall start
**          a new transaction on the [database connection] D if that
**          connection is not already in a transaction.
**
** {H17816} The [sqlite3_blob_open(D,B,T,C,R,F,P)] interface shall open
**          the BLOB for read and write access if and only if the F
**          parameter is non-zero.
**
** {H17819} The [sqlite3_blob_open()] interface shall return [SQLITE_OK] on
**          success and an appropriate [error code] on failure.
**
** {H17821} If an error occurs during evaluation of [sqlite3_blob_open(D,...)]
**          then subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode(D)],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg(D)], and [sqlite3_errmsg16(D)] shall return
**          information appropriate for that error.
**
** {H17824} If any column in the row that a [sqlite3_blob] has open is
**          changed by a separate [UPDATE] or [DELETE] statement or by
**          an [ON CONFLICT] side effect, then the [sqlite3_blob] shall
**          be marked as invalid.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_open(
  sqlite3*,
  const char *zDb,
  const char *zTable,
  const char *zColumn,
  sqlite3_int64 iRow,
  int flags,
  sqlite3_blob **ppBlob
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Close A BLOB Handle {H17830} <S30230>
**
** Closes an open [BLOB handle].
**
** Closing a BLOB shall cause the current transaction to commit
** if there are no other BLOBs, no pending prepared statements, and the
** database connection is in [autocommit mode].
** If any writes were made to the BLOB, they might be held in cache
** until the close operation if they will fit. {END}
**
** Closing the BLOB often forces the changes
** out to disk and so if any I/O errors occur, they will likely occur
** at the time when the BLOB is closed.  {H17833} Any errors that occur during
** closing are reported as a non-zero return value.
**
** The BLOB is closed unconditionally.  Even if this routine returns
** an error code, the BLOB is still closed.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17833} The [sqlite3_blob_close(P)] interface closes an [sqlite3_blob]
**          object P previously opened using [sqlite3_blob_open()].
**
** {H17836} Closing an [sqlite3_blob] object using
**          [sqlite3_blob_close()] shall cause the current transaction to
**          commit if there are no other open [sqlite3_blob] objects
**          or [prepared statements] on the same [database connection] and
**          the database connection is in [autocommit mode].
**
** {H17839} The [sqlite3_blob_close(P)] interfaces shall close the
**          [sqlite3_blob] object P unconditionally, even if
**          [sqlite3_blob_close(P)] returns something other than [SQLITE_OK].
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_close(sqlite3_blob *);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Return The Size Of An Open BLOB {H17840} <S30230>
**
** Returns the size in bytes of the BLOB accessible via the open
** []BLOB handle] in its only argument.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17843} The [sqlite3_blob_bytes(P)] interface returns the size
**          in bytes of the BLOB that the [sqlite3_blob] object P
**          refers to.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_bytes(sqlite3_blob *);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Read Data From A BLOB Incrementally {H17850} <S30230>
**
** This function is used to read data from an open [BLOB handle] into a
** caller-supplied buffer. N bytes of data are copied into buffer Z
** from the open BLOB, starting at offset iOffset.
**
** If offset iOffset is less than N bytes from the end of the BLOB,
** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read.  If N or iOffset is
** less than zero, [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read.
**
** An attempt to read from an expired [BLOB handle] fails with an
** error code of [SQLITE_ABORT].
**
** On success, SQLITE_OK is returned.
** Otherwise, an [error code] or an [extended error code] is returned.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17853} A successful invocation of [sqlite3_blob_read(P,Z,N,X)] 
**          shall reads N bytes of data out of the BLOB referenced by
**          [BLOB handle] P beginning at offset X and store those bytes
**          into buffer Z.
**
** {H17856} In [sqlite3_blob_read(P,Z,N,X)] if the size of the BLOB
**          is less than N+X bytes, then the function shall leave the
**          Z buffer unchanged and return [SQLITE_ERROR].
**
** {H17859} In [sqlite3_blob_read(P,Z,N,X)] if X or N is less than zero
**          then the function shall leave the Z buffer unchanged
**          and return [SQLITE_ERROR].
**
** {H17862} The [sqlite3_blob_read(P,Z,N,X)] interface shall return [SQLITE_OK]
**          if N bytes are successfully read into buffer Z.
**
** {H17863} If the [BLOB handle] P is expired and X and N are within bounds
**          then [sqlite3_blob_read(P,Z,N,X)] shall leave the Z buffer
**          unchanged and return [SQLITE_ABORT].
**
** {H17865} If the requested read could not be completed,
**          the [sqlite3_blob_read(P,Z,N,X)] interface shall return an
**          appropriate [error code] or [extended error code].
**
** {H17868} If an error occurs during evaluation of [sqlite3_blob_read(P,...)]
**          then subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode(D)],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg(D)], and [sqlite3_errmsg16(D)] shall return
**          information appropriate for that error, where D is the
**          [database connection] that was used to open the [BLOB handle] P.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_read(sqlite3_blob *, void *Z, int N, int iOffset);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Write Data Into A BLOB Incrementally {H17870} <S30230>
**
** This function is used to write data into an open [BLOB handle] from a
** caller-supplied buffer. N bytes of data are copied from the buffer Z
** into the open BLOB, starting at offset iOffset.
**
** If the [BLOB handle] passed as the first argument was not opened for
** writing (the flags parameter to [sqlite3_blob_open()] was zero),
** this function returns [SQLITE_READONLY].
**
** This function may only modify the contents of the BLOB; it is
** not possible to increase the size of a BLOB using this API.
** If offset iOffset is less than N bytes from the end of the BLOB,
** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written.  If N is
** less than zero [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written.
**
** An attempt to write to an expired [BLOB handle] fails with an
** error code of [SQLITE_ABORT].  Writes to the BLOB that occurred
** before the [BLOB handle] expired are not rolled back by the
** expiration of the handle, though of course those changes might
** have been overwritten by the statement that expired the BLOB handle
** or by other independent statements.
**
** On success, SQLITE_OK is returned.
** Otherwise, an  [error code] or an [extended error code] is returned.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H17873} A successful invocation of [sqlite3_blob_write(P,Z,N,X)]
**          shall write N bytes of data from buffer Z into the BLOB 
**          referenced by [BLOB handle] P beginning at offset X into
**          the BLOB.
**
** {H17874} In the absence of other overridding changes, the changes
**          written to a BLOB by [sqlite3_blob_write()] shall
**          remain in effect after the associated [BLOB handle] expires.
**
** {H17875} If the [BLOB handle] P was opened for reading only then
**          an invocation of [sqlite3_blob_write(P,Z,N,X)] shall leave
**          the referenced BLOB unchanged and return [SQLITE_READONLY].
**
** {H17876} If the size of the BLOB referenced by [BLOB handle] P is
**          less than N+X bytes then [sqlite3_blob_write(P,Z,N,X)] shall
**          leave the BLOB unchanged and return [SQLITE_ERROR].
**
** {H17877} If the [BLOB handle] P is expired and X and N are within bounds
**          then [sqlite3_blob_read(P,Z,N,X)] shall leave the BLOB
**          unchanged and return [SQLITE_ABORT].
**
** {H17879} If X or N are less than zero then [sqlite3_blob_write(P,Z,N,X)]
**          shall leave the BLOB referenced by [BLOB handle] P unchanged
**          and return [SQLITE_ERROR].
**
** {H17882} The [sqlite3_blob_write(P,Z,N,X)] interface shall return
**          [SQLITE_OK] if N bytes where successfully written into the BLOB.
**
** {H17885} If the requested write could not be completed,
**          the [sqlite3_blob_write(P,Z,N,X)] interface shall return an
**          appropriate [error code] or [extended error code].
**
** {H17888} If an error occurs during evaluation of [sqlite3_blob_write(D,...)]
**          then subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode(D)],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg(D)], and [sqlite3_errmsg16(D)] shall return
**          information appropriate for that error.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_write(sqlite3_blob *, const void *z, int n, int iOffset);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Virtual File System Objects {H11200} <S20100>
**
** A virtual filesystem (VFS) is an [sqlite3_vfs] object
** that SQLite uses to interact
** with the underlying operating system.  Most SQLite builds come with a
** single default VFS that is appropriate for the host computer.
** New VFSes can be registered and existing VFSes can be unregistered.
** The following interfaces are provided.
**
** The sqlite3_vfs_find() interface returns a pointer to a VFS given its name.
** Names are case sensitive.
** Names are zero-terminated UTF-8 strings.
** If there is no match, a NULL pointer is returned.
** If zVfsName is NULL then the default VFS is returned.
**
** New VFSes are registered with sqlite3_vfs_register().
** Each new VFS becomes the default VFS if the makeDflt flag is set.
** The same VFS can be registered multiple times without injury.
** To make an existing VFS into the default VFS, register it again
** with the makeDflt flag set.  If two different VFSes with the
** same name are registered, the behavior is undefined.  If a
** VFS is registered with a name that is NULL or an empty string,
** then the behavior is undefined.
**
** Unregister a VFS with the sqlite3_vfs_unregister() interface.
** If the default VFS is unregistered, another VFS is chosen as
** the default.  The choice for the new VFS is arbitrary.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {H11203} The [sqlite3_vfs_find(N)] interface returns a pointer to the
**          registered [sqlite3_vfs] object whose name exactly matches
**          the zero-terminated UTF-8 string N, or it returns NULL if
**          there is no match.
**
** {H11206} If the N parameter to [sqlite3_vfs_find(N)] is NULL then
**          the function returns a pointer to the default [sqlite3_vfs]
**          object if there is one, or NULL if there is no default
**          [sqlite3_vfs] object.
**
** {H11209} The [sqlite3_vfs_register(P,F)] interface registers the
**          well-formed [sqlite3_vfs] object P using the name given
**          by the zName field of the object.
**
** {H11212} Using the [sqlite3_vfs_register(P,F)] interface to register
**          the same [sqlite3_vfs] object multiple times is a harmless no-op.
**
** {H11215} The [sqlite3_vfs_register(P,F)] interface makes the [sqlite3_vfs]
**          object P the default [sqlite3_vfs] object if F is non-zero.
**
** {H11218} The [sqlite3_vfs_unregister(P)] interface unregisters the
**          [sqlite3_vfs] object P so that it is no longer returned by
**          subsequent calls to [sqlite3_vfs_find()].
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3_vfs_find(const char *zVfsName);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_register(sqlite3_vfs*, int makeDflt);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_unregister(sqlite3_vfs*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutexes {H17000} <S20000>
**
** The SQLite core uses these routines for thread
** synchronization. Though they are intended for internal
** use by SQLite, code that links against SQLite is
** permitted to use any of these routines.
**
** The SQLite source code contains multiple implementations
** of these mutex routines.  An appropriate implementation
** is selected automatically at compile-time.  The following
** implementations are available in the SQLite core:
**
** <ul>
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREAD
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_W32
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
** </ul>
**
** The SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP implementation is a set of routines
** that does no real locking and is appropriate for use in
** a single-threaded application.  The SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2,
** SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREAD, and SQLITE_MUTEX_W32 implementations
** are appropriate for use on OS/2, Unix, and Windows.
**
** If SQLite is compiled with the SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF preprocessor
** macro defined (with "-DSQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF=1"), then no mutex
** implementation is included with the library. In this case the
** application must supply a custom mutex implementation using the
** [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX] option of the sqlite3_config() function
** before calling sqlite3_initialize() or any other public sqlite3_
** function that calls sqlite3_initialize().
**
** {H17011} The sqlite3_mutex_alloc() routine allocates a new
** mutex and returns a pointer to it. {H17012} If it returns NULL
** that means that a mutex could not be allocated. {H17013} SQLite
** will unwind its stack and return an error. {H17014} The argument
** to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() is one of these integer constants:
**
** <ul>
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM2
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU
** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU2
** </ul>
**
** {H17015} The first two constants cause sqlite3_mutex_alloc() to create
** a new mutex.  The new mutex is recursive when SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
** is used but not necessarily so when SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST is used. {END}
** The mutex implementation does not need to make a distinction
** between SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE and SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST if it does
** not want to.  {H17016} But SQLite will only request a recursive mutex in
** cases where it really needs one.  {END} If a faster non-recursive mutex
** implementation is available on the host platform, the mutex subsystem
** might return such a mutex in response to SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST.
**
** {H17017} The other allowed parameters to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() each return
** a pointer to a static preexisting mutex. {END}  Four static mutexes are
** used by the current version of SQLite.  Future versions of SQLite
** may add additional static mutexes.  Static mutexes are for internal
** use by SQLite only.  Applications that use SQLite mutexes should
** use only the dynamic mutexes returned by SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST or
** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE.
**
** {H17018} Note that if one of the dynamic mutex parameters (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
** or SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE) is used then sqlite3_mutex_alloc()
** returns a different mutex on every call.  {H17034} But for the static
** mutex types, the same mutex is returned on every call that has
** the same type number.
**
** {H17019} The sqlite3_mutex_free() routine deallocates a previously
** allocated dynamic mutex. {H17020} SQLite is careful to deallocate every
** dynamic mutex that it allocates. {A17021} The dynamic mutexes must not be in
** use when they are deallocated. {A17022} Attempting to deallocate a static
** mutex results in undefined behavior. {H17023} SQLite never deallocates
** a static mutex. {END}
**
** The sqlite3_mutex_enter() and sqlite3_mutex_try() routines attempt
** to enter a mutex. {H17024} If another thread is already within the mutex,
** sqlite3_mutex_enter() will block and sqlite3_mutex_try() will return
** SQLITE_BUSY. {H17025}  The sqlite3_mutex_try() interface returns [SQLITE_OK]
** upon successful entry.  {H17026} Mutexes created using
** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE can be entered multiple times by the same thread.
** {H17027} In such cases the,
** mutex must be exited an equal number of times before another thread
** can enter.  {A17028} If the same thread tries to enter any other
** kind of mutex more than once, the behavior is undefined.
** {H17029} SQLite will never exhibit
** such behavior in its own use of mutexes.
**
** Some systems (for example, Windows 95) do not support the operation
** implemented by sqlite3_mutex_try().  On those systems, sqlite3_mutex_try()
** will always return SQLITE_BUSY.  {H17030} The SQLite core only ever uses
** sqlite3_mutex_try() as an optimization so this is acceptable behavior.
**
** {H17031} The sqlite3_mutex_leave() routine exits a mutex that was
** previously entered by the same thread.  {A17032} The behavior
** is undefined if the mutex is not currently entered by the
** calling thread or is not currently allocated.  {H17033} SQLite will
** never do either. {END}
**
** If the argument to sqlite3_mutex_enter(), sqlite3_mutex_try(), or
** sqlite3_mutex_leave() is a NULL pointer, then all three routines
** behave as no-ops.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_mutex_held()] and [sqlite3_mutex_notheld()].
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3_mutex_alloc(int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_free(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_try(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Methods Object {H17120} <S20130>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** An instance of this structure defines the low-level routines
** used to allocate and use mutexes.
**
** Usually, the default mutex implementations provided by SQLite are
** sufficient, however the user has the option of substituting a custom
** implementation for specialized deployments or systems for which SQLite
** does not provide a suitable implementation. In this case, the user
** creates and populates an instance of this structure to pass
** to sqlite3_config() along with the [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX] option.
** Additionally, an instance of this structure can be used as an
** output variable when querying the system for the current mutex
** implementation, using the [SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX] option.
**
** The xMutexInit method defined by this structure is invoked as
** part of system initialization by the sqlite3_initialize() function.
** {H17001} The xMutexInit routine shall be called by SQLite once for each
** effective call to [sqlite3_initialize()].
**
** The xMutexEnd method defined by this structure is invoked as
** part of system shutdown by the sqlite3_shutdown() function. The
** implementation of this method is expected to release all outstanding
** resources obtained by the mutex methods implementation, especially
** those obtained by the xMutexInit method. {H17003} The xMutexEnd()
** interface shall be invoked once for each call to [sqlite3_shutdown()].
**
** The remaining seven methods defined by this structure (xMutexAlloc,
** xMutexFree, xMutexEnter, xMutexTry, xMutexLeave, xMutexHeld and
** xMutexNotheld) implement the following interfaces (respectively):
**
** <ul>
**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()] </li>
**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_free()] </li>
**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_enter()] </li>
**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_try()] </li>
**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_leave()] </li>
**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_held()] </li>
**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_notheld()] </li>
** </ul>
**
** The only difference is that the public sqlite3_XXX functions enumerated
** above silently ignore any invocations that pass a NULL pointer instead
** of a valid mutex handle. The implementations of the methods defined
** by this structure are not required to handle this case, the results
** of passing a NULL pointer instead of a valid mutex handle are undefined
** (i.e. it is acceptable to provide an implementation that segfaults if
** it is passed a NULL pointer).
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_mutex_methods sqlite3_mutex_methods;
struct sqlite3_mutex_methods {
  int (*xMutexInit)(void);
  int (*xMutexEnd)(void);
  sqlite3_mutex *(*xMutexAlloc)(int);
  void (*xMutexFree)(sqlite3_mutex *);
  void (*xMutexEnter)(sqlite3_mutex *);
  int (*xMutexTry)(sqlite3_mutex *);
  void (*xMutexLeave)(sqlite3_mutex *);
  int (*xMutexHeld)(sqlite3_mutex *);
  int (*xMutexNotheld)(sqlite3_mutex *);
};

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Verification Routines {H17080} <S20130> <S30800>
**
** The sqlite3_mutex_held() and sqlite3_mutex_notheld() routines
** are intended for use inside assert() statements. {H17081} The SQLite core
** never uses these routines except inside an assert() and applications
** are advised to follow the lead of the core.  {H17082} The core only
** provides implementations for these routines when it is compiled
** with the SQLITE_DEBUG flag.  {A17087} External mutex implementations
** are only required to provide these routines if SQLITE_DEBUG is
** defined and if NDEBUG is not defined.
**
** {H17083} These routines should return true if the mutex in their argument
** is held or not held, respectively, by the calling thread.
**
** {X17084} The implementation is not required to provided versions of these
** routines that actually work. If the implementation does not provide working
** versions of these routines, it should at least provide stubs that always
** return true so that one does not get spurious assertion failures.
**
** {H17085} If the argument to sqlite3_mutex_held() is a NULL pointer then
** the routine should return 1.  {END} This seems counter-intuitive since
** clearly the mutex cannot be held if it does not exist.  But the
** the reason the mutex does not exist is because the build is not
** using mutexes.  And we do not want the assert() containing the
** call to sqlite3_mutex_held() to fail, so a non-zero return is
** the appropriate thing to do.  {H17086} The sqlite3_mutex_notheld()
** interface should also return 1 when given a NULL pointer.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Mutex Types {H17001} <H17000>
**
** The [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()] interface takes a single argument
** which is one of these integer constants.
**
** The set of static mutexes may change from one SQLite release to the
** next.  Applications that override the built-in mutex logic must be
** prepared to accommodate additional static mutexes.
*/
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST             0
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE        1
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER    2
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM       3  /* sqlite3_malloc() */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM2      4  /* sqlite3_release_memory() */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG      5  /* sqlite3_random() */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU       6  /* lru page list */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU2      7  /* lru page list */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Low-Level Control Of Database Files {H11300} <S30800>
**
** {H11301} The [sqlite3_file_control()] interface makes a direct call to the
** xFileControl method for the [sqlite3_io_methods] object associated
** with a particular database identified by the second argument. {H11302} The
** name of the database is the name assigned to the database by the
** <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> SQL command that opened the
** database. {H11303} To control the main database file, use the name "main"
** or a NULL pointer. {H11304} The third and fourth parameters to this routine
** are passed directly through to the second and third parameters of
** the xFileControl method.  {H11305} The return value of the xFileControl
** method becomes the return value of this routine.
**
** {H11306} If the second parameter (zDbName) does not match the name of any
** open database file, then SQLITE_ERROR is returned. {H11307} This error
** code is not remembered and will not be recalled by [sqlite3_errcode()]
** or [sqlite3_errmsg()]. {A11308} The underlying xFileControl method might
** also return SQLITE_ERROR.  {A11309} There is no way to distinguish between
** an incorrect zDbName and an SQLITE_ERROR return from the underlying
** xFileControl method. {END}
**
** See also: [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE]
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_file_control(sqlite3*, const char *zDbName, int op, void*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Testing Interface {H11400} <S30800>
**
** The sqlite3_test_control() interface is used to read out internal
** state of SQLite and to inject faults into SQLite for testing
** purposes.  The first parameter is an operation code that determines
** the number, meaning, and operation of all subsequent parameters.
**
** This interface is not for use by applications.  It exists solely
** for verifying the correct operation of the SQLite library.  Depending
** on how the SQLite library is compiled, this interface might not exist.
**
** The details of the operation codes, their meanings, the parameters
** they take, and what they do are all subject to change without notice.
** Unlike most of the SQLite API, this function is not guaranteed to
** operate consistently from one release to the next.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_test_control(int op, ...);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Testing Interface Operation Codes {H11410} <H11400>
**
** These constants are the valid operation code parameters used
** as the first argument to [sqlite3_test_control()].
**
** These parameters and their meanings are subject to change
** without notice.  These values are for testing purposes only.
** Applications should not use any of these parameters or the
** [sqlite3_test_control()] interface.
*/
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_SAVE                5
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_RESTORE             6
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_RESET               7
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BITVEC_TEST              8
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FAULT_INSTALL            9
#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BENIGN_MALLOC_HOOKS     10

/*
** CAPI3REF: SQLite Runtime Status {H17200} <S60200>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** This interface is used to retrieve runtime status information
** about the preformance of SQLite, and optionally to reset various
** highwater marks.  The first argument is an integer code for
** the specific parameter to measure.  Recognized integer codes
** are of the form [SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED | SQLITE_STATUS_...].
** The current value of the parameter is returned into *pCurrent.
** The highest recorded value is returned in *pHighwater.  If the
** resetFlag is true, then the highest record value is reset after
** *pHighwater is written. Some parameters do not record the highest
** value.  For those parameters
** nothing is written into *pHighwater and the resetFlag is ignored.
** Other parameters record only the highwater mark and not the current
** value.  For these latter parameters nothing is written into *pCurrent.
**
** This routine returns SQLITE_OK on success and a non-zero
** [error code] on failure.
**
** This routine is threadsafe but is not atomic.  This routine can
** called while other threads are running the same or different SQLite
** interfaces.  However the values returned in *pCurrent and
** *pHighwater reflect the status of SQLite at different points in time
** and it is possible that another thread might change the parameter
** in between the times when *pCurrent and *pHighwater are written.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_db_status()]
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_status(int op, int *pCurrent, int *pHighwater, int resetFlag);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Status {H17201} <S60200>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** This interface is used to retrieve runtime status information 
** about a single [database connection].  The first argument is the
** database connection object to be interrogated.  The second argument
** is the parameter to interrogate.  Currently, the only allowed value
** for the second parameter is [SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_USED].
** Additional options will likely appear in future releases of SQLite.
**
** The current value of the request parameter is written into *pCur
** and the highest instantaneous value is written into *pHiwtr.  If
** the resetFlg is true, then the highest instantaneous value is
** reset back down to the current value.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_status()].
*/
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_db_status(sqlite3*, int op, int *pCur, int *pHiwtr, int resetFlg);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Status Parameters {H17250} <H17200>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** These integer constants designate various run-time status parameters
** that can be returned by [sqlite3_status()].
**
** <dl>
** <dt>SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED</dt>
** <dd>This parameter is the current amount of memory checked out
** using [sqlite3_malloc()], either directly or indirectly.  The
** figure includes calls made to [sqlite3_malloc()] by the application
** and internal memory usage by the SQLite library.  Scratch memory
** controlled by [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH] and auxiliary page-cache
** memory controlled by [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE] is not included in
** this parameter.  The amount returned is the sum of the allocation
** sizes as reported by the xSize method in [sqlite3_mem_methods].</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_SIZE</dt>
** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
** handed to [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] (or their
** internal equivalents).  Only the value returned in the
** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.  
** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_USED</dt>
** <dd>This parameter returns the number of pages used out of the
** [pagecache memory allocator] that was configured using 
** [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE].  The
** value returned is in pages, not in bytes.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_OVERFLOW</dt>
** <dd>This parameter returns the number of bytes of page cache
** allocation which could not be statisfied by the [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE]
** buffer and where forced to overflow to [sqlite3_malloc()].  The
** returned value includes allocations that overflowed because they
** where too large (they were larger than the "sz" parameter to
** [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE]) and allocations that overflowed because
** no space was left in the page cache.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_SIZE</dt>
** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
** handed to [pagecache memory allocator].  Only the value returned in the
** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.  
** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_USED</dt>
** <dd>This parameter returns the number of allocations used out of the
** [scratch memory allocator] configured using
** [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH].  The value returned is in allocations, not
** in bytes.  Since a single thread may only have one scratch allocation
** outstanding at time, this parameter also reports the number of threads
** using scratch memory at the same time.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_OVERFLOW</dt>
** <dd>This parameter returns the number of bytes of scratch memory
** allocation which could not be statisfied by the [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH]
** buffer and where forced to overflow to [sqlite3_malloc()].  The values
** returned include overflows because the requested allocation was too
** larger (that is, because the requested allocation was larger than the
** "sz" parameter to [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH]) and because no scratch buffer
** slots were available.
** </dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_SIZE</dt>
** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
** handed to [scratch memory allocator].  Only the value returned in the
** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.  
** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_STATUS_PARSER_STACK</dt>
** <dd>This parameter records the deepest parser stack.  It is only
** meaningful if SQLite is compiled with [YYTRACKMAXSTACKDEPTH].</dd>
** </dl>
**
** New status parameters may be added from time to time.
*/
#define SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED          0
#define SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_USED       1
#define SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_OVERFLOW   2
#define SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_USED         3
#define SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_OVERFLOW     4
#define SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_SIZE          5
#define SQLITE_STATUS_PARSER_STACK         6
#define SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_SIZE       7
#define SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_SIZE         8

/*
** CAPI3REF: Status Parameters for database connections {H17275} <H17200>
** EXPERIMENTAL
**
** Status verbs for [sqlite3_db_status()].
**
** <dl>
** <dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_USED</dt>
** <dd>This parameter returns the number of lookaside memory slots currently
** checked out.</dd>
** </dl>
*/
#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_USED     0

/*
** Undo the hack that converts floating point types to integer for
** builds on processors without floating point support.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
# undef double
#endif

#if 0
}  /* End of the 'extern "C"' block */
#endif
#endif

/************** End of sqlite3.h *********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include hash.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Begin file hash.h ********************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 22
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This is the header file for the generic hash-table implemenation
** used in SQLite.
**
** $Id: hash.h,v 1.11 2007/09/04 14:31:47 danielk1977 Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE_HASH_H_
#define _SQLITE_HASH_H_

/* Forward declarations of structures. */
typedef struct Hash Hash;
typedef struct HashElem HashElem;

/* A complete hash table is an instance of the following structure.
** The internals of this structure are intended to be opaque -- client
** code should not attempt to access or modify the fields of this structure
** directly.  Change this structure only by using the routines below.
** However, many of the "procedures" and "functions" for modifying and
** accessing this structure are really macros, so we can't really make
** this structure opaque.
*/
struct Hash {
  char keyClass;          /* SQLITE_HASH_INT, _POINTER, _STRING, _BINARY */
  char copyKey;           /* True if copy of key made on insert */
  int count;              /* Number of entries in this table */
  int htsize;             /* Number of buckets in the hash table */
  HashElem *first;        /* The first element of the array */
  struct _ht {            /* the hash table */
    int count;               /* Number of entries with this hash */
    HashElem *chain;         /* Pointer to first entry with this hash */
  } *ht;
};

/* Each element in the hash table is an instance of the following 
** structure.  All elements are stored on a single doubly-linked list.
**
** Again, this structure is intended to be opaque, but it can't really
** be opaque because it is used by macros.
*/
struct HashElem {
  HashElem *next, *prev;   /* Next and previous elements in the table */
  void *data;              /* Data associated with this element */
  void *pKey; int nKey;    /* Key associated with this element */
};

/*
** There are 4 different modes of operation for a hash table:
**
**   SQLITE_HASH_INT         nKey is used as the key and pKey is ignored.
**
**   SQLITE_HASH_POINTER     pKey is used as the key and nKey is ignored.
**
**   SQLITE_HASH_STRING      pKey points to a string that is nKey bytes long
**                           (including the null-terminator, if any).  Case
**                           is ignored in comparisons.
**
**   SQLITE_HASH_BINARY      pKey points to binary data nKey bytes long. 
**                           memcmp() is used to compare keys.
**
** A copy of the key is made for SQLITE_HASH_STRING and SQLITE_HASH_BINARY
** if the copyKey parameter to HashInit is 1.  
*/
/* #define SQLITE_HASH_INT       1 // NOT USED */
/* #define SQLITE_HASH_POINTER   2 // NOT USED */
#define SQLITE_HASH_STRING    3
#define SQLITE_HASH_BINARY    4

/*
** Access routines.  To delete, insert a NULL pointer.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashInit(Hash*, int keytype, int copyKey);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HashInsert(Hash*, const void *pKey, int nKey, void *pData);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HashFind(const Hash*, const void *pKey, int nKey);
SQLITE_PRIVATE HashElem *sqlite3HashFindElem(const Hash*, const void *pKey, int nKey);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashClear(Hash*);

/*
** Macros for looping over all elements of a hash table.  The idiom is
** like this:
**
**   Hash h;
**   HashElem *p;
**   ...
**   for(p=sqliteHashFirst(&h); p; p=sqliteHashNext(p)){
**     SomeStructure *pData = sqliteHashData(p);
**     // do something with pData
**   }
*/
#define sqliteHashFirst(H)  ((H)->first)
#define sqliteHashNext(E)   ((E)->next)
#define sqliteHashData(E)   ((E)->data)
#define sqliteHashKey(E)    ((E)->pKey)
#define sqliteHashKeysize(E) ((E)->nKey)

/*
** Number of entries in a hash table
*/
#define sqliteHashCount(H)  ((H)->count)

#endif /* _SQLITE_HASH_H_ */

/************** End of hash.h ************************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include parse.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file parse.h *******************************************/
#define TK_SEMI                            1
#define TK_EXPLAIN                         2
#define TK_QUERY                           3
#define TK_PLAN                            4
#define TK_BEGIN                           5
#define TK_TRANSACTION                     6
#define TK_DEFERRED                        7
#define TK_IMMEDIATE                       8
#define TK_EXCLUSIVE                       9
#define TK_COMMIT                         10
#define TK_END                            11
#define TK_ROLLBACK                       12
#define TK_CREATE                         13
#define TK_TABLE                          14
#define TK_IF                             15
#define TK_NOT                            16
#define TK_EXISTS                         17
#define TK_TEMP                           18
#define TK_LP                             19
#define TK_RP                             20
#define TK_AS                             21
#define TK_COMMA                          22
#define TK_ID                             23
#define TK_ABORT                          24
#define TK_AFTER                          25
#define TK_ANALYZE                        26
#define TK_ASC                            27
#define TK_ATTACH                         28
#define TK_BEFORE                         29
#define TK_CASCADE                        30
#define TK_CAST                           31
#define TK_CONFLICT                       32
#define TK_DATABASE                       33
#define TK_DESC                           34
#define TK_DETACH                         35
#define TK_EACH                           36
#define TK_FAIL                           37
#define TK_FOR                            38
#define TK_IGNORE                         39
#define TK_INITIALLY                      40
#define TK_INSTEAD                        41
#define TK_LIKE_KW                        42
#define TK_MATCH                          43
#define TK_KEY                            44
#define TK_OF                             45
#define TK_OFFSET                         46
#define TK_PRAGMA                         47
#define TK_RAISE                          48
#define TK_REPLACE                        49
#define TK_RESTRICT                       50
#define TK_ROW                            51
#define TK_TRIGGER                        52
#define TK_VACUUM                         53
#define TK_VIEW                           54
#define TK_VIRTUAL                        55
#define TK_REINDEX                        56
#define TK_RENAME                         57
#define TK_CTIME_KW                       58
#define TK_ANY                            59
#define TK_OR                             60
#define TK_AND                            61
#define TK_IS                             62
#define TK_BETWEEN                        63
#define TK_IN                             64
#define TK_ISNULL                         65
#define TK_NOTNULL                        66
#define TK_NE                             67
#define TK_EQ                             68
#define TK_GT                             69
#define TK_LE                             70
#define TK_LT                             71
#define TK_GE                             72
#define TK_ESCAPE                         73
#define TK_BITAND                         74
#define TK_BITOR                          75
#define TK_LSHIFT                         76
#define TK_RSHIFT                         77
#define TK_PLUS                           78
#define TK_MINUS                          79
#define TK_STAR                           80
#define TK_SLASH                          81
#define TK_REM                            82
#define TK_CONCAT                         83
#define TK_COLLATE                        84
#define TK_UMINUS                         85
#define TK_UPLUS                          86
#define TK_BITNOT                         87
#define TK_STRING                         88
#define TK_JOIN_KW                        89
#define TK_CONSTRAINT                     90
#define TK_DEFAULT                        91
#define TK_NULL                           92
#define TK_PRIMARY                        93
#define TK_UNIQUE                         94
#define TK_CHECK                          95
#define TK_REFERENCES                     96
#define TK_AUTOINCR                       97
#define TK_ON                             98
#define TK_DELETE                         99
#define TK_UPDATE                         100
#define TK_INSERT                         101
#define TK_SET                            102
#define TK_DEFERRABLE                     103
#define TK_FOREIGN                        104
#define TK_DROP                           105
#define TK_UNION                          106
#define TK_ALL                            107
#define TK_EXCEPT                         108
#define TK_INTERSECT                      109
#define TK_SELECT                         110
#define TK_DISTINCT                       111
#define TK_DOT                            112
#define TK_FROM                           113
#define TK_JOIN                           114
#define TK_USING                          115
#define TK_ORDER                          116
#define TK_BY                             117
#define TK_GROUP                          118
#define TK_HAVING                         119
#define TK_LIMIT                          120
#define TK_WHERE                          121
#define TK_INTO                           122
#define TK_VALUES                         123
#define TK_INTEGER                        124
#define TK_FLOAT                          125
#define TK_BLOB                           126
#define TK_REGISTER                       127
#define TK_VARIABLE                       128
#define TK_CASE                           129
#define TK_WHEN                           130
#define TK_THEN                           131
#define TK_ELSE                           132
#define TK_INDEX                          133
#define TK_ALTER                          134
#define TK_TO                             135
#define TK_ADD                            136
#define TK_COLUMNKW                       137
#define TK_TO_TEXT                        138
#define TK_TO_BLOB                        139
#define TK_TO_NUMERIC                     140
#define TK_TO_INT                         141
#define TK_TO_REAL                        142
#define TK_END_OF_FILE                    143
#define TK_ILLEGAL                        144
#define TK_SPACE                          145
#define TK_UNCLOSED_STRING                146
#define TK_FUNCTION                       147
#define TK_COLUMN                         148
#define TK_AGG_FUNCTION                   149
#define TK_AGG_COLUMN                     150
#define TK_CONST_FUNC                     151

/************** End of parse.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <stddef.h>

/*
** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
** substitute integer for floating-point
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
# define double sqlite_int64
# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE sqlite_int64
# ifndef SQLITE_BIG_DBL
#   define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (0x7fffffffffffffff)
# endif
# define SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS 1
# define SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE 1
# undef SQLITE_MIXED_ENDIAN_64BIT_FLOAT
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_BIG_DBL
# define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (1e99)
#endif

/*
** OMIT_TEMPDB is set to 1 if SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB is defined, or 0
** afterward. Having this macro allows us to cause the C compiler 
** to omit code used by TEMP tables without messy #ifndef statements.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 1
#else
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 0
#endif

/*
** If the following macro is set to 1, then NULL values are considered
** distinct when determining whether or not two entries are the same
** in a UNIQUE index.  This is the way PostgreSQL, Oracle, DB2, MySQL,
** OCELOT, and Firebird all work.  The SQL92 spec explicitly says this
** is the way things are suppose to work.
**
** If the following macro is set to 0, the NULLs are indistinct for
** a UNIQUE index.  In this mode, you can only have a single NULL entry
** for a column declared UNIQUE.  This is the way Informix and SQL Server
** work.
*/
#define NULL_DISTINCT_FOR_UNIQUE 1

/*
** The "file format" number is an integer that is incremented whenever
** the VDBE-level file format changes.  The following macros define the
** the default file format for new databases and the maximum file format
** that the library can read.
*/
#define SQLITE_MAX_FILE_FORMAT 4
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_FILE_FORMAT
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_FILE_FORMAT 1
#endif

/*
** Provide a default value for SQLITE_TEMP_STORE in case it is not specified
** on the command-line
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_TEMP_STORE
# define SQLITE_TEMP_STORE 1
#endif

/*
** GCC does not define the offsetof() macro so we'll have to do it
** ourselves.
*/
#ifndef offsetof
#define offsetof(STRUCTURE,FIELD) ((int)((char*)&((STRUCTURE*)0)->FIELD))
#endif

/*
** Check to see if this machine uses EBCDIC.  (Yes, believe it or
** not, there are still machines out there that use EBCDIC.)
*/
#if 'A' == '\301'
# define SQLITE_EBCDIC 1
#else
# define SQLITE_ASCII 1
#endif

/*
** Integers of known sizes.  These typedefs might change for architectures
** where the sizes very.  Preprocessor macros are available so that the
** types can be conveniently redefined at compile-type.  Like this:
**
**         cc '-DUINTPTR_TYPE=long long int' ...
*/
#ifndef UINT32_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_UINT32_T
#  define UINT32_TYPE uint32_t
# else
#  define UINT32_TYPE unsigned int
# endif
#endif
#ifndef UINT16_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_UINT16_T
#  define UINT16_TYPE uint16_t
# else
#  define UINT16_TYPE unsigned short int
# endif
#endif
#ifndef INT16_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_INT16_T
#  define INT16_TYPE int16_t
# else
#  define INT16_TYPE short int
# endif
#endif
#ifndef UINT8_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_UINT8_T
#  define UINT8_TYPE uint8_t
# else
#  define UINT8_TYPE unsigned char
# endif
#endif
#ifndef INT8_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_INT8_T
#  define INT8_TYPE int8_t
# else
#  define INT8_TYPE signed char
# endif
#endif
#ifndef LONGDOUBLE_TYPE
# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE long double
#endif
typedef sqlite_int64 i64;          /* 8-byte signed integer */
typedef sqlite_uint64 u64;         /* 8-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT32_TYPE u32;           /* 4-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT16_TYPE u16;           /* 2-byte unsigned integer */
typedef INT16_TYPE i16;            /* 2-byte signed integer */
typedef UINT8_TYPE u8;             /* 1-byte unsigned integer */
typedef INT8_TYPE i8;              /* 1-byte signed integer */

/*
** Macros to determine whether the machine is big or little endian,
** evaluated at runtime.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_AMALGAMATION
SQLITE_PRIVATE const int sqlite3one;
#else
SQLITE_PRIVATE const int sqlite3one;
#endif
#if defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86)
# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN    0
# define SQLITE_LITTLEENDIAN 1
# define SQLITE_UTF16NATIVE  SQLITE_UTF16LE
#else
# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN    (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==0)
# define SQLITE_LITTLEENDIAN (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==1)
# define SQLITE_UTF16NATIVE (SQLITE_BIGENDIAN?SQLITE_UTF16BE:SQLITE_UTF16LE)
#endif

/*
** Constants for the largest and smallest possible 64-bit signed integers.
** These macros are designed to work correctly on both 32-bit and 64-bit
** compilers.
*/
#define LARGEST_INT64  (0xffffffff|(((i64)0x7fffffff)<<32))
#define SMALLEST_INT64 (((i64)-1) - LARGEST_INT64)

/*
** An instance of the following structure is used to store the busy-handler
** callback for a given sqlite handle. 
**
** The sqlite.busyHandler member of the sqlite struct contains the busy
** callback for the database handle. Each pager opened via the sqlite
** handle is passed a pointer to sqlite.busyHandler. The busy-handler
** callback is currently invoked only from within pager.c.
*/
typedef struct BusyHandler BusyHandler;
struct BusyHandler {
  int (*xFunc)(void *,int);  /* The busy callback */
  void *pArg;                /* First arg to busy callback */
  int nBusy;                 /* Incremented with each busy call */
};

/*
** Name of the master database table.  The master database table
** is a special table that holds the names and attributes of all
** user tables and indices.
*/
#define MASTER_NAME       "sqlite_master"
#define TEMP_MASTER_NAME  "sqlite_temp_master"

/*
** The root-page of the master database table.
*/
#define MASTER_ROOT       1

/*
** The name of the schema table.
*/
#define SCHEMA_TABLE(x)  ((!OMIT_TEMPDB)&&(x==1)?TEMP_MASTER_NAME:MASTER_NAME)

/*
** A convenience macro that returns the number of elements in
** an array.
*/
#define ArraySize(X)    (sizeof(X)/sizeof(X[0]))

/*
** The following value as a destructor means to use sqlite3DbFree().
** This is an internal extension to SQLITE_STATIC and SQLITE_TRANSIENT.
*/
#define SQLITE_DYNAMIC   ((sqlite3_destructor_type)sqlite3DbFree)

/*
** Forward references to structures
*/
typedef struct AggInfo AggInfo;
typedef struct AuthContext AuthContext;
typedef struct Bitvec Bitvec;
typedef struct CollSeq CollSeq;
typedef struct Column Column;
typedef struct Db Db;
typedef struct Schema Schema;
typedef struct Expr Expr;
typedef struct ExprList ExprList;
typedef struct FKey FKey;
typedef struct FuncDef FuncDef;
typedef struct FuncDefHash FuncDefHash;
typedef struct IdList IdList;
typedef struct Index Index;
typedef struct KeyClass KeyClass;
typedef struct KeyInfo KeyInfo;
typedef struct Lookaside Lookaside;
typedef struct LookasideSlot LookasideSlot;
typedef struct Module Module;
typedef struct NameContext NameContext;
typedef struct Parse Parse;
typedef struct Select Select;
typedef struct SrcList SrcList;
typedef struct StrAccum StrAccum;
typedef struct Table Table;
typedef struct TableLock TableLock;
typedef struct Token Token;
typedef struct TriggerStack TriggerStack;
typedef struct TriggerStep TriggerStep;
typedef struct Trigger Trigger;
typedef struct UnpackedRecord UnpackedRecord;
typedef struct Walker Walker;
typedef struct WhereInfo WhereInfo;
typedef struct WhereLevel WhereLevel;

/*
** Defer sourcing vdbe.h and btree.h until after the "u8" and 
** "BusyHandler" typedefs. vdbe.h also requires a few of the opaque
** pointer types (i.e. FuncDef) defined above.
*/
/************** Include btree.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file btree.h *******************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite B-Tree file
** subsystem.  See comments in the source code for a detailed description
** of what each interface routine does.
**
** @(#) $Id: btree.h,v 1.103 2008/08/13 19:11:48 drh Exp $
*/
#ifndef _BTREE_H_
#define _BTREE_H_

/* TODO: This definition is just included so other modules compile. It
** needs to be revisited.
*/
#define SQLITE_N_BTREE_META 10

/*
** If defined as non-zero, auto-vacuum is enabled by default. Otherwise
** it must be turned on for each database using "PRAGMA auto_vacuum = 1".
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_AUTOVACUUM
  #define SQLITE_DEFAULT_AUTOVACUUM 0
#endif

#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_NONE 0        /* Do not do auto-vacuum */
#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_FULL 1        /* Do full auto-vacuum */
#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_INCR 2        /* Incremental vacuum */

/*
** Forward declarations of structure
*/
typedef struct Btree Btree;
typedef struct BtCursor BtCursor;
typedef struct BtShared BtShared;
typedef struct BtreeMutexArray BtreeMutexArray;

/*
** This structure records all of the Btrees that need to hold
** a mutex before we enter sqlite3VdbeExec().  The Btrees are
** are placed in aBtree[] in order of aBtree[]->pBt.  That way,
** we can always lock and unlock them all quickly.
*/
struct BtreeMutexArray {
  int nMutex;
  Btree *aBtree[SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+1];
};


SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeOpen(
  const char *zFilename,   /* Name of database file to open */
  sqlite3 *db,             /* Associated database connection */
  Btree **,                /* Return open Btree* here */
  int flags,               /* Flags */
  int vfsFlags             /* Flags passed through to VFS open */
);

/* The flags parameter to sqlite3BtreeOpen can be the bitwise or of the
** following values.
**
** NOTE:  These values must match the corresponding PAGER_ values in
** pager.h.
*/
#define BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL  1  /* Do not use journal.  No argument */
#define BTREE_NO_READLOCK   2  /* Omit readlocks on readonly files */
#define BTREE_MEMORY        4  /* In-memory DB.  No argument */
#define BTREE_READONLY      8  /* Open the database in read-only mode */
#define BTREE_READWRITE    16  /* Open for both reading and writing */
#define BTREE_CREATE       32  /* Create the database if it does not exist */

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeClose(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetCacheSize(Btree*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetSafetyLevel(Btree*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSyncDisabled(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetPageSize(Btree*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetPageSize(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeMaxPageCount(Btree*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetReserve(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetAutoVacuum(Btree *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetAutoVacuum(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeBeginTrans(Btree*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitPhaseOne(Btree*, const char *zMaster);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitPhaseTwo(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommit(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeRollback(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeBeginStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeRollbackStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCreateTable(Btree*, int*, int flags);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInTrans(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInReadTrans(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3BtreeSchema(Btree *, int, void(*)(void *));
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSchemaLocked(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeLockTable(Btree *, int, u8);

SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetFilename(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetDirname(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetJournalname(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCopyFile(Btree *, Btree *);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIncrVacuum(Btree *);

/* The flags parameter to sqlite3BtreeCreateTable can be the bitwise OR
** of the following flags:
*/
#define BTREE_INTKEY     1    /* Table has only 64-bit signed integer keys */
#define BTREE_ZERODATA   2    /* Table has keys only - no data */
#define BTREE_LEAFDATA   4    /* Data stored in leaves only.  Implies INTKEY */

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDropTable(Btree*, int, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeClearTable(Btree*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetMeta(Btree*, int idx, u32 *pValue);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeUpdateMeta(Btree*, int idx, u32 value);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeTripAllCursors(Btree*, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursor(
  Btree*,                              /* BTree containing table to open */
  int iTable,                          /* Index of root page */
  int wrFlag,                          /* 1 for writing.  0 for read-only */
  struct KeyInfo*,                     /* First argument to compare function */
  BtCursor *pCursor                    /* Space to write cursor structure */
);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorSize(void);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCloseCursor(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeMoveto(
  BtCursor*,
  const void *pKey,
  i64 nKey,
  int bias,
  int *pRes
);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeMovetoUnpacked(
  BtCursor*,
  UnpackedRecord *pUnKey,
  i64 intKey,
  int bias,
  int *pRes
);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorHasMoved(BtCursor*, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDelete(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeInsert(BtCursor*, const void *pKey, i64 nKey,
                                  const void *pData, int nData,
                                  int nZero, int bias);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFirst(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeLast(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeNext(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeEof(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFlags(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePrevious(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeKeySize(BtCursor*, i64 *pSize);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeKey(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3 *sqlite3BtreeCursorDb(const BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3BtreeKeyFetch(BtCursor*, int *pAmt);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3BtreeDataFetch(BtCursor*, int *pAmt);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDataSize(BtCursor*, u32 *pSize);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(Btree*, int *aRoot, int nRoot, int, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE struct Pager *sqlite3BtreePager(Btree*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePutData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCacheOverflow(BtCursor *);

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorInfo(BtCursor*, int*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorList(Btree*);
#endif

/*
** If we are not using shared cache, then there is no need to
** use mutexes to access the BtShared structures.  So make the
** Enter and Leave procedures no-ops.
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeEnter(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeLeave(Btree*);
#ifndef NDEBUG
  /* This routine is used inside assert() statements only. */
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(Btree*);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeEnterCursor(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeLeaveCursor(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(sqlite3*);
#ifndef NDEBUG
  /* This routine is used inside assert() statements only. */
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3BtreeHoldsAllMutexes(sqlite3*);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayEnter(BtreeMutexArray*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayLeave(BtreeMutexArray*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayInsert(BtreeMutexArray*, Btree*);
#else
# define sqlite3BtreeEnter(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeLeave(X)
#ifndef NDEBUG
  /* This routine is used inside assert() statements only. */
# define sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(X) 1
#endif
# define sqlite3BtreeEnterCursor(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeLeaveCursor(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(X)
#ifndef NDEBUG
  /* This routine is used inside assert() statements only. */
# define sqlite3BtreeHoldsAllMutexes(X) 1
#endif
# define sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayEnter(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayLeave(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayInsert(X,Y)
#endif


#endif /* _BTREE_H_ */

/************** End of btree.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include vdbe.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Begin file vdbe.h ********************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** Header file for the Virtual DataBase Engine (VDBE)
**
** This header defines the interface to the virtual database engine
** or VDBE.  The VDBE implements an abstract machine that runs a
** simple program to access and modify the underlying database.
**
** $Id: vdbe.h,v 1.138 2008/08/20 22:06:48 drh Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE_VDBE_H_
#define _SQLITE_VDBE_H_

/*
** A single VDBE is an opaque structure named "Vdbe".  Only routines
** in the source file sqliteVdbe.c are allowed to see the insides
** of this structure.
*/
typedef struct Vdbe Vdbe;

/*
** The names of the following types declared in vdbeInt.h are required
** for the VdbeOp definition.
*/
typedef struct VdbeFunc VdbeFunc;
typedef struct Mem Mem;

/*
** A single instruction of the virtual machine has an opcode
** and as many as three operands.  The instruction is recorded
** as an instance of the following structure:
*/
struct VdbeOp {
  u8 opcode;          /* What operation to perform */
  signed char p4type; /* One of the P4_xxx constants for p4 */
  u8 opflags;         /* Not currently used */
  u8 p5;              /* Fifth parameter is an unsigned character */
  int p1;             /* First operand */
  int p2;             /* Second parameter (often the jump destination) */
  int p3;             /* The third parameter */
  union {             /* forth parameter */
    int i;                 /* Integer value if p4type==P4_INT32 */
    void *p;               /* Generic pointer */
    char *z;               /* Pointer to data for string (char array) types */
    i64 *pI64;             /* Used when p4type is P4_INT64 */
    double *pReal;         /* Used when p4type is P4_REAL */
    FuncDef *pFunc;        /* Used when p4type is P4_FUNCDEF */
    VdbeFunc *pVdbeFunc;   /* Used when p4type is P4_VDBEFUNC */
    CollSeq *pColl;        /* Used when p4type is P4_COLLSEQ */
    Mem *pMem;             /* Used when p4type is P4_MEM */
    sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;   /* Used when p4type is P4_VTAB */
    KeyInfo *pKeyInfo;     /* Used when p4type is P4_KEYINFO */
    int *ai;               /* Used when p4type is P4_INTARRAY */
  } p4;
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  char *zComment;          /* Comment to improve readability */
#endif
#ifdef VDBE_PROFILE
  int cnt;                 /* Number of times this instruction was executed */
  u64 cycles;              /* Total time spent executing this instruction */
#endif
};
typedef struct VdbeOp VdbeOp;

/*
** A smaller version of VdbeOp used for the VdbeAddOpList() function because
** it takes up less space.
*/
struct VdbeOpList {
  u8 opcode;          /* What operation to perform */
  signed char p1;     /* First operand */
  signed char p2;     /* Second parameter (often the jump destination) */
  signed char p3;     /* Third parameter */
};
typedef struct VdbeOpList VdbeOpList;

/*
** Allowed values of VdbeOp.p3type
*/
#define P4_NOTUSED    0   /* The P4 parameter is not used */
#define P4_DYNAMIC  (-1)  /* Pointer to a string obtained from sqliteMalloc() */
#define P4_STATIC   (-2)  /* Pointer to a static string */
#define P4_COLLSEQ  (-4)  /* P4 is a pointer to a CollSeq structure */
#define P4_FUNCDEF  (-5)  /* P4 is a pointer to a FuncDef structure */
#define P4_KEYINFO  (-6)  /* P4 is a pointer to a KeyInfo structure */
#define P4_VDBEFUNC (-7)  /* P4 is a pointer to a VdbeFunc structure */
#define P4_MEM      (-8)  /* P4 is a pointer to a Mem*    structure */
#define P4_TRANSIENT (-9) /* P4 is a pointer to a transient string */
#define P4_VTAB     (-10) /* P4 is a pointer to an sqlite3_vtab structure */
#define P4_MPRINTF  (-11) /* P4 is a string obtained from sqlite3_mprintf() */
#define P4_REAL     (-12) /* P4 is a 64-bit floating point value */
#define P4_INT64    (-13) /* P4 is a 64-bit signed integer */
#define P4_INT32    (-14) /* P4 is a 32-bit signed integer */
#define P4_INTARRAY (-15) /* P4 is a vector of 32-bit integers */

/* When adding a P4 argument using P4_KEYINFO, a copy of the KeyInfo structure
** is made.  That copy is freed when the Vdbe is finalized.  But if the
** argument is P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF, the passed in pointer is used.  It still
** gets freed when the Vdbe is finalized so it still should be obtained
** from a single sqliteMalloc().  But no copy is made and the calling
** function should *not* try to free the KeyInfo.
*/
#define P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF (-16)
#define P4_KEYINFO_STATIC  (-17)

/*
** The Vdbe.aColName array contains 5n Mem structures, where n is the 
** number of columns of data returned by the statement.
*/
#define COLNAME_NAME     0
#define COLNAME_DECLTYPE 1
#define COLNAME_DATABASE 2
#define COLNAME_TABLE    3
#define COLNAME_COLUMN   4
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA
# define COLNAME_N        5      /* Number of COLNAME_xxx symbols */
#else
# ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_DECLTYPE
#   define COLNAME_N      1      /* Store only the name */
# else
#   define COLNAME_N      2      /* Store the name and decltype */
# endif
#endif

/*
** The following macro converts a relative address in the p2 field
** of a VdbeOp structure into a negative number so that 
** sqlite3VdbeAddOpList() knows that the address is relative.  Calling
** the macro again restores the address.
*/
#define ADDR(X)  (-1-(X))

/*
** The makefile scans the vdbe.c source file and creates the "opcodes.h"
** header file that defines a number for each opcode used by the VDBE.
*/
/************** Include opcodes.h in the middle of vdbe.h ********************/
/************** Begin file opcodes.h *****************************************/
/* Automatically generated.  Do not edit */
/* See the mkopcodeh.awk script for details */
#define OP_VNext                                1
#define OP_Affinity                             2
#define OP_Column                               3
#define OP_SetCookie                            4
#define OP_Real                               125   /* same as TK_FLOAT    */
#define OP_Sequence                             5
#define OP_MoveGt                               6
#define OP_Ge                                  72   /* same as TK_GE       */
#define OP_RowKey                               7
#define OP_SCopy                                8
#define OP_Eq                                  68   /* same as TK_EQ       */
#define OP_OpenWrite                            9
#define OP_NotNull                             66   /* same as TK_NOTNULL  */
#define OP_If                                  10
#define OP_ToInt                              141   /* same as TK_TO_INT   */
#define OP_String8                             88   /* same as TK_STRING   */
#define OP_VRowid                              11
#define OP_CollSeq                             12
#define OP_OpenRead                            13
#define OP_Expire                              14
#define OP_AutoCommit                          15
#define OP_Gt                                  69   /* same as TK_GT       */
#define OP_Pagecount                           17
#define OP_IntegrityCk                         18
#define OP_Sort                                19
#define OP_Copy                                20
#define OP_Trace                               21
#define OP_Function                            22
#define OP_IfNeg                               23
#define OP_And                                 61   /* same as TK_AND      */
#define OP_Subtract                            79   /* same as TK_MINUS    */
#define OP_Noop                                24
#define OP_Return                              25
#define OP_Remainder                           82   /* same as TK_REM      */
#define OP_NewRowid                            26
#define OP_Multiply                            80   /* same as TK_STAR     */
#define OP_Variable                            27
#define OP_String                              28
#define OP_RealAffinity                        29
#define OP_VRename                             30
#define OP_ParseSchema                         31
#define OP_VOpen                               32
#define OP_Close                               33
#define OP_CreateIndex                         34
#define OP_IsUnique                            35
#define OP_NotFound                            36
#define OP_Int64                               37
#define OP_MustBeInt                           38
#define OP_Halt                                39
#define OP_Rowid                               40
#define OP_IdxLT                               41
#define OP_AddImm                              42
#define OP_Statement                           43
#define OP_RowData                             44
#define OP_MemMax                              45
#define OP_Or                                  60   /* same as TK_OR       */
#define OP_NotExists                           46
#define OP_Gosub                               47
#define OP_Divide                              81   /* same as TK_SLASH    */
#define OP_Integer                             48
#define OP_ToNumeric                          140   /* same as TK_TO_NUMERIC*/
#define OP_Prev                                49
#define OP_Concat                              83   /* same as TK_CONCAT   */
#define OP_BitAnd                              74   /* same as TK_BITAND   */
#define OP_VColumn                             50
#define OP_CreateTable                         51
#define OP_Last                                52
#define OP_IsNull                              65   /* same as TK_ISNULL   */
#define OP_IncrVacuum                          53
#define OP_IdxRowid                            54
#define OP_ShiftRight                          77   /* same as TK_RSHIFT   */
#define OP_ResetCount                          55
#define OP_FifoWrite                           56
#define OP_ContextPush                         57
#define OP_Yield                               58
#define OP_DropTrigger                         59
#define OP_DropIndex                           62
#define OP_IdxGE                               63
#define OP_IdxDelete                           64
#define OP_Vacuum                              73
#define OP_MoveLe                              84
#define OP_IfNot                               85
#define OP_DropTable                           86
#define OP_MakeRecord                          89
#define OP_ToBlob                             139   /* same as TK_TO_BLOB  */
#define OP_ResultRow                           90
#define OP_Delete                              91
#define OP_AggFinal                            92
#define OP_Compare                             93
#define OP_ShiftLeft                           76   /* same as TK_LSHIFT   */
#define OP_Goto                                94
#define OP_TableLock                           95
#define OP_FifoRead                            96
#define OP_Clear                               97
#define OP_MoveLt                              98
#define OP_Le                                  70   /* same as TK_LE       */
#define OP_VerifyCookie                        99
#define OP_AggStep                            100
#define OP_ToText                             138   /* same as TK_TO_TEXT  */
#define OP_Not                                 16   /* same as TK_NOT      */
#define OP_ToReal                             142   /* same as TK_TO_REAL  */
#define OP_SetNumColumns                      101
#define OP_Transaction                        102
#define OP_VFilter                            103
#define OP_Ne                                  67   /* same as TK_NE       */
#define OP_VDestroy                           104
#define OP_ContextPop                         105
#define OP_BitOr                               75   /* same as TK_BITOR    */
#define OP_Next                               106
#define OP_IdxInsert                          107
#define OP_Lt                                  71   /* same as TK_LT       */
#define OP_Insert                             108
#define OP_Destroy                            109
#define OP_ReadCookie                         110
#define OP_ForceInt                           111
#define OP_LoadAnalysis                       112
#define OP_Explain                            113
#define OP_OpenPseudo                         114
#define OP_OpenEphemeral                      115
#define OP_Null                               116
#define OP_Move                               117
#define OP_Blob                               118
#define OP_Add                                 78   /* same as TK_PLUS     */
#define OP_Rewind                             119
#define OP_MoveGe                             120
#define OP_VBegin                             121
#define OP_VUpdate                            122
#define OP_IfZero                             123
#define OP_BitNot                              87   /* same as TK_BITNOT   */
#define OP_VCreate                            124
#define OP_Found                              126
#define OP_IfPos                              127
#define OP_NullRow                            128
#define OP_Jump                               129
#define OP_Permutation                        130

/* The following opcode values are never used */
#define OP_NotUsed_131                        131
#define OP_NotUsed_132                        132
#define OP_NotUsed_133                        133
#define OP_NotUsed_134                        134
#define OP_NotUsed_135                        135
#define OP_NotUsed_136                        136
#define OP_NotUsed_137                        137


/* Properties such as "out2" or "jump" that are specified in
** comments following the "case" for each opcode in the vdbe.c
** are encoded into bitvectors as follows:
*/
#define OPFLG_JUMP            0x0001  /* jump:  P2 holds jmp target */
#define OPFLG_OUT2_PRERELEASE 0x0002  /* out2-prerelease: */
#define OPFLG_IN1             0x0004  /* in1:   P1 is an input */
#define OPFLG_IN2             0x0008  /* in2:   P2 is an input */
#define OPFLG_IN3             0x0010  /* in3:   P3 is an input */
#define OPFLG_OUT3            0x0020  /* out3:  P3 is an output */
#define OPFLG_INITIALIZER {\
/*   0 */ 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x02, 0x11, 0x00,\
/*   8 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x05, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
/*  16 */ 0x04, 0x02, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x05,\
/*  24 */ 0x00, 0x04, 0x02, 0x02, 0x02, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00,\
/*  32 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x11, 0x11, 0x02, 0x05, 0x00,\
/*  40 */ 0x02, 0x11, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0c, 0x11, 0x01,\
/*  48 */ 0x02, 0x01, 0x00, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01, 0x02, 0x00,\
/*  56 */ 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x00, 0x11,\
/*  64 */ 0x00, 0x05, 0x05, 0x15, 0x15, 0x15, 0x15, 0x15,\
/*  72 */ 0x15, 0x00, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c,\
/*  80 */ 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x2c, 0x11, 0x05, 0x00, 0x04,\
/*  88 */ 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00,\
/*  96 */ 0x01, 0x00, 0x11, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01,\
/* 104 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x08, 0x00, 0x02, 0x02, 0x05,\
/* 112 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x02, 0x01,\
/* 120 */ 0x11, 0x00, 0x00, 0x05, 0x00, 0x02, 0x11, 0x05,\
/* 128 */ 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
/* 136 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x04, 0x04, 0x04, 0x04,}

/************** End of opcodes.h *********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in vdbe.h ***********************/

/*
** Prototypes for the VDBE interface.  See comments on the implementation
** for a description of what each of these routines does.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE Vdbe *sqlite3VdbeCreate(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(Vdbe*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(Vdbe*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(Vdbe*,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int,const char *zP4,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOpList(Vdbe*, int nOp, VdbeOpList const *aOp);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(Vdbe*, int addr, int P1);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(Vdbe*, int addr, int P2);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(Vdbe*, int addr, int P3);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(Vdbe*, u8 P5);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(Vdbe*, int addr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(Vdbe*, int addr, int N);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(Vdbe*, int addr, const char *zP4, int N);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeUsesBtree(Vdbe*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeGetOp(Vdbe*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeDelete(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMakeReady(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeFinalize(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(Vdbe*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(Vdbe*);
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeTrace(Vdbe*,FILE*);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResetStepResult(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeReset(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(Vdbe*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSetColName(Vdbe*, int, int, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeCountChanges(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3 *sqlite3VdbeDb(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetSql(Vdbe*, const char *z, int n);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSwap(Vdbe*,Vdbe*);

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeReleaseMemory(int);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE UnpackedRecord *sqlite3VdbeRecordUnpack(KeyInfo*,int,const void*,
                                        UnpackedRecord*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeDeleteUnpackedRecord(UnpackedRecord*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare(int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*);


#ifndef NDEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeComment(Vdbe*, const char*, ...);
# define VdbeComment(X)  sqlite3VdbeComment X
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeNoopComment(Vdbe*, const char*, ...);
# define VdbeNoopComment(X)  sqlite3VdbeNoopComment X
#else
# define VdbeComment(X)
# define VdbeNoopComment(X)
#endif

#endif

/************** End of vdbe.h ************************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include pager.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file pager.h *******************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite page cache
** subsystem.  The page cache subsystem reads and writes a file a page
** at a time and provides a journal for rollback.
**
** @(#) $Id: pager.h,v 1.81 2008/08/27 15:16:34 danielk1977 Exp $
*/

#ifndef _PAGER_H_
#define _PAGER_H_

/*
** If defined as non-zero, auto-vacuum is enabled by default. Otherwise
** it must be turned on for each database using "PRAGMA auto_vacuum = 1".
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_JOURNAL_SIZE_LIMIT
  #define SQLITE_DEFAULT_JOURNAL_SIZE_LIMIT -1
#endif

/*
** The type used to represent a page number.  The first page in a file
** is called page 1.  0 is used to represent "not a page".
*/
typedef u32 Pgno;

/*
** Each open file is managed by a separate instance of the "Pager" structure.
*/
typedef struct Pager Pager;

/*
** Handle type for pages.
*/
typedef struct PgHdr DbPage;

/*
** Allowed values for the flags parameter to sqlite3PagerOpen().
**
** NOTE: This values must match the corresponding BTREE_ values in btree.h.
*/
#define PAGER_OMIT_JOURNAL  0x0001    /* Do not use a rollback journal */
#define PAGER_NO_READLOCK   0x0002    /* Omit readlocks on readonly files */

/*
** Valid values for the second argument to sqlite3PagerLockingMode().
*/
#define PAGER_LOCKINGMODE_QUERY      -1
#define PAGER_LOCKINGMODE_NORMAL      0
#define PAGER_LOCKINGMODE_EXCLUSIVE   1

/*
** Valid values for the second argument to sqlite3PagerJournalMode().
*/
#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_QUERY      -1
#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_DELETE      0   /* Commit by deleting journal file */
#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_PERSIST     1   /* Commit by zeroing journal header */
#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_OFF         2   /* Journal omitted.  */

/*
** See source code comments for a detailed description of the following
** routines:
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, Pager **ppPager, const char*, void(*)(DbPage*), int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetBusyhandler(Pager*, BusyHandler *pBusyHandler);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetReiniter(Pager*, void(*)(DbPage*,int));
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSetPagesize(Pager*, u16*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMaxPageCount(Pager*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerReadFileheader(Pager*, int, unsigned char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetCachesize(Pager*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerClose(Pager *pPager);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerAcquire(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno, DbPage **ppPage, int clrFlag);
#define sqlite3PagerGet(A,B,C) sqlite3PagerAcquire(A,B,C,0)
SQLITE_PRIVATE DbPage *sqlite3PagerLookup(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRef(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerUnref(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerWrite(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerPagecount(Pager*, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerTruncate(Pager*,Pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerBegin(DbPage*, int exFlag);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCommitPhaseOne(Pager*,const char *zMaster, Pgno, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCommitPhaseTwo(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRollback(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerIsreadonly(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerStmtBegin(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerStmtCommit(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerStmtRollback(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerDontRollback(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerDontWrite(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRefcount(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetSafetyLevel(Pager*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3PagerVfs(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_file *sqlite3PagerFile(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerDirname(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerJournalname(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerNosync(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMovepage(Pager*,DbPage*,Pgno,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerGetData(DbPage *); 
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerGetExtra(DbPage *); 
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerLockingMode(Pager *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerJournalMode(Pager *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE i64 sqlite3PagerJournalSizeLimit(Pager *, i64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerTempSpace(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSync(Pager *pPager);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerAlwaysRollback(Pager *pPager);

#ifdef SQLITE_HAS_CODEC
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3PagerSetCodec(Pager*,void*(*)(void*,void*,Pgno,int),void*);
#endif

#if !defined(NDEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_TEST)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   Pgno sqlite3PagerPagenumber(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3PagerIswriteable(DbPage*);
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int *sqlite3PagerStats(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3PagerRefdump(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3PagerIsMemdb(Pager*);
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
void disable_simulated_io_errors(void);
void enable_simulated_io_errors(void);
#else
# define disable_simulated_io_errors()
# define enable_simulated_io_errors()
#endif

#endif /* _PAGER_H_ */

/************** End of pager.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include pcache.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ****************/
/************** Begin file pcache.h ******************************************/
/*
** 2008 August 05
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite page cache
** subsystem. 
**
** @(#) $Id: pcache.h,v 1.9 2008/08/29 09:10:03 danielk1977 Exp $
*/

#ifndef _PCACHE_H_

typedef struct PgHdr PgHdr;
typedef struct PCache PCache;

/*
** Every page in the cache is controlled by an instance of the following
** structure.
*/
struct PgHdr {
  void *pData;                   /* Content of this page */
  void *pExtra;                  /* Extra content */
  PgHdr *pDirty;                 /* Transient list of dirty pages */
  Pgno pgno;                     /* Page number for this page */
  Pager *pPager;                 /* The pager this page is part of */
#ifdef SQLITE_CHECK_PAGES
  u32 pageHash;                  /* Hash of page content */
#endif
  u16 flags;                     /* PGHDR flags defined below */
  /**********************************************************************
  ** Elements above are public.  All that follows is private to pcache.c
  ** and should not be accessed by other modules.
  */
  i16 nRef;                      /* Number of users of this page */
  PCache *pCache;                /* Cache that owns this page */
  void *apSave[2];               /* Journal entries for in-memory databases */
  /**********************************************************************
  ** Elements above are accessible at any time by the owner of the cache
  ** without the need for a mutex.  The elements that follow can only be
  ** accessed while holding the SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU mutex.
  */
  PgHdr *pNextHash, *pPrevHash;  /* Hash collision chain for PgHdr.pgno */
  PgHdr *pNext, *pPrev;          /* List of clean or dirty pages */
  PgHdr *pNextLru, *pPrevLru;    /* Part of global LRU list */
};

/* Bit values for PgHdr.flags */
#define PGHDR_IN_JOURNAL        0x001  /* Page is in rollback journal */
#define PGHDR_IN_STMTJRNL       0x002  /* Page is in the statement journal */
#define PGHDR_DIRTY             0x004  /* Page has changed */
#define PGHDR_NEED_SYNC         0x008  /* Peed to fsync this page */
#define PGHDR_NEED_READ         0x020  /* Content is unread */
#define PGHDR_IS_INIT           0x040  /* pData is initialized */
#define PGHDR_REUSE_UNLIKELY    0x080  /* Hint: Reuse is unlikely */
#define PGHDR_DONT_WRITE        0x100  /* Do not write content to disk */

/* Initialize and shutdown the page cache subsystem */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheInitialize(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheShutdown(void);

/* Page cache buffer management:
** These routines implement SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PCacheBufferSetup(void *, int sz, int n);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PCacheMalloc(int sz);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PCacheFree(void*);

/* Create a new pager cache.
** Under memory stress, invoke xStress to try to make pages clean.
** Only clean and unpinned pages can be reclaimed.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheOpen(
  int szPage,                    /* Size of every page */
  int szExtra,                   /* Extra space associated with each page */
  int bPurgeable,                /* True if pages are on backing store */
  void (*xDestroy)(PgHdr *),     /* Called to destroy a page */
  int (*xStress)(void*, PgHdr*), /* Call to try to make pages clean */
  void *pStress,                 /* Argument to xStress */
  PCache *pToInit                /* Preallocated space for the PCache */
);

/* Modify the page-size after the cache has been created. */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheSetPageSize(PCache *, int);

/* Return the size in bytes of a PCache object.  Used to preallocate
** storage space.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheSize(void);

/* One release per successful fetch.  Page is pinned until released.
** Reference counted. 
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheFetch(PCache*, Pgno, int createFlag, PgHdr**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheRelease(PgHdr*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheDrop(PgHdr*);         /* Remove page from cache */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheMakeDirty(PgHdr*);    /* Make sure page is marked dirty */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheMakeClean(PgHdr*);    /* Mark a single page as clean */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheCleanAll(PCache*);    /* Mark all dirty list pages as clean */

/* Change a page number.  Used by incr-vacuum. */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheMove(PgHdr*, Pgno);

/* Remove all pages with pgno>x.  Reset the cache if x==0 */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheTruncate(PCache*, Pgno x);

/* Routines used to implement transactions on memory-only databases. */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcachePreserve(PgHdr*, int);    /* Preserve current page content */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheCommit(PCache*, int);    /* Drop preserved copy */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheRollback(PCache*, int);  /* Rollback to preserved copy */

/* Get a list of all dirty pages in the cache, sorted by page number */
SQLITE_PRIVATE PgHdr *sqlite3PcacheDirtyList(PCache*);

/* Reset and close the cache object */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheClose(PCache*);

/* Set flags on all pages in the page cache */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheSetFlags(PCache*, int andMask, int orMask);

/* Assert flags settings on all pages.  Debugging only */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheAssertFlags(PCache*, int trueMask, int falseMask);

/* Return true if the number of dirty pages is 0 or 1 */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheZeroOrOneDirtyPages(PCache*);

/* Discard the contents of the cache */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheClear(PCache*);

/* Return the total number of outstanding page references */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheRefCount(PCache*);

/* Increment the reference count of an existing page */
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheRef(PgHdr*);

/* Return the total number of pages stored in the cache */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcachePagecount(PCache*);

/* Iterate through all pages currently stored in the cache. This interface
** is only available if SQLITE_CHECK_PAGES is defined when the library is 
** built.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheIterate(PCache *pCache, void (*xIter)(PgHdr *));

/* Set and get the suggested cache-size for the specified pager-cache.
**
** If no global maximum is configured, then the system attempts to limit
** the total number of pages cached by purgeable pager-caches to the sum
** of the suggested cache-sizes.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheGetCachesize(PCache *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheSetCachesize(PCache *, int);

/* Try to return memory used by the pcache module to the main memory heap */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheReleaseMemory(int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheStats(int*,int*,int*,int*);

#endif /* _PCACHE_H_ */

/************** End of pcache.h **********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/

/************** Include os.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ********************/
/************** Begin file os.h **********************************************/
/*
** 2001 September 16
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
******************************************************************************
**
** This header file (together with is companion C source-code file
** "os.c") attempt to abstract the underlying operating system so that
** the SQLite library will work on both POSIX and windows systems.
**
** This header file is #include-ed by sqliteInt.h and thus ends up
** being included by every source file.
**
** $Id: os.h,v 1.105 2008/06/26 10:41:19 danielk1977 Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE_OS_H_
#define _SQLITE_OS_H_

/*
** Figure out if we are dealing with Unix, Windows, or some other
** operating system.  After the following block of preprocess macros,
** all of SQLITE_OS_UNIX, SQLITE_OS_WIN, SQLITE_OS_OS2, and SQLITE_OS_OTHER 
** will defined to either 1 or 0.  One of the four will be 1.  The other 
** three will be 0.
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_OS_OTHER)
# if SQLITE_OS_OTHER==1
#   undef SQLITE_OS_UNIX
#   define SQLITE_OS_UNIX 0
#   undef SQLITE_OS_WIN
#   define SQLITE_OS_WIN 0
#   undef SQLITE_OS_OS2
#   define SQLITE_OS_OS2 0
# else
#   undef SQLITE_OS_OTHER
# endif
#endif
#if !defined(SQLITE_OS_UNIX) && !defined(SQLITE_OS_OTHER)
# define SQLITE_OS_OTHER 0
# ifndef SQLITE_OS_WIN
#   if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32) || defined(__CYGWIN__) || defined(__MINGW32__) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
#     define SQLITE_OS_WIN 1
#     define SQLITE_OS_UNIX 0
#     define SQLITE_OS_OS2 0
#   elif defined(__EMX__) || defined(_OS2) || defined(OS2) || defined(_OS2_) || defined(__OS2__)
#     define SQLITE_OS_WIN 0
#     define SQLITE_OS_UNIX 0
#     define SQLITE_OS_OS2 1
#   else
#     define SQLITE_OS_WIN 0
#     define SQLITE_OS_UNIX 1
#     define SQLITE_OS_OS2 0
#  endif
# else
#  define SQLITE_OS_UNIX 0
#  define SQLITE_OS_OS2 0
# endif
#else
# ifndef SQLITE_OS_WIN
#  define SQLITE_OS_WIN 0
# endif
#endif

/*
** Determine if we are dealing with WindowsCE - which has a much
** reduced API.
*/
#if defined(_WIN32_WCE)
# define SQLITE_OS_WINCE 1
#else
# define SQLITE_OS_WINCE 0
#endif


/*
** Define the maximum size of a temporary filename
*/
#if SQLITE_OS_WIN
# include <windows.h>
# define SQLITE_TEMPNAME_SIZE (MAX_PATH+50)
#elif SQLITE_OS_OS2
# if (__GNUC__ > 3 || __GNUC__ == 3 && __GNUC_MINOR__ >= 3) && defined(OS2_HIGH_MEMORY)
#  include <os2safe.h> /* has to be included before os2.h for linking to work */
# endif
# define INCL_DOSDATETIME
# define INCL_DOSFILEMGR
# define INCL_DOSERRORS
# define INCL_DOSMISC
# define INCL_DOSPROCESS
# define INCL_DOSMODULEMGR
# define INCL_DOSSEMAPHORES
# include <os2.h>
# include <uconv.h>
# define SQLITE_TEMPNAME_SIZE (CCHMAXPATHCOMP)
#else
# define SQLITE_TEMPNAME_SIZE 200
#endif

/* If the SET_FULLSYNC macro is not defined above, then make it
** a no-op
*/
#ifndef SET_FULLSYNC
# define SET_FULLSYNC(x,y)
#endif

/*
** The default size of a disk sector
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_SECTOR_SIZE
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_SECTOR_SIZE 512
#endif

/*
** Temporary files are named starting with this prefix followed by 16 random
** alphanumeric characters, and no file extension. They are stored in the
** OS's standard temporary file directory, and are deleted prior to exit.
** If sqlite is being embedded in another program, you may wish to change the
** prefix to reflect your program's name, so that if your program exits
** prematurely, old temporary files can be easily identified. This can be done
** using -DSQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX=myprefix_ on the compiler command line.
**
** 2006-10-31:  The default prefix used to be "sqlite_".  But then
** Mcafee started using SQLite in their anti-virus product and it
** started putting files with the "sqlite" name in the c:/temp folder.
** This annoyed many windows users.  Those users would then do a 
** Google search for "sqlite", find the telephone numbers of the
** developers and call to wake them up at night and complain.
** For this reason, the default name prefix is changed to be "sqlite" 
** spelled backwards.  So the temp files are still identified, but
** anybody smart enough to figure out the code is also likely smart
** enough to know that calling the developer will not help get rid
** of the file.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX
# define SQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX "etilqs_"
#endif

/*
** The following values may be passed as the second argument to
** sqlite3OsLock(). The various locks exhibit the following semantics:
**
** SHARED:    Any number of processes may hold a SHARED lock simultaneously.
** RESERVED:  A single process may hold a RESERVED lock on a file at
**            any time. Other processes may hold and obtain new SHARED locks.
** PENDING:   A single process may hold a PENDING lock on a file at
**            any one time. Existing SHARED locks may persist, but no new
**            SHARED locks may be obtained by other processes.
** EXCLUSIVE: An EXCLUSIVE lock precludes all other locks.
**
** PENDING_LOCK may not be passed directly to sqlite3OsLock(). Instead, a
** process that requests an EXCLUSIVE lock may actually obtain a PENDING
** lock. This can be upgraded to an EXCLUSIVE lock by a subsequent call to
** sqlite3OsLock().
*/
#define NO_LOCK         0
#define SHARED_LOCK     1
#define RESERVED_LOCK   2
#define PENDING_LOCK    3
#define EXCLUSIVE_LOCK  4

/*
** File Locking Notes:  (Mostly about windows but also some info for Unix)
**
** We cannot use LockFileEx() or UnlockFileEx() on Win95/98/ME because
** those functions are not available.  So we use only LockFile() and
** UnlockFile().
**
** LockFile() prevents not just writing but also reading by other processes.
** A SHARED_LOCK is obtained by locking a single randomly-chosen 
** byte out of a specific range of bytes. The lock byte is obtained at 
** random so two separate readers can probably access the file at the 
** same time, unless they are unlucky and choose the same lock byte.
** An EXCLUSIVE_LOCK is obtained by locking all bytes in the range.
** There can only be one writer.  A RESERVED_LOCK is obtained by locking
** a single byte of the file that is designated as the reserved lock byte.
** A PENDING_LOCK is obtained by locking a designated byte different from
** the RESERVED_LOCK byte.
**
** On WinNT/2K/XP systems, LockFileEx() and UnlockFileEx() are available,
** which means we can use reader/writer locks.  When reader/writer locks
** are used, the lock is placed on the same range of bytes that is used
** for probabilistic locking in Win95/98/ME.  Hence, the locking scheme
** will support two or more Win95 readers or two or more WinNT readers.
** But a single Win95 reader will lock out all WinNT readers and a single
** WinNT reader will lock out all other Win95 readers.
**
** The following #defines specify the range of bytes used for locking.
** SHARED_SIZE is the number of bytes available in the pool from which
** a random byte is selected for a shared lock.  The pool of bytes for
** shared locks begins at SHARED_FIRST. 
**
** These #defines are available in sqlite_aux.h so that adaptors for
** connecting SQLite to other operating systems can use the same byte
** ranges for locking.  In particular, the same locking strategy and
** byte ranges are used for Unix.  This leaves open the possiblity of having
** clients on win95, winNT, and unix all talking to the same shared file
** and all locking correctly.  To do so would require that samba (or whatever
** tool is being used for file sharing) implements locks correctly between
** windows and unix.  I'm guessing that isn't likely to happen, but by
** using the same locking range we are at least open to the possibility.
**
** Locking in windows is manditory.  For this reason, we cannot store
** actual data in the bytes used for locking.  The pager never allocates
** the pages involved in locking therefore.  SHARED_SIZE is selected so
** that all locks will fit on a single page even at the minimum page size.
** PENDING_BYTE defines the beginning of the locks.  By default PENDING_BYTE
** is set high so that we don't have to allocate an unused page except
** for very large databases.  But one should test the page skipping logic 
** by setting PENDING_BYTE low and running the entire regression suite.
**
** Changing the value of PENDING_BYTE results in a subtly incompatible
** file format.  Depending on how it is changed, you might not notice
** the incompatibility right away, even running a full regression test.
** The default location of PENDING_BYTE is the first byte past the
** 1GB boundary.
**
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_TEST
#define PENDING_BYTE      0x40000000  /* First byte past the 1GB boundary */
#else
SQLITE_API extern unsigned int sqlite3_pending_byte;
#define PENDING_BYTE sqlite3_pending_byte
#endif

#define RESERVED_BYTE     (PENDING_BYTE+1)
#define SHARED_FIRST      (PENDING_BYTE+2)
#define SHARED_SIZE       510

/* 
** Functions for accessing sqlite3_file methods 
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsClose(sqlite3_file*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRead(sqlite3_file*, void*, int amt, i64 offset);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsWrite(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int amt, i64 offset);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsTruncate(sqlite3_file*, i64 size);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSync(sqlite3_file*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileSize(sqlite3_file*, i64 *pSize);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsLock(sqlite3_file*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsUnlock(sqlite3_file*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCheckReservedLock(sqlite3_file *id, int *pResOut);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileControl(sqlite3_file*,int,void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSectorSize(sqlite3_file *id);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDeviceCharacteristics(sqlite3_file *id);

/* 
** Functions for accessing sqlite3_vfs methods 
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file*, int, int *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDelete(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsAccess(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int, int *pResOut);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFullPathname(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int, char *);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlError(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlSym(sqlite3_vfs *, void *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlClose(sqlite3_vfs *, void *);
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRandomness(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSleep(sqlite3_vfs *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCurrentTime(sqlite3_vfs *, double*);

/*
** Convenience functions for opening and closing files using 
** sqlite3_malloc() to obtain space for the file-handle structure.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpenMalloc(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file **, int,int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCloseFree(sqlite3_file *);

#endif /* _SQLITE_OS_H_ */

/************** End of os.h **************************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include mutex.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file mutex.h *******************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 28
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
**
** This file contains the common header for all mutex implementations.
** The sqliteInt.h header #includes this file so that it is available
** to all source files.  We break it out in an effort to keep the code
** better organized.
**
** NOTE:  source files should *not* #include this header file directly.
** Source files should #include the sqliteInt.h file and let that file
** include this one indirectly.
**
** $Id: mutex.h,v 1.8 2008/06/26 10:41:19 danielk1977 Exp $
*/


#ifdef SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF
/*
** If SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF is defined, then this whole module is
** omitted and equivalent functionality must be provided by the
** application that links against the SQLite library.
*/
#else
/*
** Figure out what version of the code to use.  The choices are
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP         For single-threaded applications that
**                             do not desire error checking.
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP_DEBUG   For single-threaded applications with
**                             error checking to help verify that mutexes
**                             are being used correctly even though they
**                             are not needed.  Used when SQLITE_DEBUG is
**                             defined on single-threaded builds.
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREADS     For multi-threaded applications on Unix.
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_W32          For multi-threaded applications on Win32.
**
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2          For multi-threaded applications on OS/2.
*/
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP 1   /* The default */
#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) && !SQLITE_THREADSAFE
# undef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
# define SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP_DEBUG
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE && SQLITE_OS_UNIX
# undef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
# define SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREADS
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE && SQLITE_OS_WIN
# undef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
# define SQLITE_MUTEX_W32
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE && SQLITE_OS_OS2
# undef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
# define SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
/*
** If this is a no-op implementation, implement everything as macros.
*/
#define sqlite3_mutex_alloc(X)    ((sqlite3_mutex*)8)
#define sqlite3_mutex_free(X)
#define sqlite3_mutex_enter(X)
#define sqlite3_mutex_try(X)      SQLITE_OK
#define sqlite3_mutex_leave(X)
#define sqlite3_mutex_held(X)     1
#define sqlite3_mutex_notheld(X)  1
#define sqlite3MutexAlloc(X)      ((sqlite3_mutex*)8)
#define sqlite3MutexInit()        SQLITE_OK
#define sqlite3MutexEnd()
#endif

#endif /* SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF */

/************** End of mutex.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/


/*
** Each database file to be accessed by the system is an instance
** of the following structure.  There are normally two of these structures
** in the sqlite.aDb[] array.  aDb[0] is the main database file and
** aDb[1] is the database file used to hold temporary tables.  Additional
** databases may be attached.
*/
struct Db {
  char *zName;         /* Name of this database */
  Btree *pBt;          /* The B*Tree structure for this database file */
  u8 inTrans;          /* 0: not writable.  1: Transaction.  2: Checkpoint */
  u8 safety_level;     /* How aggressive at synching data to disk */
  void *pAux;               /* Auxiliary data.  Usually NULL */
  void (*xFreeAux)(void*);  /* Routine to free pAux */
  Schema *pSchema;     /* Pointer to database schema (possibly shared) */
};

/*
** An instance of the following structure stores a database schema.
**
** If there are no virtual tables configured in this schema, the
** Schema.db variable is set to NULL. After the first virtual table
** has been added, it is set to point to the database connection 
** used to create the connection. Once a virtual table has been
** added to the Schema structure and the Schema.db variable populated, 
** only that database connection may use the Schema to prepare 
** statements.
*/
struct Schema {
  int schema_cookie;   /* Database schema version number for this file */
  Hash tblHash;        /* All tables indexed by name */
  Hash idxHash;        /* All (named) indices indexed by name */
  Hash trigHash;       /* All triggers indexed by name */
  Hash aFKey;          /* Foreign keys indexed by to-table */
  Table *pSeqTab;      /* The sqlite_sequence table used by AUTOINCREMENT */
  u8 file_format;      /* Schema format version for this file */
  u8 enc;              /* Text encoding used by this database */
  u16 flags;           /* Flags associated with this schema */
  int cache_size;      /* Number of pages to use in the cache */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  sqlite3 *db;         /* "Owner" connection. See comment above */
#endif
};

/*
** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Db.flags field.
*/
#define DbHasProperty(D,I,P)     (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags&(P))==(P))
#define DbHasAnyProperty(D,I,P)  (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags&(P))!=0)
#define DbSetProperty(D,I,P)     (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags|=(P)
#define DbClearProperty(D,I,P)   (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags&=~(P)

/*
** Allowed values for the DB.flags field.
**
** The DB_SchemaLoaded flag is set after the database schema has been
** read into internal hash tables.
**
** DB_UnresetViews means that one or more views have column names that
** have been filled out.  If the schema changes, these column names might
** changes and so the view will need to be reset.
*/
#define DB_SchemaLoaded    0x0001  /* The schema has been loaded */
#define DB_UnresetViews    0x0002  /* Some views have defined column names */
#define DB_Empty           0x0004  /* The file is empty (length 0 bytes) */

/*
** The number of different kinds of things that can be limited
** using the sqlite3_limit() interface.
*/
#define SQLITE_N_LIMIT (SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER+1)

/*
** Lookaside malloc is a set of fixed-size buffers that can be used
** to satisify small transient memory allocation requests for objects
** associated with a particular database connection.  The use of
** lookaside malloc provides a significant performance enhancement
** (approx 10%) by avoiding numerous malloc/free requests while parsing
** SQL statements.
**
** The Lookaside structure holds configuration information about the
** lookaside malloc subsystem.  Each available memory allocation in
** the lookaside subsystem is stored on a linked list of LookasideSlot
** objects.
*/
struct Lookaside {
  u16 sz;                 /* Size of each buffer in bytes */
  u8 bEnabled;            /* True if use lookaside.  False to ignore it */
  u8 bMalloced;           /* True if pStart obtained from sqlite3_malloc() */
  int nOut;               /* Number of buffers currently checked out */
  int mxOut;              /* Highwater mark for nOut */
  LookasideSlot *pFree;   /* List of available buffers */
  void *pStart;           /* First byte of available memory space */
  void *pEnd;             /* First byte past end of available space */
};
struct LookasideSlot {
  LookasideSlot *pNext;    /* Next buffer in the list of free buffers */
};

/*
** A hash table for function definitions.
**
** Hash each FuncDef structure into one of the FuncDefHash.a[] slots.
** Collisions are on the FuncDef.pHash chain.
*/
struct FuncDefHash {
  FuncDef *a[23];       /* Hash table for functions */
};

/*
** Each database is an instance of the following structure.
**
** The sqlite.lastRowid records the last insert rowid generated by an
** insert statement.  Inserts on views do not affect its value.  Each
** trigger has its own context, so that lastRowid can be updated inside
** triggers as usual.  The previous value will be restored once the trigger
** exits.  Upon entering a before or instead of trigger, lastRowid is no
** longer (since after version 2.8.12) reset to -1.
**
** The sqlite.nChange does not count changes within triggers and keeps no
** context.  It is reset at start of sqlite3_exec.
** The sqlite.lsChange represents the number of changes made by the last
** insert, update, or delete statement.  It remains constant throughout the
** length of a statement and is then updated by OP_SetCounts.  It keeps a
** context stack just like lastRowid so that the count of changes
** within a trigger is not seen outside the trigger.  Changes to views do not
** affect the value of lsChange.
** The sqlite.csChange keeps track of the number of current changes (since
** the last statement) and is used to update sqlite_lsChange.
**
** The member variables sqlite.errCode, sqlite.zErrMsg and sqlite.zErrMsg16
** store the most recent error code and, if applicable, string. The
** internal function sqlite3Error() is used to set these variables
** consistently.
*/
struct sqlite3 {
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs;            /* OS Interface */
  int nDb;                      /* Number of backends currently in use */
  Db *aDb;                      /* All backends */
  int flags;                    /* Miscellanous flags. See below */
  int openFlags;                /* Flags passed to sqlite3_vfs.xOpen() */
  int errCode;                  /* Most recent error code (SQLITE_*) */
  int errMask;                  /* & result codes with this before returning */
  u8 autoCommit;                /* The auto-commit flag. */
  u8 temp_store;                /* 1: file 2: memory 0: default */
  u8 mallocFailed;              /* True if we have seen a malloc failure */
  u8 dfltLockMode;              /* Default locking-mode for attached dbs */
  u8 dfltJournalMode;           /* Default journal mode for attached dbs */
  signed char nextAutovac;      /* Autovac setting after VACUUM if >=0 */
  int nextPagesize;             /* Pagesize after VACUUM if >0 */
  int nTable;                   /* Number of tables in the database */
  CollSeq *pDfltColl;           /* The default collating sequence (BINARY) */
  i64 lastRowid;                /* ROWID of most recent insert (see above) */
  i64 priorNewRowid;            /* Last randomly generated ROWID */
  int magic;                    /* Magic number for detect library misuse */
  int nChange;                  /* Value returned by sqlite3_changes() */
  int nTotalChange;             /* Value returned by sqlite3_total_changes() */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;         /* Connection mutex */
  int aLimit[SQLITE_N_LIMIT];   /* Limits */
  struct sqlite3InitInfo {      /* Information used during initialization */
    int iDb;                    /* When back is being initialized */
    int newTnum;                /* Rootpage of table being initialized */
    u8 busy;                    /* TRUE if currently initializing */
  } init;
  int nExtension;               /* Number of loaded extensions */
  void **aExtension;            /* Array of shared libraray handles */
  struct Vdbe *pVdbe;           /* List of active virtual machines */
  int activeVdbeCnt;            /* Number of vdbes currently executing */
  void (*xTrace)(void*,const char*);        /* Trace function */
  void *pTraceArg;                          /* Argument to the trace function */
  void (*xProfile)(void*,const char*,u64);  /* Profiling function */
  void *pProfileArg;                        /* Argument to profile function */
  void *pCommitArg;                 /* Argument to xCommitCallback() */   
  int (*xCommitCallback)(void*);    /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pRollbackArg;               /* Argument to xRollbackCallback() */   
  void (*xRollbackCallback)(void*); /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pUpdateArg;
  void (*xUpdateCallback)(void*,int, const char*,const char*,sqlite_int64);
  void(*xCollNeeded)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*);
  void(*xCollNeeded16)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*);
  void *pCollNeededArg;
  sqlite3_value *pErr;          /* Most recent error message */
  char *zErrMsg;                /* Most recent error message (UTF-8 encoded) */
  char *zErrMsg16;              /* Most recent error message (UTF-16 encoded) */
  union {
    int isInterrupted;          /* True if sqlite3_interrupt has been called */
    double notUsed1;            /* Spacer */
  } u1;
  Lookaside lookaside;          /* Lookaside malloc configuration */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
  int (*xAuth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,const char*);
                                /* Access authorization function */
  void *pAuthArg;               /* 1st argument to the access auth function */
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  int (*xProgress)(void *);     /* The progress callback */
  void *pProgressArg;           /* Argument to the progress callback */
  int nProgressOps;             /* Number of opcodes for progress callback */
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  Hash aModule;                 /* populated by sqlite3_create_module() */
  Table *pVTab;                 /* vtab with active Connect/Create method */
  sqlite3_vtab **aVTrans;       /* Virtual tables with open transactions */
  int nVTrans;                  /* Allocated size of aVTrans */
#endif
  FuncDefHash aFunc;            /* Hash table of connection functions */
  Hash aCollSeq;                /* All collating sequences */
  BusyHandler busyHandler;      /* Busy callback */
  int busyTimeout;              /* Busy handler timeout, in msec */
  Db aDbStatic[2];              /* Static space for the 2 default backends */
#ifdef SQLITE_SSE
  sqlite3_stmt *pFetch;         /* Used by SSE to fetch stored statements */
#endif
};

/*
** A macro to discover the encoding of a database.
*/
#define ENC(db) ((db)->aDb[0].pSchema->enc)

/*
** Possible values for the sqlite.flags and or Db.flags fields.
**
** On sqlite.flags, the SQLITE_InTrans value means that we have
** executed a BEGIN.  On Db.flags, SQLITE_InTrans means a statement
** transaction is active on that particular database file.
*/
#define SQLITE_VdbeTrace      0x00000001  /* True to trace VDBE execution */
#define SQLITE_InTrans        0x00000008  /* True if in a transaction */
#define SQLITE_InternChanges  0x00000010  /* Uncommitted Hash table changes */
#define SQLITE_FullColNames   0x00000020  /* Show full column names on SELECT */
#define SQLITE_ShortColNames  0x00000040  /* Show short columns names */
#define SQLITE_CountRows      0x00000080  /* Count rows changed by INSERT, */
                                          /*   DELETE, or UPDATE and return */
                                          /*   the count using a callback. */
#define SQLITE_NullCallback   0x00000100  /* Invoke the callback once if the */
                                          /*   result set is empty */
#define SQLITE_SqlTrace       0x00000200  /* Debug print SQL as it executes */
#define SQLITE_VdbeListing    0x00000400  /* Debug listings of VDBE programs */
#define SQLITE_WriteSchema    0x00000800  /* OK to update SQLITE_MASTER */
#define SQLITE_NoReadlock     0x00001000  /* Readlocks are omitted when 
                                          ** accessing read-only databases */
#define SQLITE_IgnoreChecks   0x00002000  /* Do not enforce check constraints */
#define SQLITE_ReadUncommitted 0x00004000 /* For shared-cache mode */
#define SQLITE_LegacyFileFmt  0x00008000  /* Create new databases in format 1 */
#define SQLITE_FullFSync      0x00010000  /* Use full fsync on the backend */
#define SQLITE_LoadExtension  0x00020000  /* Enable load_extension */

#define SQLITE_RecoveryMode   0x00040000  /* Ignore schema errors */
#define SQLITE_SharedCache    0x00080000  /* Cache sharing is enabled */
#define SQLITE_Vtab           0x00100000  /* There exists a virtual table */

/*
** Possible values for the sqlite.magic field.
** The numbers are obtained at random and have no special meaning, other
** than being distinct from one another.
*/
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN     0xa029a697  /* Database is open */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_CLOSED   0x9f3c2d33  /* Database is closed */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_SICK     0x4b771290  /* Error and awaiting close */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY     0xf03b7906  /* Database currently in use */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_ERROR    0xb5357930  /* An SQLITE_MISUSE error occurred */

/*
** Each SQL function is defined by an instance of the following
** structure.  A pointer to this structure is stored in the sqlite.aFunc
** hash table.  When multiple functions have the same name, the hash table
** points to a linked list of these structures.
*/
struct FuncDef {
  i8 nArg;             /* Number of arguments.  -1 means unlimited */
  u8 iPrefEnc;         /* Preferred text encoding (SQLITE_UTF8, 16LE, 16BE) */
  u8 needCollSeq;      /* True if sqlite3GetFuncCollSeq() might be called */
  u8 flags;            /* Some combination of SQLITE_FUNC_* */
  void *pUserData;     /* User data parameter */
  FuncDef *pNext;      /* Next function with same name */
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**); /* Regular function */
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**); /* Aggregate step */
  void (*xFinalize)(sqlite3_context*);                /* Aggregate finializer */
  char *zName;         /* SQL name of the function. */
  FuncDef *pHash;      /* Next with a different name but the same hash */
};

/*
** Possible values for FuncDef.flags
*/
#define SQLITE_FUNC_LIKE     0x01  /* Candidate for the LIKE optimization */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_CASE     0x02  /* Case-sensitive LIKE-type function */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_EPHEM    0x04  /* Ephermeral.  Delete with VDBE */

/*
** The following three macros, FUNCTION(), LIKEFUNC() and AGGREGATE() are
** used to create the initializers for the FuncDef structures.
**
**   FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName 
**     implemented by C function xFunc that accepts nArg arguments. The
**     value passed as iArg is cast to a (void*) and made available
**     as the user-data (sqlite3_user_data()) for the function. If 
**     argument bNC is true, then the FuncDef.needCollate flag is set.
**
**   AGGREGATE(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xStep, xFinal)
**     Used to create an aggregate function definition implemented by
**     the C functions xStep and xFinal. The first four parameters
**     are interpreted in the same way as the first 4 parameters to
**     FUNCTION().
**
**   LIKEFUNC(zName, nArg, pArg, flags)
**     Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName 
**     that accepts nArg arguments and is implemented by a call to C 
**     function likeFunc. Argument pArg is cast to a (void *) and made
**     available as the function user-data (sqlite3_user_data()). The
**     FuncDef.flags variable is set to the value passed as the flags
**     parameter.
*/
#define FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
  {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8, bNC, 0, SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, 0, #zName}
#define LIKEFUNC(zName, nArg, arg, flags) \
  {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8, 0, flags, (void *)arg, 0, likeFunc, 0, 0, #zName}
#define AGGREGATE(zName, nArg, arg, nc, xStep, xFinal) \
  {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8, nc, 0, SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(arg), 0, 0, xStep,xFinal, #zName}


/*
** Each SQLite module (virtual table definition) is defined by an
** instance of the following structure, stored in the sqlite3.aModule
** hash table.
*/
struct Module {
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;       /* Callback pointers */
  const char *zName;                   /* Name passed to create_module() */
  void *pAux;                          /* pAux passed to create_module() */
  void (*xDestroy)(void *);            /* Module destructor function */
};

/*
** information about each column of an SQL table is held in an instance
** of this structure.
*/
struct Column {
  char *zName;     /* Name of this column */
  Expr *pDflt;     /* Default value of this column */
  char *zType;     /* Data type for this column */
  char *zColl;     /* Collating sequence.  If NULL, use the default */
  u8 notNull;      /* True if there is a NOT NULL constraint */
  u8 isPrimKey;    /* True if this column is part of the PRIMARY KEY */
  char affinity;   /* One of the SQLITE_AFF_... values */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  u8 isHidden;     /* True if this column is 'hidden' */
#endif
};

/*
** A "Collating Sequence" is defined by an instance of the following
** structure. Conceptually, a collating sequence consists of a name and
** a comparison routine that defines the order of that sequence.
**
** There may two seperate implementations of the collation function, one
** that processes text in UTF-8 encoding (CollSeq.xCmp) and another that
** processes text encoded in UTF-16 (CollSeq.xCmp16), using the machine
** native byte order. When a collation sequence is invoked, SQLite selects
** the version that will require the least expensive encoding
** translations, if any.
**
** The CollSeq.pUser member variable is an extra parameter that passed in
** as the first argument to the UTF-8 comparison function, xCmp.
** CollSeq.pUser16 is the equivalent for the UTF-16 comparison function,
** xCmp16.
**
** If both CollSeq.xCmp and CollSeq.xCmp16 are NULL, it means that the
** collating sequence is undefined.  Indices built on an undefined
** collating sequence may not be read or written.
*/
struct CollSeq {
  char *zName;          /* Name of the collating sequence, UTF-8 encoded */
  u8 enc;               /* Text encoding handled by xCmp() */
  u8 type;              /* One of the SQLITE_COLL_... values below */
  void *pUser;          /* First argument to xCmp() */
  int (*xCmp)(void*,int, const void*, int, const void*);
  void (*xDel)(void*);  /* Destructor for pUser */
};

/*
** Allowed values of CollSeq.type:
*/
#define SQLITE_COLL_BINARY  1  /* The default memcmp() collating sequence */
#define SQLITE_COLL_NOCASE  2  /* The built-in NOCASE collating sequence */
#define SQLITE_COLL_REVERSE 3  /* The built-in REVERSE collating sequence */
#define SQLITE_COLL_USER    0  /* Any other user-defined collating sequence */

/*
** A sort order can be either ASC or DESC.
*/
#define SQLITE_SO_ASC       0  /* Sort in ascending order */
#define SQLITE_SO_DESC      1  /* Sort in ascending order */

/*
** Column affinity types.
**
** These used to have mnemonic name like 'i' for SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER and
** 't' for SQLITE_AFF_TEXT.  But we can save a little space and improve
** the speed a little by numbering the values consecutively.  
**
** But rather than start with 0 or 1, we begin with 'a'.  That way,
** when multiple affinity types are concatenated into a string and
** used as the P4 operand, they will be more readable.
**
** Note also that the numeric types are grouped together so that testing
** for a numeric type is a single comparison.
*/
#define SQLITE_AFF_TEXT     'a'
#define SQLITE_AFF_NONE     'b'
#define SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC  'c'
#define SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER  'd'
#define SQLITE_AFF_REAL     'e'

#define sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(X)  ((X)>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC)

/*
** The SQLITE_AFF_MASK values masks off the significant bits of an
** affinity value. 
*/
#define SQLITE_AFF_MASK     0x67

/*
** Additional bit values that can be ORed with an affinity without
** changing the affinity.
*/
#define SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL   0x08  /* jumps if either operand is NULL */
#define SQLITE_STOREP2      0x10  /* Store result in reg[P2] rather than jump */

/*
** Each SQL table is represented in memory by an instance of the
** following structure.
**
** Table.zName is the name of the table.  The case of the original
** CREATE TABLE statement is stored, but case is not significant for
** comparisons.
**
** Table.nCol is the number of columns in this table.  Table.aCol is a
** pointer to an array of Column structures, one for each column.
**
** If the table has an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, then Table.iPKey is the index of
** the column that is that key.   Otherwise Table.iPKey is negative.  Note
** that the datatype of the PRIMARY KEY must be INTEGER for this field to
** be set.  An INTEGER PRIMARY KEY is used as the rowid for each row of
** the table.  If a table has no INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, then a random rowid
** is generated for each row of the table.  TF_HasPrimaryKey is set if
** the table has any PRIMARY KEY, INTEGER or otherwise.
**
** Table.tnum is the page number for the root BTree page of the table in the
** database file.  If Table.iDb is the index of the database table backend
** in sqlite.aDb[].  0 is for the main database and 1 is for the file that
** holds temporary tables and indices.  If TF_Ephemeral is set
** then the table is stored in a file that is automatically deleted
** when the VDBE cursor to the table is closed.  In this case Table.tnum 
** refers VDBE cursor number that holds the table open, not to the root
** page number.  Transient tables are used to hold the results of a
** sub-query that appears instead of a real table name in the FROM clause 
** of a SELECT statement.
*/
struct Table {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* Associated database connection.  Might be NULL. */
  char *zName;         /* Name of the table or view */
  int iPKey;           /* If not negative, use aCol[iPKey] as the primary key */
  int nCol;            /* Number of columns in this table */
  Column *aCol;        /* Information about each column */
  Index *pIndex;       /* List of SQL indexes on this table. */
  int tnum;            /* Root BTree node for this table (see note above) */
  Select *pSelect;     /* NULL for tables.  Points to definition if a view. */
  u16 nRef;            /* Number of pointers to this Table */
  u8 tabFlags;         /* Mask of TF_* values */
  u8 keyConf;          /* What to do in case of uniqueness conflict on iPKey */
  Trigger *pTrigger;   /* List of SQL triggers on this table */
  FKey *pFKey;         /* Linked list of all foreign keys in this table */
  char *zColAff;       /* String defining the affinity of each column */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK
  Expr *pCheck;        /* The AND of all CHECK constraints */
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_ALTERTABLE
  int addColOffset;    /* Offset in CREATE TABLE stmt to add a new column */
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  Module *pMod;        /* Pointer to the implementation of the module */
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab; /* Pointer to the module instance */
  int nModuleArg;      /* Number of arguments to the module */
  char **azModuleArg;  /* Text of all module args. [0] is module name */
#endif
  Schema *pSchema;     /* Schema that contains this table */
};

/*
** Allowed values for Tabe.tabFlags.
*/
#define TF_Readonly        0x01    /* Read-only system table */
#define TF_Ephemeral       0x02    /* An emphermal table */
#define TF_HasPrimaryKey   0x04    /* Table has a primary key */
#define TF_Autoincrement   0x08    /* Integer primary key is autoincrement */
#define TF_Virtual         0x10    /* Is a virtual table */
#define TF_NeedMetadata    0x20    /* aCol[].zType and aCol[].pColl missing */



/*
** Test to see whether or not a table is a virtual table.  This is
** done as a macro so that it will be optimized out when virtual
** table support is omitted from the build.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
#  define IsVirtual(X)      (((X)->tabFlags & TF_Virtual)!=0)
#  define IsHiddenColumn(X) ((X)->isHidden)
#else
#  define IsVirtual(X)      0
#  define IsHiddenColumn(X) 0
#endif

/*
** Each foreign key constraint is an instance of the following structure.
**
** A foreign key is associated with two tables.  The "from" table is
** the table that contains the REFERENCES clause that creates the foreign
** key.  The "to" table is the table that is named in the REFERENCES clause.
** Consider this example:
**
**     CREATE TABLE ex1(
**       a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
**       b INTEGER CONSTRAINT fk1 REFERENCES ex2(x)
**     );
**
** For foreign key "fk1", the from-table is "ex1" and the to-table is "ex2".
**
** Each REFERENCES clause generates an instance of the following structure
** which is attached to the from-table.  The to-table need not exist when
** the from-table is created.  The existance of the to-table is not checked
** until an attempt is made to insert data into the from-table.
**
** The sqlite.aFKey hash table stores pointers to this structure
** given the name of a to-table.  For each to-table, all foreign keys
** associated with that table are on a linked list using the FKey.pNextTo
** field.
*/
struct FKey {
  Table *pFrom;     /* The table that constains the REFERENCES clause */
  FKey *pNextFrom;  /* Next foreign key in pFrom */
  char *zTo;        /* Name of table that the key points to */
  FKey *pNextTo;    /* Next foreign key that points to zTo */
  int nCol;         /* Number of columns in this key */
  struct sColMap {  /* Mapping of columns in pFrom to columns in zTo */
    int iFrom;         /* Index of column in pFrom */
    char *zCol;        /* Name of column in zTo.  If 0 use PRIMARY KEY */
  } *aCol;          /* One entry for each of nCol column s */
  u8 isDeferred;    /* True if constraint checking is deferred till COMMIT */
  u8 updateConf;    /* How to resolve conflicts that occur on UPDATE */
  u8 deleteConf;    /* How to resolve conflicts that occur on DELETE */
  u8 insertConf;    /* How to resolve conflicts that occur on INSERT */
};

/*
** SQLite supports many different ways to resolve a constraint
** error.  ROLLBACK processing means that a constraint violation
** causes the operation in process to fail and for the current transaction
** to be rolled back.  ABORT processing means the operation in process
** fails and any prior changes from that one operation are backed out,
** but the transaction is not rolled back.  FAIL processing means that
** the operation in progress stops and returns an error code.  But prior
** changes due to the same operation are not backed out and no rollback
** occurs.  IGNORE means that the particular row that caused the constraint
** error is not inserted or updated.  Processing continues and no error
** is returned.  REPLACE means that preexisting database rows that caused
** a UNIQUE constraint violation are removed so that the new insert or
** update can proceed.  Processing continues and no error is reported.
**
** RESTRICT, SETNULL, and CASCADE actions apply only to foreign keys.
** RESTRICT is the same as ABORT for IMMEDIATE foreign keys and the
** same as ROLLBACK for DEFERRED keys.  SETNULL means that the foreign
** key is set to NULL.  CASCADE means that a DELETE or UPDATE of the
** referenced table row is propagated into the row that holds the
** foreign key.
** 
** The following symbolic values are used to record which type
** of action to take.
*/
#define OE_None     0   /* There is no constraint to check */
#define OE_Rollback 1   /* Fail the operation and rollback the transaction */
#define OE_Abort    2   /* Back out changes but do no rollback transaction */
#define OE_Fail     3   /* Stop the operation but leave all prior changes */
#define OE_Ignore   4   /* Ignore the error. Do not do the INSERT or UPDATE */
#define OE_Replace  5   /* Delete existing record, then do INSERT or UPDATE */

#define OE_Restrict 6   /* OE_Abort for IMMEDIATE, OE_Rollback for DEFERRED */
#define OE_SetNull  7   /* Set the foreign key value to NULL */
#define OE_SetDflt  8   /* Set the foreign key value to its default */
#define OE_Cascade  9   /* Cascade the changes */

#define OE_Default  99  /* Do whatever the default action is */


/*
** An instance of the following structure is passed as the first
** argument to sqlite3VdbeKeyCompare and is used to control the 
** comparison of the two index keys.
*/
struct KeyInfo {
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The database connection */
  u8 enc;             /* Text encoding - one of the TEXT_Utf* values */
  u16 nField;         /* Number of entries in aColl[] */
  u8 *aSortOrder;     /* If defined an aSortOrder[i] is true, sort DESC */
  CollSeq *aColl[1];  /* Collating sequence for each term of the key */
};

/*
** An instance of the following structure holds information about a
** single index record that has already been parsed out into individual
** values.
**
** A record is an object that contains one or more fields of data.
** Records are used to store the content of a table row and to store
** the key of an index.  A blob encoding of a record is created by
** the OP_MakeRecord opcode of the VDBE and is disassemblied by the
** OP_Column opcode.
**
** This structure holds a record that has already been disassembled
** into its constitutent fields.
*/
struct UnpackedRecord {
  KeyInfo *pKeyInfo;  /* Collation and sort-order information */
  u16 nField;         /* Number of entries in apMem[] */
  u16 flags;          /* Boolean settings.  UNPACKED_... below */
  Mem *aMem;          /* Values */
};

/*
** Allowed values of UnpackedRecord.flags
*/
#define UNPACKED_NEED_FREE     0x0001  /* Memory is from sqlite3Malloc() */
#define UNPACKED_NEED_DESTROY  0x0002  /* apMem[]s should all be destroyed */
#define UNPACKED_IGNORE_ROWID  0x0004  /* Ignore trailing rowid on key1 */
#define UNPACKED_INCRKEY       0x0008  /* Make this key an epsilon larger */
#define UNPACKED_PREFIX_MATCH  0x0010  /* A prefix match is considered OK */

/*
** Each SQL index is represented in memory by an
** instance of the following structure.
**
** The columns of the table that are to be indexed are described
** by the aiColumn[] field of this structure.  For example, suppose
** we have the following table and index:
**
**     CREATE TABLE Ex1(c1 int, c2 int, c3 text);
**     CREATE INDEX Ex2 ON Ex1(c3,c1);
**
** In the Table structure describing Ex1, nCol==3 because there are
** three columns in the table.  In the Index structure describing
** Ex2, nColumn==2 since 2 of the 3 columns of Ex1 are indexed.
** The value of aiColumn is {2, 0}.  aiColumn[0]==2 because the 
** first column to be indexed (c3) has an index of 2 in Ex1.aCol[].
** The second column to be indexed (c1) has an index of 0 in
** Ex1.aCol[], hence Ex2.aiColumn[1]==0.
**
** The Index.onError field determines whether or not the indexed columns
** must be unique and what to do if they are not.  When Index.onError=OE_None,
** it means this is not a unique index.  Otherwise it is a unique index
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution 
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
*/
struct Index {
  char *zName;     /* Name of this index */
  int nColumn;     /* Number of columns in the table used by this index */
  int *aiColumn;   /* Which columns are used by this index.  1st is 0 */
  unsigned *aiRowEst; /* Result of ANALYZE: Est. rows selected by each column */
  Table *pTable;   /* The SQL table being indexed */
  int tnum;        /* Page containing root of this index in database file */
  u8 onError;      /* OE_Abort, OE_Ignore, OE_Replace, or OE_None */
  u8 autoIndex;    /* True if is automatically created (ex: by UNIQUE) */
  char *zColAff;   /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  Index *pNext;    /* The next index associated with the same table */
  Schema *pSchema; /* Schema containing this index */
  u8 *aSortOrder;  /* Array of size Index.nColumn. True==DESC, False==ASC */
  char **azColl;   /* Array of collation sequence names for index */
};

/*
** Each token coming out of the lexer is an instance of
** this structure.  Tokens are also used as part of an expression.
**
** Note if Token.z==0 then Token.dyn and Token.n are undefined and
** may contain random values.  Do not make any assuptions about Token.dyn
** and Token.n when Token.z==0.
*/
struct Token {
  const unsigned char *z; /* Text of the token.  Not NULL-terminated! */
  unsigned dyn  : 1;      /* True for malloced memory, false for static */
  unsigned n    : 31;     /* Number of characters in this token */
};

/*
** An instance of this structure contains information needed to generate
** code for a SELECT that contains aggregate functions.
**
** If Expr.op==TK_AGG_COLUMN or TK_AGG_FUNCTION then Expr.pAggInfo is a
** pointer to this structure.  The Expr.iColumn field is the index in
** AggInfo.aCol[] or AggInfo.aFunc[] of information needed to generate
** code for that node.
**
** AggInfo.pGroupBy and AggInfo.aFunc.pExpr point to fields within the
** original Select structure that describes the SELECT statement.  These
** fields do not need to be freed when deallocating the AggInfo structure.
*/
struct AggInfo {
  u8 directMode;          /* Direct rendering mode means take data directly
                          ** from source tables rather than from accumulators */
  u8 useSortingIdx;       /* In direct mode, reference the sorting index rather
                          ** than the source table */
  int sortingIdx;         /* Cursor number of the sorting index */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;     /* The group by clause */
  int nSortingColumn;     /* Number of columns in the sorting index */
  struct AggInfo_col {    /* For each column used in source tables */
    Table *pTab;             /* Source table */
    int iTable;              /* Cursor number of the source table */
    int iColumn;             /* Column number within the source table */
    int iSorterColumn;       /* Column number in the sorting index */
    int iMem;                /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
    Expr *pExpr;             /* The original expression */
  } *aCol;
  int nColumn;            /* Number of used entries in aCol[] */
  int nColumnAlloc;       /* Number of slots allocated for aCol[] */
  int nAccumulator;       /* Number of columns that show through to the output.
                          ** Additional columns are used only as parameters to
                          ** aggregate functions */
  struct AggInfo_func {   /* For each aggregate function */
    Expr *pExpr;             /* Expression encoding the function */
    FuncDef *pFunc;          /* The aggregate function implementation */
    int iMem;                /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
    int iDistinct;           /* Ephermeral table used to enforce DISTINCT */
  } *aFunc;
  int nFunc;              /* Number of entries in aFunc[] */
  int nFuncAlloc;         /* Number of slots allocated for aFunc[] */
};

/*
** Each node of an expression in the parse tree is an instance
** of this structure.
**
** Expr.op is the opcode.  The integer parser token codes are reused
** as opcodes here.  For example, the parser defines TK_GE to be an integer
** code representing the ">=" operator.  This same integer code is reused
** to represent the greater-than-or-equal-to operator in the expression
** tree.
**
** Expr.pRight and Expr.pLeft are subexpressions.  Expr.pList is a list
** of argument if the expression is a function.
**
** Expr.token is the operator token for this node.  For some expressions
** that have subexpressions, Expr.token can be the complete text that gave
** rise to the Expr.  In the latter case, the token is marked as being
** a compound token.
**
** An expression of the form ID or ID.ID refers to a column in a table.
** For such expressions, Expr.op is set to TK_COLUMN and Expr.iTable is
** the integer cursor number of a VDBE cursor pointing to that table and
** Expr.iColumn is the column number for the specific column.  If the
** expression is used as a result in an aggregate SELECT, then the
** value is also stored in the Expr.iAgg column in the aggregate so that
** it can be accessed after all aggregates are computed.
**
** If the expression is a function, the Expr.iTable is an integer code
** representing which function.  If the expression is an unbound variable
** marker (a question mark character '?' in the original SQL) then the
** Expr.iTable holds the index number for that variable.
**
** If the expression is a subquery then Expr.iColumn holds an integer
** register number containing the result of the subquery.  If the
** subquery gives a constant result, then iTable is -1.  If the subquery
** gives a different answer at different times during statement processing
** then iTable is the address of a subroutine that computes the subquery.
**
** The Expr.pSelect field points to a SELECT statement.  The SELECT might
** be the right operand of an IN operator.  Or, if a scalar SELECT appears
** in an expression the opcode is TK_SELECT and Expr.pSelect is the only
** operand.
**
** If the Expr is of type OP_Column, and the table it is selecting from
** is a disk table or the "old.*" pseudo-table, then pTab points to the
** corresponding table definition.
*/
struct Expr {
  u8 op;                 /* Operation performed by this node */
  char affinity;         /* The affinity of the column or 0 if not a column */
  u16 flags;             /* Various flags.  See below */
  CollSeq *pColl;        /* The collation type of the column or 0 */
  Expr *pLeft, *pRight;  /* Left and right subnodes */
  ExprList *pList;       /* A list of expressions used as function arguments
                         ** or in "<expr> IN (<expr-list)" */
  Token token;           /* An operand token */
  Token span;            /* Complete text of the expression */
  int iTable, iColumn;   /* When op==TK_COLUMN, then this expr node means the
                         ** iColumn-th field of the iTable-th table. */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;     /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */
  int iAgg;              /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
  int iRightJoinTable;   /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
  Select *pSelect;       /* When the expression is a sub-select.  Also the
                         ** right side of "<expr> IN (<select>)" */
  Table *pTab;           /* Table for TK_COLUMN expressions. */
#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
  int nHeight;           /* Height of the tree headed by this node */
#endif
};

/*
** The following are the meanings of bits in the Expr.flags field.
*/
#define EP_FromJoin   0x0001  /* Originated in ON or USING clause of a join */
#define EP_Agg        0x0002  /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
#define EP_Resolved   0x0004  /* IDs have been resolved to COLUMNs */
#define EP_Error      0x0008  /* Expression contains one or more errors */
#define EP_Distinct   0x0010  /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
#define EP_VarSelect  0x0020  /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
#define EP_Dequoted   0x0040  /* True if the string has been dequoted */
#define EP_InfixFunc  0x0080  /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
#define EP_ExpCollate 0x0100  /* Collating sequence specified explicitly */
#define EP_AnyAff     0x0200  /* Can take a cached column of any affinity */
#define EP_FixedDest  0x0400  /* Result needed in a specific register */
#define EP_IntValue   0x0800  /* Integer value contained in iTable */
/*
** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Expr.flags field.
*/
#define ExprHasProperty(E,P)     (((E)->flags&(P))==(P))
#define ExprHasAnyProperty(E,P)  (((E)->flags&(P))!=0)
#define ExprSetProperty(E,P)     (E)->flags|=(P)
#define ExprClearProperty(E,P)   (E)->flags&=~(P)

/*
** A list of expressions.  Each expression may optionally have a
** name.  An expr/name combination can be used in several ways, such
** as the list of "expr AS ID" fields following a "SELECT" or in the
** list of "ID = expr" items in an UPDATE.  A list of expressions can
** also be used as the argument to a function, in which case the a.zName
** field is not used.
*/
struct ExprList {
  int nExpr;             /* Number of expressions on the list */
  int nAlloc;            /* Number of entries allocated below */
  int iECursor;          /* VDBE Cursor associated with this ExprList */
  struct ExprList_item {
    Expr *pExpr;           /* The list of expressions */
    char *zName;           /* Token associated with this expression */
    u8 sortOrder;          /* 1 for DESC or 0 for ASC */
    u8 done;               /* A flag to indicate when processing is finished */
    u16 iCol;              /* For ORDER BY, column number in result set */
    u16 iAlias;            /* Index into Parse.aAlias[] for zName */
  } *a;                  /* One entry for each expression */
};

/*
** An instance of this structure can hold a simple list of identifiers,
** such as the list "a,b,c" in the following statements:
**
**      INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) VALUES ...;
**      CREATE INDEX idx ON t(a,b,c);
**      CREATE TRIGGER trig BEFORE UPDATE ON t(a,b,c) ...;
**
** The IdList.a.idx field is used when the IdList represents the list of
** column names after a table name in an INSERT statement.  In the statement
**
**     INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) ...
**
** If "a" is the k-th column of table "t", then IdList.a[0].idx==k.
*/
struct IdList {
  struct IdList_item {
    char *zName;      /* Name of the identifier */
    int idx;          /* Index in some Table.aCol[] of a column named zName */
  } *a;
  int nId;         /* Number of identifiers on the list */
  int nAlloc;      /* Number of entries allocated for a[] below */
};

/*
** The bitmask datatype defined below is used for various optimizations.
**
** Changing this from a 64-bit to a 32-bit type limits the number of
** tables in a join to 32 instead of 64.  But it also reduces the size
** of the library by 738 bytes on ix86.
*/
typedef u64 Bitmask;

/*
** The following structure describes the FROM clause of a SELECT statement.
** Each table or subquery in the FROM clause is a separate element of
** the SrcList.a[] array.
**
** With the addition of multiple database support, the following structure
** can also be used to describe a particular table such as the table that
** is modified by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statement.  In standard SQL,
** such a table must be a simple name: ID.  But in SQLite, the table can
** now be identified by a database name, a dot, then the table name: ID.ID.
**
** The jointype starts out showing the join type between the current table
** and the next table on the list.  The parser builds the list this way.
** But sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType() later shifts the jointypes so that each
** jointype expresses the join between the table and the previous table.
*/
struct SrcList {
  i16 nSrc;        /* Number of tables or subqueries in the FROM clause */
  i16 nAlloc;      /* Number of entries allocated in a[] below */
  struct SrcList_item {
    char *zDatabase;  /* Name of database holding this table */
    char *zName;      /* Name of the table */
    char *zAlias;     /* The "B" part of a "A AS B" phrase.  zName is the "A" */
    Table *pTab;      /* An SQL table corresponding to zName */
    Select *pSelect;  /* A SELECT statement used in place of a table name */
    u8 isPopulated;   /* Temporary table associated with SELECT is populated */
    u8 jointype;      /* Type of join between this able and the previous */
    int iCursor;      /* The VDBE cursor number used to access this table */
    Expr *pOn;        /* The ON clause of a join */
    IdList *pUsing;   /* The USING clause of a join */
    Bitmask colUsed;  /* Bit N (1<<N) set if column N or pTab is used */
  } a[1];             /* One entry for each identifier on the list */
};

/*
** Permitted values of the SrcList.a.jointype field
*/
#define JT_INNER     0x0001    /* Any kind of inner or cross join */
#define JT_CROSS     0x0002    /* Explicit use of the CROSS keyword */
#define JT_NATURAL   0x0004    /* True for a "natural" join */
#define JT_LEFT      0x0008    /* Left outer join */
#define JT_RIGHT     0x0010    /* Right outer join */
#define JT_OUTER     0x0020    /* The "OUTER" keyword is present */
#define JT_ERROR     0x0040    /* unknown or unsupported join type */

/*
** For each nested loop in a WHERE clause implementation, the WhereInfo
** structure contains a single instance of this structure.  This structure
** is intended to be private the the where.c module and should not be
** access or modified by other modules.
**
** The pIdxInfo and pBestIdx fields are used to help pick the best
** index on a virtual table.  The pIdxInfo pointer contains indexing
** information for the i-th table in the FROM clause before reordering.
** All the pIdxInfo pointers are freed by whereInfoFree() in where.c.
** The pBestIdx pointer is a copy of pIdxInfo for the i-th table after
** FROM clause ordering.  This is a little confusing so I will repeat
** it in different words.  WhereInfo.a[i].pIdxInfo is index information 
** for WhereInfo.pTabList.a[i].  WhereInfo.a[i].pBestInfo is the
** index information for the i-th loop of the join.  pBestInfo is always
** either NULL or a copy of some pIdxInfo.  So for cleanup it is 
** sufficient to free all of the pIdxInfo pointers.
** 
*/
struct WhereLevel {
  int iFrom;            /* Which entry in the FROM clause */
  int flags;            /* Flags associated with this level */
  int iMem;             /* First memory cell used by this level */
  int iLeftJoin;        /* Memory cell used to implement LEFT OUTER JOIN */
  Index *pIdx;          /* Index used.  NULL if no index */
  int iTabCur;          /* The VDBE cursor used to access the table */
  int iIdxCur;          /* The VDBE cursor used to acesss pIdx */
  int brk;              /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int nxt;              /* Jump here to start the next IN combination */
  int cont;             /* Jump here to continue with the next loop cycle */
  int top;              /* First instruction of interior of the loop */
  int op, p1, p2;       /* Opcode used to terminate the loop */
  int nEq;              /* Number of == or IN constraints on this loop */
  int nIn;              /* Number of IN operators constraining this loop */
  struct InLoop {
    int iCur;              /* The VDBE cursor used by this IN operator */
    int topAddr;           /* Top of the IN loop */
  } *aInLoop;           /* Information about each nested IN operator */
  sqlite3_index_info *pBestIdx;  /* Index information for this level */

  /* The following field is really not part of the current level.  But
  ** we need a place to cache index information for each table in the
  ** FROM clause and the WhereLevel structure is a convenient place.
  */
  sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo;  /* Index info for n-th source table */
};

/*
** Flags appropriate for the wflags parameter of sqlite3WhereBegin().
*/
#define WHERE_ORDERBY_NORMAL     0   /* No-op */
#define WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN        1   /* ORDER BY processing for min() func */
#define WHERE_ORDERBY_MAX        2   /* ORDER BY processing for max() func */
#define WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED    4   /* Want to do one-pass UPDATE/DELETE */

/*
** The WHERE clause processing routine has two halves.  The
** first part does the start of the WHERE loop and the second
** half does the tail of the WHERE loop.  An instance of
** this structure is returned by the first half and passed
** into the second half to give some continuity.
*/
struct WhereInfo {
  Parse *pParse;       /* Parsing and code generating context */
  u8 okOnePass;        /* Ok to use one-pass algorithm for UPDATE or DELETE */
  SrcList *pTabList;   /* List of tables in the join */
  int iTop;            /* The very beginning of the WHERE loop */
  int iContinue;       /* Jump here to continue with next record */
  int iBreak;          /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int nLevel;          /* Number of nested loop */
  sqlite3_index_info **apInfo;  /* Array of pointers to index info structures */
  WhereLevel a[1];     /* Information about each nest loop in the WHERE */
};

/*
** A NameContext defines a context in which to resolve table and column
** names.  The context consists of a list of tables (the pSrcList) field and
** a list of named expression (pEList).  The named expression list may
** be NULL.  The pSrc corresponds to the FROM clause of a SELECT or
** to the table being operated on by INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE.  The
** pEList corresponds to the result set of a SELECT and is NULL for
** other statements.
**
** NameContexts can be nested.  When resolving names, the inner-most 
** context is searched first.  If no match is found, the next outer
** context is checked.  If there is still no match, the next context
** is checked.  This process continues until either a match is found
** or all contexts are check.  When a match is found, the nRef member of
** the context containing the match is incremented. 
**
** Each subquery gets a new NameContext.  The pNext field points to the
** NameContext in the parent query.  Thus the process of scanning the
** NameContext list corresponds to searching through successively outer
** subqueries looking for a match.
*/
struct NameContext {
  Parse *pParse;       /* The parser */
  SrcList *pSrcList;   /* One or more tables used to resolve names */
  ExprList *pEList;    /* Optional list of named expressions */
  int nRef;            /* Number of names resolved by this context */
  int nErr;            /* Number of errors encountered while resolving names */
  u8 allowAgg;         /* Aggregate functions allowed here */
  u8 hasAgg;           /* True if aggregates are seen */
  u8 isCheck;          /* True if resolving names in a CHECK constraint */
  int nDepth;          /* Depth of subquery recursion. 1 for no recursion */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;   /* Information about aggregates at this level */
  NameContext *pNext;  /* Next outer name context.  NULL for outermost */
};

/*
** An instance of the following structure contains all information
** needed to generate code for a single SELECT statement.
**
** nLimit is set to -1 if there is no LIMIT clause.  nOffset is set to 0.
** If there is a LIMIT clause, the parser sets nLimit to the value of the
** limit and nOffset to the value of the offset (or 0 if there is not
** offset).  But later on, nLimit and nOffset become the memory locations
** in the VDBE that record the limit and offset counters.
**
** addrOpenEphm[] entries contain the address of OP_OpenEphemeral opcodes.
** These addresses must be stored so that we can go back and fill in
** the P4_KEYINFO and P2 parameters later.  Neither the KeyInfo nor
** the number of columns in P2 can be computed at the same time
** as the OP_OpenEphm instruction is coded because not
** enough information about the compound query is known at that point.
** The KeyInfo for addrOpenTran[0] and [1] contains collating sequences
** for the result set.  The KeyInfo for addrOpenTran[2] contains collating
** sequences for the ORDER BY clause.
*/
struct Select {
  ExprList *pEList;      /* The fields of the result */
  u8 op;                 /* One of: TK_UNION TK_ALL TK_INTERSECT TK_EXCEPT */
  char affinity;         /* MakeRecord with this affinity for SRT_Set */
  u16 selFlags;          /* Various SF_* values */
  SrcList *pSrc;         /* The FROM clause */
  Expr *pWhere;          /* The WHERE clause */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;    /* The GROUP BY clause */
  Expr *pHaving;         /* The HAVING clause */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;    /* The ORDER BY clause */
  Select *pPrior;        /* Prior select in a compound select statement */
  Select *pNext;         /* Next select to the left in a compound */
  Select *pRightmost;    /* Right-most select in a compound select statement */
  Expr *pLimit;          /* LIMIT expression. NULL means not used. */
  Expr *pOffset;         /* OFFSET expression. NULL means not used. */
  int iLimit, iOffset;   /* Memory registers holding LIMIT & OFFSET counters */
  int addrOpenEphm[3];   /* OP_OpenEphem opcodes related to this select */
};

/*
** Allowed values for Select.selFlags.  The "SF" prefix stands for
** "Select Flag".
*/
#define SF_Distinct        0x0001  /* Output should be DISTINCT */
#define SF_Resolved        0x0002  /* Identifiers have been resolved */
#define SF_Aggregate       0x0004  /* Contains aggregate functions */
#define SF_UsesEphemeral   0x0008  /* Uses the OpenEphemeral opcode */
#define SF_Expanded        0x0010  /* sqlite3SelectExpand() called on this */
#define SF_HasTypeInfo     0x0020  /* FROM subqueries have Table metadata */


/*
** The results of a select can be distributed in several ways.  The
** "SRT" prefix means "SELECT Result Type".
*/
#define SRT_Union        1  /* Store result as keys in an index */
#define SRT_Except       2  /* Remove result from a UNION index */
#define SRT_Exists       3  /* Store 1 if the result is not empty */
#define SRT_Discard      4  /* Do not save the results anywhere */

/* The ORDER BY clause is ignored for all of the above */
#define IgnorableOrderby(X) ((X->eDest)<=SRT_Discard)

#define SRT_Output       5  /* Output each row of result */
#define SRT_Mem          6  /* Store result in a memory cell */
#define SRT_Set          7  /* Store results as keys in an index */
#define SRT_Table        8  /* Store result as data with an automatic rowid */
#define SRT_EphemTab     9  /* Create transient tab and store like SRT_Table */
#define SRT_Coroutine   10  /* Generate a single row of result */

/*
** A structure used to customize the behaviour of sqlite3Select(). See
** comments above sqlite3Select() for details.
*/
typedef struct SelectDest SelectDest;
struct SelectDest {
  u8 eDest;         /* How to dispose of the results */
  u8 affinity;      /* Affinity used when eDest==SRT_Set */
  int iParm;        /* A parameter used by the eDest disposal method */
  int iMem;         /* Base register where results are written */
  int nMem;         /* Number of registers allocated */
};

/*
** An SQL parser context.  A copy of this structure is passed through
** the parser and down into all the parser action routine in order to
** carry around information that is global to the entire parse.
**
** The structure is divided into two parts.  When the parser and code
** generate call themselves recursively, the first part of the structure
** is constant but the second part is reset at the beginning and end of
** each recursion.
**
** The nTableLock and aTableLock variables are only used if the shared-cache 
** feature is enabled (if sqlite3Tsd()->useSharedData is true). They are
** used to store the set of table-locks required by the statement being
** compiled. Function sqlite3TableLock() is used to add entries to the
** list.
*/
struct Parse {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* The main database structure */
  int rc;              /* Return code from execution */
  char *zErrMsg;       /* An error message */
  Vdbe *pVdbe;         /* An engine for executing database bytecode */
  u8 colNamesSet;      /* TRUE after OP_ColumnName has been issued to pVdbe */
  u8 nameClash;        /* A permanent table name clashes with temp table name */
  u8 checkSchema;      /* Causes schema cookie check after an error */
  u8 nested;           /* Number of nested calls to the parser/code generator */
  u8 parseError;       /* True after a parsing error.  Ticket #1794 */
  u8 nTempReg;         /* Number of temporary registers in aTempReg[] */
  u8 nTempInUse;       /* Number of aTempReg[] currently checked out */
  int aTempReg[8];     /* Holding area for temporary registers */
  int nRangeReg;       /* Size of the temporary register block */
  int iRangeReg;       /* First register in temporary register block */
  int nErr;            /* Number of errors seen */
  int nTab;            /* Number of previously allocated VDBE cursors */
  int nMem;            /* Number of memory cells used so far */
  int nSet;            /* Number of sets used so far */
  int ckBase;          /* Base register of data during check constraints */
  int disableColCache; /* True to disable adding to column cache */
  int nColCache;       /* Number of entries in the column cache */
  int iColCache;       /* Next entry of the cache to replace */
  struct yColCache {
    int iTable;           /* Table cursor number */
    int iColumn;          /* Table column number */
    char affChange;       /* True if this register has had an affinity change */
    int iReg;             /* Register holding value of this column */
  } aColCache[10];     /* One for each valid column cache entry */
  u32 writeMask;       /* Start a write transaction on these databases */
  u32 cookieMask;      /* Bitmask of schema verified databases */
  int cookieGoto;      /* Address of OP_Goto to cookie verifier subroutine */
  int cookieValue[SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+2];  /* Values of cookies to verify */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE
  int nTableLock;        /* Number of locks in aTableLock */
  TableLock *aTableLock; /* Required table locks for shared-cache mode */
#endif
  int regRowid;        /* Register holding rowid of CREATE TABLE entry */
  int regRoot;         /* Register holding root page number for new objects */

  /* Above is constant between recursions.  Below is reset before and after
  ** each recursion */

  int nVar;            /* Number of '?' variables seen in the SQL so far */
  int nVarExpr;        /* Number of used slots in apVarExpr[] */
  int nVarExprAlloc;   /* Number of allocated slots in apVarExpr[] */
  Expr **apVarExpr;    /* Pointers to :aaa and $aaaa wildcard expressions */
  int nAlias;          /* Number of aliased result set columns */
  int *aAlias;         /* Register used to hold aliased result */
  u8 explain;          /* True if the EXPLAIN flag is found on the query */
  Token sErrToken;     /* The token at which the error occurred */
  Token sNameToken;    /* Token with unqualified schema object name */
  Token sLastToken;    /* The last token parsed */
  const char *zSql;    /* All SQL text */
  const char *zTail;   /* All SQL text past the last semicolon parsed */
  Table *pNewTable;    /* A table being constructed by CREATE TABLE */
  Trigger *pNewTrigger;     /* Trigger under construct by a CREATE TRIGGER */
  TriggerStack *trigStack;  /* Trigger actions being coded */
  const char *zAuthContext; /* The 6th parameter to db->xAuth callbacks */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  Token sArg;                /* Complete text of a module argument */
  u8 declareVtab;            /* True if inside sqlite3_declare_vtab() */
  int nVtabLock;             /* Number of virtual tables to lock */
  Table **apVtabLock;        /* Pointer to virtual tables needing locking */
#endif
  int nHeight;            /* Expression tree height of current sub-select */
};

#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB 0
#else
  #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB (pParse->declareVtab)
#endif

/*
** An instance of the following structure can be declared on a stack and used
** to save the Parse.zAuthContext value so that it can be restored later.
*/
struct AuthContext {
  const char *zAuthContext;   /* Put saved Parse.zAuthContext here */
  Parse *pParse;              /* The Parse structure */
};

/*
** Bitfield flags for P2 value in OP_Insert and OP_Delete
*/
#define OPFLAG_NCHANGE   1    /* Set to update db->nChange */
#define OPFLAG_LASTROWID 2    /* Set to update db->lastRowid */
#define OPFLAG_ISUPDATE  4    /* This OP_Insert is an sql UPDATE */
#define OPFLAG_APPEND    8    /* This is likely to be an append */

/*
 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger. 
 *
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the 
 *    database). This allows Trigger structures to be retrieved by name.
 * 2. All triggers associated with a single table form a linked list, using the
 *    pNext member of struct Trigger. A pointer to the first element of the
 *    linked list is stored as the "pTrigger" member of the associated
 *    struct Table.
 *
 * The "step_list" member points to the first element of a linked list
 * containing the SQL statements specified as the trigger program.
 */
struct Trigger {
  char *name;             /* The name of the trigger                        */
  char *table;            /* The table or view to which the trigger applies */
  u8 op;                  /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT         */
  u8 tr_tm;               /* One of TRIGGER_BEFORE, TRIGGER_AFTER */
  Expr *pWhen;            /* The WHEN clause of the expresion (may be NULL) */
  IdList *pColumns;       /* If this is an UPDATE OF <column-list> trigger,
                             the <column-list> is stored here */
  Token nameToken;        /* Token containing zName. Use during parsing only */
  Schema *pSchema;        /* Schema containing the trigger */
  Schema *pTabSchema;     /* Schema containing the table */
  TriggerStep *step_list; /* Link list of trigger program steps             */
  Trigger *pNext;         /* Next trigger associated with the table */
};

/*
** A trigger is either a BEFORE or an AFTER trigger.  The following constants
** determine which. 
**
** If there are multiple triggers, you might of some BEFORE and some AFTER.
** In that cases, the constants below can be ORed together.
*/
#define TRIGGER_BEFORE  1
#define TRIGGER_AFTER   2

/*
 * An instance of struct TriggerStep is used to store a single SQL statement
 * that is a part of a trigger-program. 
 *
 * Instances of struct TriggerStep are stored in a singly linked list (linked
 * using the "pNext" member) referenced by the "step_list" member of the 
 * associated struct Trigger instance. The first element of the linked list is
 * the first step of the trigger-program.
 * 
 * The "op" member indicates whether this is a "DELETE", "INSERT", "UPDATE" or
 * "SELECT" statement. The meanings of the other members is determined by the 
 * value of "op" as follows:
 *
 * (op == TK_INSERT)
 * orconf    -> stores the ON CONFLICT algorithm
 * pSelect   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... SELECT ... statement, then
 *              this stores a pointer to the SELECT statement. Otherwise NULL.
 * target    -> A token holding the name of the table to insert into.
 * pExprList -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... VALUES ... statement, then
 *              this stores values to be inserted. Otherwise NULL.
 * pIdList   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... (<column-names>) VALUES ... 
 *              statement, then this stores the column-names to be
 *              inserted into.
 *
 * (op == TK_DELETE)
 * target    -> A token holding the name of the table to delete from.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the DELETE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * 
 * (op == TK_UPDATE)
 * target    -> A token holding the name of the table to update rows of.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the UPDATE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * pExprList -> A list of the columns to update and the expressions to update
 *              them to. See sqlite3Update() documentation of "pChanges"
 *              argument.
 * 
 */
struct TriggerStep {
  int op;              /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT, TK_SELECT */
  int orconf;          /* OE_Rollback etc. */
  Trigger *pTrig;      /* The trigger that this step is a part of */

  Select *pSelect;     /* Valid for SELECT and sometimes 
                          INSERT steps (when pExprList == 0) */
  Token target;        /* Valid for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT steps */
  Expr *pWhere;        /* Valid for DELETE, UPDATE steps */
  ExprList *pExprList; /* Valid for UPDATE statements and sometimes 
                           INSERT steps (when pSelect == 0)         */
  IdList *pIdList;     /* Valid for INSERT statements only */
  TriggerStep *pNext;  /* Next in the link-list */
  TriggerStep *pLast;  /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */
};

/*
 * An instance of struct TriggerStack stores information required during code
 * generation of a single trigger program. While the trigger program is being
 * coded, its associated TriggerStack instance is pointed to by the
 * "pTriggerStack" member of the Parse structure.
 *
 * The pTab member points to the table that triggers are being coded on. The 
 * newIdx member contains the index of the vdbe cursor that points at the temp
 * table that stores the new.* references. If new.* references are not valid
 * for the trigger being coded (for example an ON DELETE trigger), then newIdx
 * is set to -1. The oldIdx member is analogous to newIdx, for old.* references.
 *
 * The ON CONFLICT policy to be used for the trigger program steps is stored 
 * as the orconf member. If this is OE_Default, then the ON CONFLICT clause 
 * specified for individual triggers steps is used.
 *
 * struct TriggerStack has a "pNext" member, to allow linked lists to be
 * constructed. When coding nested triggers (triggers fired by other triggers)
 * each nested trigger stores its parent trigger's TriggerStack as the "pNext" 
 * pointer. Once the nested trigger has been coded, the pNext value is restored
 * to the pTriggerStack member of the Parse stucture and coding of the parent
 * trigger continues.
 *
 * Before a nested trigger is coded, the linked list pointed to by the 
 * pTriggerStack is scanned to ensure that the trigger is not about to be coded
 * recursively. If this condition is detected, the nested trigger is not coded.
 */
struct TriggerStack {
  Table *pTab;         /* Table that triggers are currently being coded on */
  int newIdx;          /* Index of vdbe cursor to "new" temp table */
  int oldIdx;          /* Index of vdbe cursor to "old" temp table */
  u32 newColMask;
  u32 oldColMask;
  int orconf;          /* Current orconf policy */
  int ignoreJump;      /* where to jump to for a RAISE(IGNORE) */
  Trigger *pTrigger;   /* The trigger currently being coded */
  TriggerStack *pNext; /* Next trigger down on the trigger stack */
};

/*
** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
** explicit.  
*/
typedef struct DbFixer DbFixer;
struct DbFixer {
  Parse *pParse;      /* The parsing context.  Error messages written here */
  const char *zDb;    /* Make sure all objects are contained in this database */
  const char *zType;  /* Type of the container - used for error messages */
  const Token *pName; /* Name of the container - used for error messages */
};

/*
** An objected used to accumulate the text of a string where we
** do not necessarily know how big the string will be in the end.
*/
struct StrAccum {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* Optional database for lookaside.  Can be NULL */
  char *zBase;         /* A base allocation.  Not from malloc. */
  char *zText;         /* The string collected so far */
  int  nChar;          /* Length of the string so far */
  int  nAlloc;         /* Amount of space allocated in zText */
  int  mxAlloc;        /* Maximum allowed string length */
  u8   mallocFailed;   /* Becomes true if any memory allocation fails */
  u8   useMalloc;      /* True if zText is enlargable using realloc */
  u8   tooBig;         /* Becomes true if string size exceeds limits */
};

/*
** A pointer to this structure is used to communicate information
** from sqlite3Init and OP_ParseSchema into the sqlite3InitCallback.
*/
typedef struct {
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The database being initialized */
  int iDb;            /* 0 for main database.  1 for TEMP, 2.. for ATTACHed */
  char **pzErrMsg;    /* Error message stored here */
  int rc;             /* Result code stored here */
} InitData;

/*
** Structure containing global configuration data for the SQLite library.
**
** This structure also contains some state information.
*/
struct Sqlite3Config {
  int bMemstat;                     /* True to enable memory status */
  int bCoreMutex;                   /* True to enable core mutexing */
  int bFullMutex;                   /* True to enable full mutexing */
  int mxStrlen;                     /* Maximum string length */
  int szLookaside;                  /* Default lookaside buffer size */
  int nLookaside;                   /* Default lookaside buffer count */
  sqlite3_mem_methods m;            /* Low-level memory allocation interface */
  sqlite3_mutex_methods mutex;      /* Low-level mutex interface */
  void *pHeap;                      /* Heap storage space */
  int nHeap;                        /* Size of pHeap[] */
  int mnReq, mxReq;                 /* Min and max heap requests sizes */
  void *pScratch;                   /* Scratch memory */
  int szScratch;                    /* Size of each scratch buffer */
  int nScratch;                     /* Number of scratch buffers */
  void *pPage;                      /* Page cache memory */
  int szPage;                       /* Size of each page in pPage[] */
  int nPage;                        /* Number of pages in pPage[] */
  int isInit;                       /* True after initialization has finished */
  int isMallocInit;                 /* True after malloc is initialized */
  sqlite3_mutex *pInitMutex;        /* Mutex used by sqlite3_initialize() */
  int nRefInitMutex;                /* Number of users of pInitMutex */
  int nSmall;                       /* alloc size threshold used by mem6.c */
  int mxParserStack;                /* maximum depth of the parser stack */
};

/*
** Context pointer passed down through the tree-walk.
*/
struct Walker {
  int (*xExprCallback)(Walker*, Expr*);     /* Callback for expressions */
  int (*xSelectCallback)(Walker*,Select*);  /* Callback for SELECTs */
  Parse *pParse;                            /* Parser context.  */
  union {                                   /* Extra data for callback */
    NameContext *pNC;                          /* Naming context */
    int i;                                     /* Integer value */
  } u;
};

/* Forward declarations */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkExpr(Walker*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkExprList(Walker*, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkSelect(Walker*, Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkSelectExpr(Walker*, Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkSelectFrom(Walker*, Select*);

/*
** Return code from the parse-tree walking primitives and their
** callbacks.
*/
#define WRC_Continue    0
#define WRC_Prune       1
#define WRC_Abort       2

/*
** Assuming zIn points to the first byte of a UTF-8 character,
** advance zIn to point to the first byte of the next UTF-8 character.
*/
#define SQLITE_SKIP_UTF8(zIn) {                        \
  if( (*(zIn++))>=0xc0 ){                              \
    while( (*zIn & 0xc0)==0x80 ){ zIn++; }             \
  }                                                    \
}

/*
** The SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT macro can be either a constant (for production
** builds) or a function call (for debugging).  If it is a function call,
** it allows the operator to set a breakpoint at the spot where database
** corruption is first detected.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3Corrupt(void);
# define SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT sqlite3Corrupt()
#else
# define SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT SQLITE_CORRUPT
#endif

/*
** Internal function prototypes
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StrICmp(const char *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StrNICmp(const char *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsNumber(const char*, int*, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Strlen(sqlite3*, const char*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MallocInit(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MallocEnd(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3Malloc(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3MallocZero(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocZero(sqlite3*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocRaw(sqlite3*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrDup(sqlite3*,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrNDup(sqlite3*,const char*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3Realloc(void*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(sqlite3 *, void *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbRealloc(sqlite3 *, void *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DbFree(sqlite3*, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MallocSize(void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3DbMallocSize(sqlite3*, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ScratchMalloc(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ScratchFree(void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PageMalloc(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PageFree(void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemSetDefault(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetDefault(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetMemsys5(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetMemsys3(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetMemsys6(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BenignMallocHooks(void (*)(void), void (*)(void));

#ifndef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
SQLITE_PRIVATE   sqlite3_mutex_methods *sqlite3DefaultMutex(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3MutexAlloc(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3MutexInit(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3MutexEnd(void);
#endif

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StatusValue(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StatusAdd(int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StatusSet(int, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsNaN(double);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(StrAccum*, int, const char*, va_list);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3MPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, va_list);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3MAppendf(sqlite3*,char*,const char*,...);
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST) || defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char*, ...);
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void *sqlite3TestTextToPtr(const char*);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SetString(char **, sqlite3*, const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorMsg(Parse*, const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorClear(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Dequote(char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DequoteExpr(sqlite3*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3KeywordCode(const unsigned char*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RunParser(Parse*, const char*, char **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FinishCoding(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetTempReg(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(Parse*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetTempRange(Parse*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(Parse*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3Expr(sqlite3*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3PExpr(Parse*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3RegisterExpr(Parse*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(sqlite3*,Expr*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprSpan(Expr*,Token*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Init(sqlite3*, char**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3InitCallback(void*, int, char**, char**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Pragma(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResetInternalSchema(sqlite3*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginParse(Parse*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CommitInternalChanges(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(Parse*,Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenMasterTable(Parse *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StartTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddColumn(Parse*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddNotNull(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddColumnType(Parse*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Select*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE Bitvec *sqlite3BitvecCreate(u32);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BitvecTest(Bitvec*, u32);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BitvecSet(Bitvec*, u32);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BitvecClear(Bitvec*, u32);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BitvecDestroy(Bitvec*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BitvecBuiltinTest(int,int*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateView(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,Select*,int,int);

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(Parse*,Table*);
#else
# define sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(A,B) 0
#endif

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropTable(Parse*, SrcList*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteTable(Table*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*, Select*, IdList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ArrayAllocate(sqlite3*,void*,int,int,int*,int*,int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListAppend(sqlite3*, IdList*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IdListIndex(IdList*,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppend(sqlite3*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*, Token*,
                                      Select*, Expr*, IdList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListAssignCursors(Parse*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3IdListDelete(sqlite3*, IdList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListDelete(sqlite3*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateIndex(Parse*,Token*,Token*,SrcList*,ExprList*,int,Token*,
                        Token*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(Parse*, Select*, SelectDest*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
                         Expr*,ExprList*,int,Expr*,Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDelete(sqlite3*, Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3SrcListLookup(Parse*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsReadOnly(Parse*, Table*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenTable(Parse*, int iCur, int iDb, Table*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE WhereInfo *sqlite3WhereBegin(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*, ExprList**, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WhereEnd(WhereInfo*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeMove(Parse*, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeCopy(Parse*, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprClearColumnCache(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(Parse*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprWritableRegister(Parse*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprHardCopy(Parse*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCode(Parse*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(Parse*, Expr*, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(Parse*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeAndCache(Parse*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeConstants(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprIfTrue(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprIfFalse(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3FindTable(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3LocateTable(Parse*,int isView,const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Index *sqlite3FindIndex(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTable(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteIndex(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Vacuum(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RunVacuum(char**, sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3NameFromToken(sqlite3*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCompare(Expr*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggregates(NameContext*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggList(NameContext*,ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Vdbe *sqlite3GetVdbe(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3CreateIdExpr(Parse *, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PrngSaveState(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PrngRestoreState(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PrngResetState(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RollbackAll(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginTransaction(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CommitTransaction(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RollbackTransaction(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstant(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstantNotJoin(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstantOrFunction(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsInteger(Expr*, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsRowid(const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(Parse*, Table*, int, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(Parse*, Index*, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(Parse*,Table*,int,int,
                                     int*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CompleteInsertion(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(Parse*, Table*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(Parse*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprDup(sqlite3*,Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TokenCopy(sqlite3*,Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListDup(sqlite3*,ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListDup(sqlite3*,SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListDup(sqlite3*,IdList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectDup(sqlite3*,Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FuncDefInsert(FuncDefHash*, FuncDef*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3FindFunction(sqlite3*,const char*,int,int,u8,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterBuiltinFunctions(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterGlobalFunctions(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetBuiltinFunction(const char *, int, FuncDef **);
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3SafetyOn(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3SafetyOff(sqlite3*);
#else
# define sqlite3SafetyOn(A) 0
# define sqlite3SafetyOff(A) 0
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SafetyCheckOk(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SafetyCheckSickOrOk(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ChangeCookie(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MaterializeView(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BeginTrigger(Parse*, Token*,Token*,int,int,IdList*,SrcList*,
                           Expr*,int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3FinishTrigger(Parse*, TriggerStep*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DropTrigger(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(Parse*, Trigger*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3TriggersExist(Parse*, Table*, int, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(Parse*, int, ExprList*, int, Table *, int, int, 
                           int, int, u32*, u32*);
  void sqliteViewTriggers(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(sqlite3*, TriggerStep*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(sqlite3*,Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(sqlite3*,Token*, IdList*,
                                        ExprList*,Select*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(sqlite3*,Token*,ExprList*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(sqlite3*,Token*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DeleteTrigger(sqlite3*, Trigger*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
#else
# define sqlite3TriggersExist(A,B,C,D,E,F) 0
# define sqlite3DeleteTrigger(A,B)
# define sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(A,B)
# define sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(A,B,C)
# define sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K) 0
#endif

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3JoinType(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateForeignKey(Parse*, ExprList*, Token*, ExprList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeferForeignKey(Parse*, int);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AuthRead(Parse*,Expr*,Schema*,SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3AuthCheck(Parse*,int, const char*, const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AuthContextPush(Parse*, AuthContext*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AuthContextPop(AuthContext*);
#else
# define sqlite3AuthRead(a,b,c,d)
# define sqlite3AuthCheck(a,b,c,d,e)    SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3AuthContextPush(a,b,c)
# define sqlite3AuthContextPop(a)  ((void)(a))
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Attach(Parse*, Expr*, Expr*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Detach(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFactory(const sqlite3 *db, const char *zFilename,
                       int omitJournal, int nCache, int flags, Btree **ppBtree);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixInit(DbFixer*, Parse*, int, const char*, const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSrcList(DbFixer*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSelect(DbFixer*, Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixExpr(DbFixer*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixExprList(DbFixer*, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixTriggerStep(DbFixer*, TriggerStep*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AtoF(const char *z, double*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetInt32(const char *, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FitsIn64Bits(const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf16ByteLen(const void *pData, int nChar);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8CharLen(const char *pData, int nByte);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8Read(const u8*, const u8*, const u8**);

/*
** Routines to read and write variable-length integers.  These used to
** be defined locally, but now we use the varint routines in the util.c
** file.  Code should use the MACRO forms below, as the Varint32 versions
** are coded to assume the single byte case is already handled (which 
** the MACRO form does).
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PutVarint(unsigned char*, u64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PutVarint32(unsigned char*, u32);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetVarint(const unsigned char *, u64 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetVarint32(const unsigned char *, u32 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VarintLen(u64 v);

/*
** The header of a record consists of a sequence variable-length integers.
** These integers are almost always small and are encoded as a single byte.
** The following macros take advantage this fact to provide a fast encode
** and decode of the integers in a record header.  It is faster for the common
** case where the integer is a single byte.  It is a little slower when the
** integer is two or more bytes.  But overall it is faster.
**
** The following expressions are equivalent:
**
**     x = sqlite3GetVarint32( A, &B );
**     x = sqlite3PutVarint32( A, B );
**
**     x = getVarint32( A, B );
**     x = putVarint32( A, B );
**
*/
#define getVarint32(A,B)  ((*(A)<(unsigned char)0x80) ? ((B) = (u32)*(A)),1 : sqlite3GetVarint32((A), &(B)))
#define putVarint32(A,B)  (((B)<(u32)0x80) ? (*(A) = (unsigned char)(B)),1 : sqlite3PutVarint32((A), (B)))
#define getVarint    sqlite3GetVarint
#define putVarint    sqlite3PutVarint


SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(Vdbe *, Index *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TableAffinityStr(Vdbe *, Table *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3CompareAffinity(Expr *pExpr, char aff2);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(Expr *pExpr, char idx_affinity);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Atoi64(const char*, i64*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Error(sqlite3*, int, const char*,...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HexToBlob(sqlite3*, const char *z, int n);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TwoPartName(Parse *, Token *, Token *, Token **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3ErrStr(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ReadSchema(Parse *pParse);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3FindCollSeq(sqlite3*,u8 enc, const char *,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3LocateCollSeq(Parse *pParse, const char *zName, int nName);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSetColl(Parse *pParse, Expr *, Token *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckCollSeq(Parse *, CollSeq *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckObjectName(Parse *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(sqlite3 *, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3ValueText(sqlite3_value*, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ValueBytes(sqlite3_value*, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueSetStr(sqlite3_value*, int, const void *,u8, 
                        void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueFree(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_value *sqlite3ValueNew(sqlite3 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3Utf16to8(sqlite3 *, const void*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ValueFromExpr(sqlite3 *, Expr *, u8, u8, sqlite3_value **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(sqlite3_value *, u8, u8);
#ifndef SQLITE_AMALGAMATION
SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3UpperToLower[];
SQLITE_PRIVATE struct Sqlite3Config sqlite3Config;
SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDefHash sqlite3GlobalFunctions;
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RootPageMoved(Db*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterFunctions(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse *, Expr *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy(Parse*, Select*, ExprList*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ColumnDefault(Vdbe *, Table *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterFinishAddColumn(Parse *, Token *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterBeginAddColumn(Parse *, SrcList *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3GetCollSeq(sqlite3*, CollSeq *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3AffinityType(const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Analyze(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3InvokeBusyHandler(BusyHandler*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindDb(sqlite3*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AnalysisLoad(sqlite3*,int iDB);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DefaultRowEst(Index*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterLikeFunctions(sqlite3*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsLikeFunction(sqlite3*,Expr*,int*,char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AttachFunctions(sqlite3 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MinimumFileFormat(Parse*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SchemaFree(void *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Schema *sqlite3SchemaGet(sqlite3 *, Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SchemaToIndex(sqlite3 *db, Schema *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(Parse *, Index *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CreateFunc(sqlite3 *, const char *, int, int, void *, 
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **),
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **), void (*)(sqlite3_context*));
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OpenTempDatabase(Parse *);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumInit(StrAccum*, char*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum*,const char*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest*,int,int);

/*
** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(size_t));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Parser(void*, int, Token, Parse*);
#ifdef YYTRACKMAXSTACKDEPTH
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3ParserStackPeak(void*);
#endif

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AutoLoadExtensions(sqlite3*);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3CloseExtensions(sqlite3*);
#else
# define sqlite3CloseExtensions(X)
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3TableLock(Parse *, int, int, u8, const char *);
#else
  #define sqlite3TableLock(v,w,x,y,z)
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3Utf8To8(unsigned char*);
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
#  define sqlite3VtabClear(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabSync(X,Y) SQLITE_OK
#  define sqlite3VtabRollback(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabCommit(X)
#else
SQLITE_PRIVATE    void sqlite3VtabClear(Table*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE    int sqlite3VtabSync(sqlite3 *db, char **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE    int sqlite3VtabRollback(sqlite3 *db);
SQLITE_PRIVATE    int sqlite3VtabCommit(sqlite3 *db);
#endif
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabMakeWritable(Parse*,Table*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabLock(sqlite3_vtab*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabUnlock(sqlite3*, sqlite3_vtab*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabBeginParse(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabFinishParse(Parse*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabArgInit(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabArgExtend(Parse*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallCreate(sqlite3*, int, const char *, char **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallConnect(Parse*, Table*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallDestroy(sqlite3*, int, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabBegin(sqlite3 *, sqlite3_vtab *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3VtabOverloadFunction(sqlite3 *,FuncDef*, int nArg, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3InvalidFunction(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Reprepare(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(Parse*, ExprList*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(Parse *, Expr *, Expr *);


/*
** Available fault injectors.  Should be numbered beginning with 0.
*/
#define SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_MALLOC     0
#define SQLITE_FAULTINJECTOR_COUNT      1

/*
** The interface to the code in fault.c used for identifying "benign"
** malloc failures. This is only present if SQLITE_OMIT_BUILTIN_TEST
** is not defined.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_BUILTIN_TEST
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BeginBenignMalloc(void);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3EndBenignMalloc(void);
#else
  #define sqlite3BeginBenignMalloc()
  #define sqlite3EndBenignMalloc()
#endif

#define IN_INDEX_ROWID           1
#define IN_INDEX_EPH             2
#define IN_INDEX_INDEX           3
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindInIndex(Parse *, Expr *, int*);

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_ATOMIC_WRITE
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3JournalOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file *, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3JournalSize(sqlite3_vfs *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3JournalCreate(sqlite3_file *);
#else
  #define sqlite3JournalSize(pVfs) ((pVfs)->szOsFile)
#endif

#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3ExprSetHeight(Parse *pParse, Expr *p);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3SelectExprHeight(Select *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3ExprCheckHeight(Parse*, int);
#else
  #define sqlite3ExprSetHeight(x,y)
  #define sqlite3SelectExprHeight(x) 0
  #define sqlite3ExprCheckHeight(x,y)
#endif

SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3Get4byte(const u8*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Put4byte(u8*, u32);

#ifdef SQLITE_SSE
#include "sseInt.h"
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3ParserTrace(FILE*, char *);
#endif

/*
** If the SQLITE_ENABLE IOTRACE exists then the global variable
** sqlite3IoTrace is a pointer to a printf-like routine used to
** print I/O tracing messages. 
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_IOTRACE
# define IOTRACE(A)  if( sqlite3IoTrace ){ sqlite3IoTrace A; }
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeIOTraceSql(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void (*sqlite3IoTrace)(const char*,...);
#else
# define IOTRACE(A)
# define sqlite3VdbeIOTraceSql(X)
#endif

#endif

/************** End of sqliteInt.h *******************************************/
/************** Begin file global.c ******************************************/
/*
** 2008 June 13
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
**
** This file contains definitions of global variables and contants.
**
** $Id: global.c,v 1.6 2008/08/21 20:21:35 drh Exp $
*/


/* An array to map all upper-case characters into their corresponding
** lower-case character. 
**
** SQLite only considers US-ASCII (or EBCDIC) characters.  We do not
** handle case conversions for the UTF character set since the tables
** involved are nearly as big or bigger than SQLite itself.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3UpperToLower[] = {
#ifdef SQLITE_ASCII
      0,  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
     18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
     36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53,
     54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,
    104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,
    122, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,
    108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,
    126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143,
    144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,
    162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,
    180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,
    198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,
    216,217,218,219,220,221,222,223,224,225,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,
    234,235,236,237,238,239,240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,250,251,
    252,253,254,255
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_EBCDIC
      0,  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, /* 0x */
     16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, /* 1x */
     32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, /* 2x */
     48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, /* 3x */
     64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, /* 4x */
     80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, /* 5x */
     96, 97, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,106,107,108,109,110,111, /* 6x */
    112, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89,122,123,124,125,126,127, /* 7x */
    128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143, /* 8x */
    144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,156,159, /* 9x */
    160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,140,141,142,175, /* Ax */
    176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191, /* Bx */
    192,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,202,203,204,205,206,207, /* Cx */
    208,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,218,219,220,221,222,223, /* Dx */
    224,225,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,232,203,204,205,206,207, /* Ex */
    239,240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,219,220,221,222,255, /* Fx */
#endif
};

/*
** The following singleton contains the global configuration for
** the SQLite library.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE struct Sqlite3Config sqlite3Config = {
   1,                /* bMemstat */
   1,                /* bCoreMutex */
   1,                /* bFullMutex */
   0x7ffffffe,       /* mxStrlen */
   100,              /* szLookaside */
   500,              /* nLookaside */
   /* Other fields all default to zero */
};


/*
** Hash table for global functions - functions common to all
** database connections.  After initialization, this table is
** read-only.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDefHash sqlite3GlobalFunctions;

/************** End of global.c **********************************************/
/************** Begin file status.c ******************************************/
/*
** 2008 June 18
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
**
** This module implements the sqlite3_status() interface and related
** functionality.
**
** $Id: status.c,v 1.8 2008/08/12 15:21:12 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** Variables in which to record status information.
*/
static struct {
  int nowValue[9];         /* Current value */
  int mxValue[9];          /* Maximum value */
} sqlite3Stat;


/*
** Return the current value of a status parameter.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StatusValue(int op){
  assert( op>=0 && op<ArraySize(sqlite3Stat.nowValue) );
  return sqlite3Stat.nowValue[op];
}

/*
** Add N to the value of a status record.  It is assumed that the
** caller holds appropriate locks.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StatusAdd(int op, int N){
  assert( op>=0 && op<ArraySize(sqlite3Stat.nowValue) );
  sqlite3Stat.nowValue[op] += N;
  if( sqlite3Stat.nowValue[op]>sqlite3Stat.mxValue[op] ){
    sqlite3Stat.mxValue[op] = sqlite3Stat.nowValue[op];
  }
}

/*
** Set the value of a status to X.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StatusSet(int op, int X){
  assert( op>=0 && op<ArraySize(sqlite3Stat.nowValue) );
  sqlite3Stat.nowValue[op] = X;
  if( sqlite3Stat.nowValue[op]>sqlite3Stat.mxValue[op] ){
    sqlite3Stat.mxValue[op] = sqlite3Stat.nowValue[op];
  }
}

/*
** Query status information.
**
** This implementation assumes that reading or writing an aligned
** 32-bit integer is an atomic operation.  If that assumption is not true,
** then this routine is not threadsafe.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_status(int op, int *pCurrent, int *pHighwater, int resetFlag){
  if( op<0 || op>=ArraySize(sqlite3Stat.nowValue) ){
    return SQLITE_MISUSE;
  }
  *pCurrent = sqlite3Stat.nowValue[op];
  *pHighwater = sqlite3Stat.mxValue[op];
  if( resetFlag ){
    sqlite3Stat.mxValue[op] = sqlite3Stat.nowValue[op];
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Query status information for a single database connection
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_db_status(
  sqlite3 *db,          /* The database connection whose status is desired */
  int op,               /* Status verb */
  int *pCurrent,        /* Write current value here */
  int *pHighwater,      /* Write high-water mark here */
  int resetFlag         /* Reset high-water mark if true */
){
  switch( op ){
    case SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_USED: {
      *pCurrent = db->lookaside.nOut;
      *pHighwater = db->lookaside.mxOut;
      if( resetFlag ){
        db->lookaside.mxOut = db->lookaside.nOut;
      }
      break;
    }
    default: {
      return SQLITE_ERROR;
    }
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/************** End of status.c **********************************************/
/************** Begin file date.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2003 October 31
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement date and time
** functions for SQLite.  
**
** There is only one exported symbol in this file - the function
** sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions() found at the bottom of the file.
** All other code has file scope.
**
** $Id: date.c,v 1.88 2008/08/21 20:21:35 drh Exp $
**
** SQLite processes all times and dates as Julian Day numbers.  The
** dates and times are stored as the number of days since noon
** in Greenwich on November 24, 4714 B.C. according to the Gregorian
** calendar system. 
**
** 1970-01-01 00:00:00 is JD 2440587.5
** 2000-01-01 00:00:00 is JD 2451544.5
**
** This implemention requires years to be expressed as a 4-digit number
** which means that only dates between 0000-01-01 and 9999-12-31 can
** be represented, even though julian day numbers allow a much wider
** range of dates.
**
** The Gregorian calendar system is used for all dates and times,
** even those that predate the Gregorian calendar.  Historians usually
** use the Julian calendar for dates prior to 1582-10-15 and for some
** dates afterwards, depending on locale.  Beware of this difference.
**
** The conversion algorithms are implemented based on descriptions
** in the following text:
**
**      Jean Meeus
**      Astronomical Algorithms, 2nd Edition, 1998
**      ISBM 0-943396-61-1
**      Willmann-Bell, Inc
**      Richmond, Virginia (USA)
*/
#include <ctype.h>
#include <time.h>

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS

/*
** On recent Windows platforms, the localtime_s() function is available
** as part of the "Secure CRT". It is essentially equivalent to 
** localtime_r() available under most POSIX platforms, except that the 
** order of the parameters is reversed.
**
** See http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/a442x3ye(VS.80).aspx.
**
** If the user has not indicated to use localtime_r() or localtime_s()
** already, check for an MSVC build environment that provides 
** localtime_s().
*/
#if !defined(HAVE_LOCALTIME_R) && !defined(HAVE_LOCALTIME_S) && \
     defined(_MSC_VER) && defined(_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE)
#define HAVE_LOCALTIME_S 1
#endif

/*
** A structure for holding a single date and time.
*/
typedef struct DateTime DateTime;
struct DateTime {
  sqlite3_int64 iJD; /* The julian day number times 86400000 */
  int Y, M, D;       /* Year, month, and day */
  int h, m;          /* Hour and minutes */
  int tz;            /* Timezone offset in minutes */
  double s;          /* Seconds */
  char validYMD;     /* True if Y,M,D are valid */
  char validHMS;     /* True if h,m,s are valid */
  char validJD;      /* True if iJD is valid */
  char validTZ;      /* True if tz is valid */
};


/*
** Convert zDate into one or more integers.  Additional arguments
** come in groups of 5 as follows:
**
**       N       number of digits in the integer
**       min     minimum allowed value of the integer
**       max     maximum allowed value of the integer
**       nextC   first character after the integer
**       pVal    where to write the integers value.
**
** Conversions continue until one with nextC==0 is encountered.
** The function returns the number of successful conversions.
*/
static int getDigits(const char *zDate, ...){
  va_list ap;
  int val;
  int N;
  int min;
  int max;
  int nextC;
  int *pVal;
  int cnt = 0;
  va_start(ap, zDate);
  do{
    N = va_arg(ap, int);
    min = va_arg(ap, int);
    max = va_arg(ap, int);
    nextC = va_arg(ap, int);
    pVal = va_arg(ap, int*);
    val = 0;
    while( N-- ){
      if( !isdigit(*(u8*)zDate) ){
        goto end_getDigits;
      }
      val = val*10 + *zDate - '0';
      zDate++;
    }
    if( val<min || val>max || (nextC!=0 && nextC!=*zDate) ){
      goto end_getDigits;
    }
    *pVal = val;
    zDate++;
    cnt++;
  }while( nextC );
end_getDigits:
  va_end(ap);
  return cnt;
}

/*
** Read text from z[] and convert into a floating point number.  Return
** the number of digits converted.
*/
#define getValue sqlite3AtoF

/*
** Parse a timezone extension on the end of a date-time.
** The extension is of the form:
**
**        (+/-)HH:MM
**
** Or the "zulu" notation:
**
**        Z
**
** If the parse is successful, write the number of minutes
** of change in p->tz and return 0.  If a parser error occurs,
** return non-zero.
**
** A missing specifier is not considered an error.
*/
static int parseTimezone(const char *zDate, DateTime *p){
  int sgn = 0;
  int nHr, nMn;
  int c;
  while( isspace(*(u8*)zDate) ){ zDate++; }
  p->tz = 0;
  c = *zDate;
  if( c=='-' ){
    sgn = -1;
  }else if( c=='+' ){
    sgn = +1;
  }else if( c=='Z' || c=='z' ){
    zDate++;
    goto zulu_time;
  }else{
    return c!=0;
  }
  zDate++;
  if( getDigits(zDate, 2, 0, 14, ':', &nHr, 2, 0, 59, 0, &nMn)!=2 ){
    return 1;
  }
  zDate += 5;
  p->tz = sgn*(nMn + nHr*60);
zulu_time:
  while( isspace(*(u8*)zDate) ){ zDate++; }
  return *zDate!=0;
}

/*
** Parse times of the form HH:MM or HH:MM:SS or HH:MM:SS.FFFF.
** The HH, MM, and SS must each be exactly 2 digits.  The
** fractional seconds FFFF can be one or more digits.
**
** Return 1 if there is a parsing error and 0 on success.
*/
static int parseHhMmSs(const char *zDate, DateTime *p){
  int h, m, s;
  double ms = 0.0;
  if( getDigits(zDate, 2, 0, 24, ':', &h, 2, 0, 59, 0, &m)!=2 ){
    return 1;
  }
  zDate += 5;
  if( *zDate==':' ){
    zDate++;
    if( getDigits(zDate, 2, 0, 59, 0, &s)!=1 ){
      return 1;
    }
    zDate += 2;
    if( *zDate=='.' && isdigit((u8)zDate[1]) ){
      double rScale = 1.0;
      zDate++;
      while( isdigit(*(u8*)zDate) ){
        ms = ms*10.0 + *zDate - '0';
        rScale *= 10.0;
        zDate++;
      }
      ms /= rScale;
    }
  }else{
    s = 0;
  }
  p->validJD = 0;
  p->validHMS = 1;
  p->h = h;
  p->m = m;
  p->s = s + ms;
  if( parseTimezone(zDate, p) ) return 1;
  p->validTZ = p->tz!=0;
  return 0;
}

/*
** Convert from YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS to julian day.  We always assume
** that the YYYY-MM-DD is according to the Gregorian calendar.
**
** Reference:  Meeus page 61
*/
static void computeJD(DateTime *p){
  int Y, M, D, A, B, X1, X2;

  if( p->validJD ) return;
  if( p->validYMD ){
    Y = p->Y;
    M = p->M;
    D = p->D;
  }else{
    Y = 2000;  /* If no YMD specified, assume 2000-Jan-01 */
    M = 1;
    D = 1;
  }
  if( M<=2 ){
    Y--;
    M += 12;
  }
  A = Y/100;
  B = 2 - A + (A/4);
  X1 = 365.25*(Y+4716);
  X2 = 30.6001*(M+1);
  p->iJD = (X1 + X2 + D + B - 1524.5)*86400000;
  p->validJD = 1;
  if( p->validHMS ){
    p->iJD += p->h*3600000 + p->m*60000 + p->s*1000;
    if( p->validTZ ){
      p->iJD -= p->tz*60000;
      p->validYMD = 0;
      p->validHMS = 0;
      p->validTZ = 0;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Parse dates of the form
**
**     YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.FFF
**     YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
**     YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM
**     YYYY-MM-DD
**
** Write the result into the DateTime structure and return 0
** on success and 1 if the input string is not a well-formed
** date.
*/
static int parseYyyyMmDd(const char *zDate, DateTime *p){
  int Y, M, D, neg;

  if( zDate[0]=='-' ){
    zDate++;
    neg = 1;
  }else{
    neg = 0;
  }
  if( getDigits(zDate,4,0,9999,'-',&Y,2,1,12,'-',&M,2,1,31,0,&D)!=3 ){
    return 1;
  }
  zDate += 10;
  while( isspace(*(u8*)zDate) || 'T'==*(u8*)zDate ){ zDate++; }
  if( parseHhMmSs(zDate, p)==0 ){
    /* We got the time */
  }else if( *zDate==0 ){
    p->validHMS = 0;
  }else{
    return 1;
  }
  p->validJD = 0;
  p->validYMD = 1;
  p->Y = neg ? -Y : Y;
  p->M = M;
  p->D = D;
  if( p->validTZ ){
    computeJD(p);
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** Set the time to the current time reported by the VFS
*/
static void setDateTimeToCurrent(sqlite3_context *context, DateTime *p){
  double r;
  sqlite3 *db = sqlite3_context_db_handle(context);
  sqlite3OsCurrentTime(db->pVfs, &r);
  p->iJD = (sqlite3_int64)(r*86400000.0 + 0.5);
  p->validJD = 1;
}

/*
** Attempt to parse the given string into a Julian Day Number.  Return
** the number of errors.
**
** The following are acceptable forms for the input string:
**
**      YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.FFF  +/-HH:MM
**      DDDD.DD 
**      now
**
** In the first form, the +/-HH:MM is always optional.  The fractional
** seconds extension (the ".FFF") is optional.  The seconds portion
** (":SS.FFF") is option.  The year and date can be omitted as long
** as there is a time string.  The time string can be omitted as long
** as there is a year and date.
*/
static int parseDateOrTime(
  sqlite3_context *context, 
  const char *zDate, 
  DateTime *p
){
  if( parseYyyyMmDd(zDate,p)==0 ){
    return 0;
  }else if( parseHhMmSs(zDate, p)==0 ){
    return 0;
  }else if( sqlite3StrICmp(zDate,"now")==0){
    setDateTimeToCurrent(context, p);
    return 0;
  }else if( sqlite3IsNumber(zDate, 0, SQLITE_UTF8) ){
    double r;
    getValue(zDate, &r);
    p->iJD = (sqlite3_int64)(r*86400000.0 + 0.5);
    p->validJD = 1;
    return 0;
  }
  return 1;
}

/*
** Compute the Year, Month, and Day from the julian day number.
*/
static void computeYMD(DateTime *p){
  int Z, A, B, C, D, E, X1;
  if( p->validYMD ) return;
  if( !p->validJD ){
    p->Y = 2000;
    p->M = 1;
    p->D = 1;
  }else{
    Z = (p->iJD + 43200000)/86400000;
    A = (Z - 1867216.25)/36524.25;
    A = Z + 1 + A - (A/4);
    B = A + 1524;
    C = (B - 122.1)/365.25;
    D = 365.25*C;
    E = (B-D)/30.6001;
    X1 = 30.6001*E;
    p->D = B - D - X1;
    p->M = E<14 ? E-1 : E-13;
    p->Y = p->M>2 ? C - 4716 : C - 4715;
  }
  p->validYMD = 1;
}

/*
** Compute the Hour, Minute, and Seconds from the julian day number.
*/
static void computeHMS(DateTime *p){
  int s;
  if( p->validHMS ) return;
  computeJD(p);
  s = (p->iJD + 43200000) % 86400000;
  p->s = s/1000.0;
  s = p->s;
  p->s -= s;
  p->h = s/3600;
  s -= p->h*3600;
  p->m = s/60;
  p->s += s - p->m*60;
  p->validHMS = 1;
}

/*
** Compute both YMD and HMS
*/
static void computeYMD_HMS(DateTime *p){
  computeYMD(p);
  computeHMS(p);
}

/*
** Clear the YMD and HMS and the TZ
*/
static void clearYMD_HMS_TZ(DateTime *p){
  p->validYMD = 0;
  p->validHMS = 0;
  p->validTZ = 0;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOCALTIME
/*
** Compute the difference (in milliseconds)
** between localtime and UTC (a.k.a. GMT)
** for the time value p where p is in UTC.
*/
static int localtimeOffset(DateTime *p){
  DateTime x, y;
  time_t t;
  x = *p;
  computeYMD_HMS(&x);
  if( x.Y<1971 || x.Y>=2038 ){
    x.Y = 2000;
    x.M = 1;
    x.D = 1;
    x.h = 0;
    x.m = 0;
    x.s = 0.0;
  } else {
    int s = x.s + 0.5;
    x.s = s;
  }
  x.tz = 0;
  x.validJD = 0;
  computeJD(&x);
  t = x.iJD/1000 - 2440587.5*86400.0;
#ifdef HAVE_LOCALTIME_R
  {
    struct tm sLocal;
    localtime_r(&t, &sLocal);
    y.Y = sLocal.tm_year + 1900;
    y.M = sLocal.tm_mon + 1;
    y.D = sLocal.tm_mday;
    y.h = sLocal.tm_hour;
    y.m = sLocal.tm_min;
    y.s = sLocal.tm_sec;
  }
#elif defined(HAVE_LOCALTIME_S)
  {
    struct tm sLocal;
    localtime_s(&sLocal, &t);
    y.Y = sLocal.tm_year + 1900;
    y.M = sLocal.tm_mon + 1;
    y.D = sLocal.tm_mday;
    y.h = sLocal.tm_hour;
    y.m = sLocal.tm_min;
    y.s = sLocal.tm_sec;
  }
#else
  {
    struct tm *pTm;
    sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER));
    pTm = localtime(&t);
    y.Y = pTm->tm_year + 1900;
    y.M = pTm->tm_mon + 1;
    y.D = pTm->tm_mday;
    y.h = pTm->tm_hour;
    y.m = pTm->tm_min;
    y.s = pTm->tm_sec;
    sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER));
  }
#endif
  y.validYMD = 1;
  y.validHMS = 1;
  y.validJD = 0;
  y.validTZ = 0;
  computeJD(&y);
  return y.iJD - x.iJD;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_LOCALTIME */

/*
** Process a modifier to a date-time stamp.  The modifiers are
** as follows:
**
**     NNN days
**     NNN hours
**     NNN minutes
**     NNN.NNNN seconds
**     NNN months
**     NNN years
**     start of month
**     start of year
**     start of week
**     start of day
**     weekday N
**     unixepoch
**     localtime
**     utc
**
** Return 0 on success and 1 if there is any kind of error.
*/
static int parseModifier(const char *zMod, DateTime *p){
  int rc = 1;
  int n;
  double r;
  char *z, zBuf[30];
  z = zBuf;
  for(n=0; n<sizeof(zBuf)-1 && zMod[n]; n++){
    z[n] = tolower(zMod[n]);
  }
  z[n] = 0;
  switch( z[0] ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOCALTIME
    case 'l': {
      /*    localtime
      **
      ** Assuming the current time value is UTC (a.k.a. GMT), shift it to
      ** show local time.
      */
      if( strcmp(z, "localtime")==0 ){
        computeJD(p);
        p->iJD += localtimeOffset(p);
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        rc = 0;
      }
      break;
    }
#endif
    case 'u': {
      /*
      **    unixepoch
      **
      ** Treat the current value of p->iJD as the number of
      ** seconds since 1970.  Convert to a real julian day number.
      */
      if( strcmp(z, "unixepoch")==0 && p->validJD ){
        p->iJD = p->iJD/86400.0 + 2440587.5*86400000.0;
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        rc = 0;
      }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOCALTIME
      else if( strcmp(z, "utc")==0 ){
        double c1;
        computeJD(p);
        c1 = localtimeOffset(p);
        p->iJD -= c1;
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        p->iJD += c1 - localtimeOffset(p);
        rc = 0;
      }
#endif
      break;
    }
    case 'w': {
      /*
      **    weekday N
      **
      ** Move the date to the same time on the next occurrence of
      ** weekday N where 0==Sunday, 1==Monday, and so forth.  If the
      ** date is already on the appropriate weekday, this is a no-op.
      */
      if( strncmp(z, "weekday ", 8)==0 && getValue(&z[8],&r)>0
                 && (n=r)==r && n>=0 && r<7 ){
        sqlite3_int64 Z;
        computeYMD_HMS(p);
        p->validTZ = 0;
        p->validJD = 0;
        computeJD(p);
        Z = ((p->iJD + 129600000)/86400000) % 7;
        if( Z>n ) Z -= 7;
        p->iJD += (n - Z)*86400000;
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        rc = 0;
      }
      break;
    }
    case 's': {
      /*
      **    start of TTTTT
      **
      ** Move the date backwards to the beginning of the current day,
      ** or month or year.
      */
      if( strncmp(z, "start of ", 9)!=0 ) break;
      z += 9;
      computeYMD(p);
      p->validHMS = 1;
      p->h = p->m = 0;
      p->s = 0.0;
      p->validTZ = 0;
      p->validJD = 0;
      if( strcmp(z,"month")==0 ){
        p->D = 1;
        rc = 0;
      }else if( strcmp(z,"year")==0 ){
        computeYMD(p);
        p->M = 1;
        p->D = 1;
        rc = 0;
      }else if( strcmp(z,"day")==0 ){
        rc = 0;
      }
      break;
    }
    case '+':
    case '-':
    case '0':
    case '1':
    case '2':
    case '3':
    case '4':
    case '5':
    case '6':
    case '7':
    case '8':
    case '9': {
      n = getValue(z, &r);
      assert( n>=1 );
      if( z[n]==':' ){
        /* A modifier of the form (+|-)HH:MM:SS.FFF adds (or subtracts) the
        ** specified number of hours, minutes, seconds, and fractional seconds
        ** to the time.  The ".FFF" may be omitted.  The ":SS.FFF" may be
        ** omitted.
        */
        const char *z2 = z;
        DateTime tx;
        sqlite3_int64 day;
        if( !isdigit(*(u8*)z2) ) z2++;
        memset(&tx, 0, sizeof(tx));
        if( parseHhMmSs(z2, &tx) ) break;
        computeJD(&tx);
        tx.iJD -= 43200000;
        day = tx.iJD/86400000;
        tx.iJD -= day*86400000;
        if( z[0]=='-' ) tx.iJD = -tx.iJD;
        computeJD(p);
        clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
        p->iJD += tx.iJD;
        rc = 0;
        break;
      }
      z += n;
      while( isspace(*(u8*)z) ) z++;
      n = strlen(z);
      if( n>10 || n<3 ) break;
      if( z[n-1]=='s' ){ z[n-1] = 0; n--; }
      computeJD(p);
      rc = 0;
      if( n==3 && strcmp(z,"day")==0 ){
        p->iJD += r*86400000.0 + 0.5;
      }else if( n==4 && strcmp(z,"hour")==0 ){
        p->iJD += r*(86400000.0/24.0) + 0.5;
      }else if( n==6 && strcmp(z,"minute")==0 ){
        p->iJD += r*(86400000.0/(24.0*60.0)) + 0.5;
      }else if( n==6 && strcmp(z,"second")==0 ){
        p->iJD += r*(86400000.0/(24.0*60.0*60.0)) + 0.5;
      }else if( n==5 && strcmp(z,"month")==0 ){
        int x, y;
        computeYMD_HMS(p);
        p->M += r;
        x = p->M>0 ? (p->M-1)/12 : (p->M-12)/12;
        p->Y += x;
        p->M -= x*12;
        p->validJD = 0;
        computeJD(p);
        y = r;
        if( y!=r ){
          p->iJD += (r - y)*30.0*86400000.0 + 0.5;
        }
      }else if( n==4 && strcmp(z,"year")==0 ){
        computeYMD_HMS(p);
        p->Y += r;
        p->validJD = 0;
        computeJD(p);
      }else{
        rc = 1;
      }
      clearYMD_HMS_TZ(p);
      break;
    }
    default: {
      break;
    }
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Process time function arguments.  argv[0] is a date-time stamp.
** argv[1] and following are modifiers.  Parse them all and write
** the resulting time into the DateTime structure p.  Return 0
** on success and 1 if there are any errors.
**
** If there are zero parameters (if even argv[0] is undefined)
** then assume a default value of "now" for argv[0].
*/
static int isDate(
  sqlite3_context *context, 
  int argc, 
  sqlite3_value **argv, 
  DateTime *p
){
  int i;
  const unsigned char *z;
  int eType;
  memset(p, 0, sizeof(*p));
  if( argc==0 ){
    setDateTimeToCurrent(context, p);
  }else if( (eType = sqlite3_value_type(argv[0]))==SQLITE_FLOAT
                   || eType==SQLITE_INTEGER ){
    p->iJD = sqlite3_value_double(argv[0])*86400000.0 + 0.5;
    p->validJD = 1;
  }else{
    z = sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
    if( !z || parseDateOrTime(context, (char*)z, p) ){
      return 1;
    }
  }
  for(i=1; i<argc; i++){
    if( (z = sqlite3_value_text(argv[i]))==0 || parseModifier((char*)z, p) ){
      return 1;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}


/*
** The following routines implement the various date and time functions
** of SQLite.
*/

/*
**    julianday( TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return the julian day number of the date specified in the arguments
*/
static void juliandayFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  if( isDate(context, argc, argv, &x)==0 ){
    computeJD(&x);
    sqlite3_result_double(context, x.iJD/86400000.0);
  }
}

/*
**    datetime( TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
*/
static void datetimeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  if( isDate(context, argc, argv, &x)==0 ){
    char zBuf[100];
    computeYMD_HMS(&x);
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zBuf), zBuf, "%04d-%02d-%02d %02d:%02d:%02d",
                     x.Y, x.M, x.D, x.h, x.m, (int)(x.s));
    sqlite3_result_text(context, zBuf, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  }
}

/*
**    time( TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return HH:MM:SS
*/
static void timeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  if( isDate(context, argc, argv, &x)==0 ){
    char zBuf[100];
    computeHMS(&x);
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zBuf), zBuf, "%02d:%02d:%02d", x.h, x.m, (int)x.s);
    sqlite3_result_text(context, zBuf, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  }
}

/*
**    date( TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return YYYY-MM-DD
*/
static void dateFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  if( isDate(context, argc, argv, &x)==0 ){
    char zBuf[100];
    computeYMD(&x);
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zBuf), zBuf, "%04d-%02d-%02d", x.Y, x.M, x.D);
    sqlite3_result_text(context, zBuf, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  }
}

/*
**    strftime( FORMAT, TIMESTRING, MOD, MOD, ...)
**
** Return a string described by FORMAT.  Conversions as follows:
**
**   %d  day of month
**   %f  ** fractional seconds  SS.SSS
**   %H  hour 00-24
**   %j  day of year 000-366
**   %J  ** Julian day number
**   %m  month 01-12
**   %M  minute 00-59
**   %s  seconds since 1970-01-01
**   %S  seconds 00-59
**   %w  day of week 0-6  sunday==0
**   %W  week of year 00-53
**   %Y  year 0000-9999
**   %%  %
*/
static void strftimeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  DateTime x;
  u64 n;
  int i, j;
  char *z;
  sqlite3 *db;
  const char *zFmt = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
  char zBuf[100];
  if( zFmt==0 || isDate(context, argc-1, argv+1, &x) ) return;
  db = sqlite3_context_db_handle(context);
  for(i=0, n=1; zFmt[i]; i++, n++){
    if( zFmt[i]=='%' ){
      switch( zFmt[i+1] ){
        case 'd':
        case 'H':
        case 'm':
        case 'M':
        case 'S':
        case 'W':
          n++;
          /* fall thru */
        case 'w':
        case '%':
          break;
        case 'f':
          n += 8;
          break;
        case 'j':
          n += 3;
          break;
        case 'Y':
          n += 8;
          break;
        case 's':
        case 'J':
          n += 50;
          break;
        default:
          return;  /* ERROR.  return a NULL */
      }
      i++;
    }
  }
  if( n<sizeof(zBuf) ){
    z = zBuf;
  }else if( n>db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH] ){
    sqlite3_result_error_toobig(context);
    return;
  }else{
    z = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(db, n);
    if( z==0 ){
      sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
      return;
    }
  }
  computeJD(&x);
  computeYMD_HMS(&x);
  for(i=j=0; zFmt[i]; i++){
    if( zFmt[i]!='%' ){
      z[j++] = zFmt[i];
    }else{
      i++;
      switch( zFmt[i] ){
        case 'd':  sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",x.D); j+=2; break;
        case 'f': {
          double s = x.s;
          if( s>59.999 ) s = 59.999;
          sqlite3_snprintf(7, &z[j],"%06.3f", s);
          j += strlen(&z[j]);
          break;
        }
        case 'H':  sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",x.h); j+=2; break;
        case 'W': /* Fall thru */
        case 'j': {
          int nDay;             /* Number of days since 1st day of year */
          DateTime y = x;
          y.validJD = 0;
          y.M = 1;
          y.D = 1;
          computeJD(&y);
          nDay = (x.iJD - y.iJD)/86400000.0 + 0.5;
          if( zFmt[i]=='W' ){
            int wd;   /* 0=Monday, 1=Tuesday, ... 6=Sunday */
            wd = ((x.iJD+43200000)/86400000) % 7;
            sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",(nDay+7-wd)/7);
            j += 2;
          }else{
            sqlite3_snprintf(4, &z[j],"%03d",nDay+1);
            j += 3;
          }
          break;
        }
        case 'J': {
          sqlite3_snprintf(20, &z[j],"%.16g",x.iJD/86400000.0);
          j+=strlen(&z[j]);
          break;
        }
        case 'm':  sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",x.M); j+=2; break;
        case 'M':  sqlite3_snprintf(3, &z[j],"%02d",x.m); j+=2; break;
        case 's': {
          sqlite3_snprintf(30,&z[j],"%d",
                           (int)(x.iJD/1000.0 - 210866760000.0));
          j += strlen(&z[j]);
          break;
        }
        case 'S':  sqlite3_snprintf(3,&z[j],"%02d",(int)x.s); j+=2; break;
        case 'w':  z[j++] = (((x.iJD+129600000)/86400000) % 7) + '0'; break;
        case 'Y':  sqlite3_snprintf(5,&z[j],"%04d",x.Y); j+=strlen(&z[j]);break;
        default:   z[j++] = '%'; break;
      }
    }
  }
  z[j] = 0;
  sqlite3_result_text(context, z, -1,
                      z==zBuf ? SQLITE_TRANSIENT : SQLITE_DYNAMIC);
}

/*
** current_time()
**
** This function returns the same value as time('now').
*/
static void ctimeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  timeFunc(context, 0, 0);
}

/*
** current_date()
**
** This function returns the same value as date('now').
*/
static void cdateFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  dateFunc(context, 0, 0);
}

/*
** current_timestamp()
**
** This function returns the same value as datetime('now').
*/
static void ctimestampFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  datetimeFunc(context, 0, 0);
}
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS) */

#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS
/*
** If the library is compiled to omit the full-scale date and time
** handling (to get a smaller binary), the following minimal version
** of the functions current_time(), current_date() and current_timestamp()
** are included instead. This is to support column declarations that
** include "DEFAULT CURRENT_TIME" etc.
**
** This function uses the C-library functions time(), gmtime()
** and strftime(). The format string to pass to strftime() is supplied
** as the user-data for the function.
*/
static void currentTimeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  time_t t;
  char *zFormat = (char *)sqlite3_user_data(context);
  sqlite3 *db;
  double rT;
  char zBuf[20];

  db = sqlite3_context_db_handle(context);
  sqlite3OsCurrentTime(db->pVfs, &rT);
  t = 86400.0*(rT - 2440587.5) + 0.5;
#ifdef HAVE_GMTIME_R
  {
    struct tm sNow;
    gmtime_r(&t, &sNow);
    strftime(zBuf, 20, zFormat, &sNow);
  }
#else
  {
    struct tm *pTm;
    sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER));
    pTm = gmtime(&t);
    strftime(zBuf, 20, zFormat, pTm);
    sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER));
  }
#endif

  sqlite3_result_text(context, zBuf, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
}
#endif

/*
** This function registered all of the above C functions as SQL
** functions.  This should be the only routine in this file with
** external linkage.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions(void){
  static FuncDef aDateTimeFuncs[] = {
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DATETIME_FUNCS
    FUNCTION(julianday,        -1, 0, 0, juliandayFunc ),
    FUNCTION(date,             -1, 0, 0, dateFunc      ),
    FUNCTION(time,             -1, 0, 0, timeFunc      ),
    FUNCTION(datetime,         -1, 0, 0, datetimeFunc  ),
    FUNCTION(strftime,         -1, 0, 0, strftimeFunc  ),
    FUNCTION(current_time,      0, 0, 0, ctimeFunc     ),
    FUNCTION(current_timestamp, 0, 0, 0, ctimestampFunc),
    FUNCTION(current_date,      0, 0, 0, cdateFunc     ),
#else
    FUNCTION(current_time,      0, "%H:%M:%S",          0, currentTimeFunc),
    FUNCTION(current_timestamp, 0, "%Y-%m-%d",          0, currentTimeFunc),
    FUNCTION(current_date,      0, "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", 0, currentTimeFunc),
#endif
  };
  int i;

  for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aDateTimeFuncs); i++){
    sqlite3FuncDefInsert(&sqlite3GlobalFunctions, &aDateTimeFuncs[i]);
  }
}

/************** End of date.c ************************************************/
/************** Begin file os.c **********************************************/
/*
** 2005 November 29
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
******************************************************************************
**
** This file contains OS interface code that is common to all
** architectures.
**
** $Id: os.c,v 1.120 2008/07/28 19:34:53 drh Exp $
*/
#define _SQLITE_OS_C_ 1
#undef _SQLITE_OS_C_

/*
** The default SQLite sqlite3_vfs implementations do not allocate
** memory (actually, os_unix.c allocates a small amount of memory
** from within OsOpen()), but some third-party implementations may.
** So we test the effects of a malloc() failing and the sqlite3OsXXX()
** function returning SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM using the DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST macro.
**
** The following functions are instrumented for malloc() failure 
** testing:
**
**     sqlite3OsOpen()
**     sqlite3OsRead()
**     sqlite3OsWrite()
**     sqlite3OsSync()
**     sqlite3OsLock()
**
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST) && (SQLITE_OS_WIN==0) && 0
  #define DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST if (1) {            \
    void *pTstAlloc = sqlite3Malloc(10);       \
    if (!pTstAlloc) return SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM;  \
    sqlite3_free(pTstAlloc);                    \
  }
#else
  #define DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST
#endif

/*
** The following routines are convenience wrappers around methods
** of the sqlite3_file object.  This is mostly just syntactic sugar. All
** of this would be completely automatic if SQLite were coded using
** C++ instead of plain old C.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsClose(sqlite3_file *pId){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  if( pId->pMethods ){
    rc = pId->pMethods->xClose(pId);
    pId->pMethods = 0;
  }
  return rc;
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRead(sqlite3_file *id, void *pBuf, int amt, i64 offset){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xRead(id, pBuf, amt, offset);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsWrite(sqlite3_file *id, const void *pBuf, int amt, i64 offset){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xWrite(id, pBuf, amt, offset);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsTruncate(sqlite3_file *id, i64 size){
  return id->pMethods->xTruncate(id, size);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSync(sqlite3_file *id, int flags){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xSync(id, flags);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileSize(sqlite3_file *id, i64 *pSize){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xFileSize(id, pSize);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsLock(sqlite3_file *id, int lockType){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xLock(id, lockType);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsUnlock(sqlite3_file *id, int lockType){
  return id->pMethods->xUnlock(id, lockType);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCheckReservedLock(sqlite3_file *id, int *pResOut){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return id->pMethods->xCheckReservedLock(id, pResOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileControl(sqlite3_file *id, int op, void *pArg){
  return id->pMethods->xFileControl(id, op, pArg);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSectorSize(sqlite3_file *id){
  int (*xSectorSize)(sqlite3_file*) = id->pMethods->xSectorSize;
  return (xSectorSize ? xSectorSize(id) : SQLITE_DEFAULT_SECTOR_SIZE);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDeviceCharacteristics(sqlite3_file *id){
  return id->pMethods->xDeviceCharacteristics(id);
}

/*
** The next group of routines are convenience wrappers around the
** VFS methods.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpen(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, 
  const char *zPath, 
  sqlite3_file *pFile, 
  int flags, 
  int *pFlagsOut
){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return pVfs->xOpen(pVfs, zPath, pFile, flags, pFlagsOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDelete(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, const char *zPath, int dirSync){
  return pVfs->xDelete(pVfs, zPath, dirSync);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsAccess(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, 
  const char *zPath, 
  int flags, 
  int *pResOut
){
  DO_OS_MALLOC_TEST;
  return pVfs->xAccess(pVfs, zPath, flags, pResOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFullPathname(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, 
  const char *zPath, 
  int nPathOut, 
  char *zPathOut
){
  return pVfs->xFullPathname(pVfs, zPath, nPathOut, zPathOut);
}
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlOpen(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, const char *zPath){
  return pVfs->xDlOpen(pVfs, zPath);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlError(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int nByte, char *zBufOut){
  pVfs->xDlError(pVfs, nByte, zBufOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlSym(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, void *pHandle, const char *zSymbol){
  return pVfs->xDlSym(pVfs, pHandle, zSymbol);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlClose(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, void *pHandle){
  pVfs->xDlClose(pVfs, pHandle);
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION */
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRandomness(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int nByte, char *zBufOut){
  return pVfs->xRandomness(pVfs, nByte, zBufOut);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSleep(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int nMicro){
  return pVfs->xSleep(pVfs, nMicro);
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCurrentTime(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, double *pTimeOut){
  return pVfs->xCurrentTime(pVfs, pTimeOut);
}

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpenMalloc(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, 
  const char *zFile, 
  sqlite3_file **ppFile, 
  int flags,
  int *pOutFlags
){
  int rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  sqlite3_file *pFile;
  pFile = (sqlite3_file *)sqlite3Malloc(pVfs->szOsFile);
  if( pFile ){
    rc = sqlite3OsOpen(pVfs, zFile, pFile, flags, pOutFlags);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      sqlite3_free(pFile);
    }else{
      *ppFile = pFile;
    }
  }
  return rc;
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCloseFree(sqlite3_file *pFile){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  assert( pFile );
  rc = sqlite3OsClose(pFile);
  sqlite3_free(pFile);
  return rc;
}

/*
** The list of all registered VFS implementations.
*/
static sqlite3_vfs *vfsList = 0;

/*
** Locate a VFS by name.  If no name is given, simply return the
** first VFS on the list.
*/
SQLITE_API sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3_vfs_find(const char *zVfs){
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs = 0;
#ifndef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT
  int rc = sqlite3_initialize();
  if( rc ) return 0;
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
  mutex = sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER);
#endif
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mutex);
  for(pVfs = vfsList; pVfs; pVfs=pVfs->pNext){
    if( zVfs==0 ) break;
    if( strcmp(zVfs, pVfs->zName)==0 ) break;
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mutex);
  return pVfs;
}

/*
** Unlink a VFS from the linked list
*/
static void vfsUnlink(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs){
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER)) );
  if( pVfs==0 ){
    /* No-op */
  }else if( vfsList==pVfs ){
    vfsList = pVfs->pNext;
  }else if( vfsList ){
    sqlite3_vfs *p = vfsList;
    while( p->pNext && p->pNext!=pVfs ){
      p = p->pNext;
    }
    if( p->pNext==pVfs ){
      p->pNext = pVfs->pNext;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Register a VFS with the system.  It is harmless to register the same
** VFS multiple times.  The new VFS becomes the default if makeDflt is
** true.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_register(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, int makeDflt){
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex = 0;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT
  int rc = sqlite3_initialize();
  if( rc ) return rc;
#endif
  mutex = sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER);
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mutex);
  vfsUnlink(pVfs);
  if( makeDflt || vfsList==0 ){
    pVfs->pNext = vfsList;
    vfsList = pVfs;
  }else{
    pVfs->pNext = vfsList->pNext;
    vfsList->pNext = pVfs;
  }
  assert(vfsList);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mutex);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Unregister a VFS so that it is no longer accessible.
*/
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_unregister(sqlite3_vfs *pVfs){
#ifndef SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex = sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER);
#endif
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mutex);
  vfsUnlink(pVfs);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mutex);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/************** End of os.c **************************************************/
/************** Begin file fault.c *******************************************/
/*
** 2008 Jan 22
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
**
** $Id: fault.c,v 1.10 2008/06/22 12:37:58 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** This file contains code to support the concept of "benign" 
** malloc failures (when the xMalloc() or xRealloc() method of the
** sqlite3_mem_methods structure fails to allocate a block of memory
** and returns 0). 
**
** Most malloc failures are non-benign. After they occur, SQLite
** abandons the current operation and returns an error code (usually
** SQLITE_NOMEM) to the user. However, sometimes a fault is not necessarily
** fatal. For example, if a malloc fails while resizing a hash table, this 
** is completely recoverable simply by not carrying out the resize. The 
** hash table will continue to function normally.  So a malloc failure 
** during a hash table resize is a benign fault.
*/


#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_BUILTIN_TEST

/*
** Global variables.
*/
static struct BenignMallocHooks {
  void (*xBenignBegin)(void);
  void (*xBenignEnd)(void);
} hooks;

/*
** Register hooks to call when sqlite3BeginBenignMalloc() and
** sqlite3EndBenignMalloc() are called, respectively.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BenignMallocHooks(
  void (*xBenignBegin)(void),
  void (*xBenignEnd)(void)
){
  hooks.xBenignBegin = xBenignBegin;
  hooks.xBenignEnd = xBenignEnd;
}

/*
** This (sqlite3EndBenignMalloc()) is called by SQLite code to indicate that
** subsequent malloc failures are benign. A call to sqlite3EndBenignMalloc()
** indicates that subsequent malloc failures are non-benign.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginBenignMalloc(void){
  if( hooks.xBenignBegin ){
    hooks.xBenignBegin();
  }
}
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3EndBenignMalloc(void){
  if( hooks.xBenignEnd ){
    hooks.xBenignEnd();
  }
}

#endif   /* #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_BUILTIN_TEST */

/************** End of fault.c ***********************************************/
/************** Begin file mem1.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 14
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
**
** This file contains low-level memory allocation drivers for when
** SQLite will use the standard C-library malloc/realloc/free interface
** to obtain the memory it needs.
**
** This file contains implementations of the low-level memory allocation
** routines specified in the sqlite3_mem_methods object.
**
** $Id: mem1.c,v 1.25 2008/07/25 08:49:00 danielk1977 Exp $
*/

/*
** This version of the memory allocator is the default.  It is
** used when no other memory allocator is specified using compile-time
** macros.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC

/*
** Like malloc(), but remember the size of the allocation
** so that we can find it later using sqlite3MemSize().
**
** For this low-level routine, we are guaranteed that nByte>0 because
** cases of nByte<=0 will be intercepted and dealt with by higher level
** routines.
*/
static void *sqlite3MemMalloc(int nByte){
  sqlite3_int64 *p;
  assert( nByte>0 );
  nByte = (nByte+7)&~7;
  p = malloc( nByte+8 );
  if( p ){
    p[0] = nByte;
    p++;
  }
  return (void *)p;
}

/*
** Like free() but works for allocations obtained from sqlite3MemMalloc()
** or sqlite3MemRealloc().
**
** For this low-level routine, we already know that pPrior!=0 since
** cases where pPrior==0 will have been intecepted and dealt with
** by higher-level routines.
*/
static void sqlite3MemFree(void *pPrior){
  sqlite3_int64 *p = (sqlite3_int64*)pPrior;
  assert( pPrior!=0 );
  p--;
  free(p);
}

/*
** Like realloc().  Resize an allocation previously obtained from
** sqlite3MemMalloc().
**
** For this low-level interface, we know that pPrior!=0.  Cases where
** pPrior==0 while have been intercepted by higher-level routine and
** redirected to xMalloc.  Similarly, we know that nByte>0 becauses
** cases where nByte<=0 will have been intercepted by higher-level
** routines and redirected to xFree.
*/
static void *sqlite3MemRealloc(void *pPrior, int nByte){
  sqlite3_int64 *p = (sqlite3_int64*)pPrior;
  assert( pPrior!=0 && nByte>0 );
  nByte = (nByte+7)&~7;
  p = (sqlite3_int64*)pPrior;
  p--;
  p = realloc(p, nByte+8 );
  if( p ){
    p[0] = nByte;
    p++;
  }
  return (void*)p;
}

/*
** Report the allocated size of a prior return from xMalloc()
** or xRealloc().
*/
static int sqlite3MemSize(void *pPrior){
  sqlite3_int64 *p;
  if( pPrior==0 ) return 0;
  p = (sqlite3_int64*)pPrior;
  p--;
  return p[0];
}

/*
** Round up a request size to the next valid allocation size.
*/
static int sqlite3MemRoundup(int n){
  return (n+7) & ~7;
}

/*
** Initialize this module.
*/
static int sqlite3MemInit(void *NotUsed){
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Deinitialize this module.
*/
static void sqlite3MemShutdown(void *NotUsed){
  return;
}

SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetDefault(void){
  static const sqlite3_mem_methods defaultMethods = {
     sqlite3MemMalloc,
     sqlite3MemFree,
     sqlite3MemRealloc,
     sqlite3MemSize,
     sqlite3MemRoundup,
     sqlite3MemInit,
     sqlite3MemShutdown,
     0
  };
  return &defaultMethods;
}

/*
** This routine is the only routine in this file with external linkage.
**
** Populate the low-level memory allocation function pointers in
** sqlite3Config.m with pointers to the routines in this file.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemSetDefault(void){
  sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC, sqlite3MemGetDefault());
}

#endif /* SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC */

/************** End of mem1.c ************************************************/
/************** Begin file mem2.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2007 August 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
**
** This file contains low-level memory allocation drivers for when
** SQLite will use the standard C-library malloc/realloc/free interface
** to obtain the memory it needs while adding lots of additional debugging
** information to each allocation in order to help detect and fix memory
** leaks and memory usage errors.
**
** This file contains implementations of the low-level memory allocation
** routines specified in the sqlite3_mem_methods object.
**
** $Id: mem2.c,v 1.38 2008/08/12 15:04:59 danielk1977 Exp $
*/

/*
** This version of the memory allocator is used only if the
** SQLITE_MEMDEBUG macro is defined
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_MEMDEBUG

/*
** The backtrace functionality is only available with GLIBC
*/
#ifdef __GLIBC__
  extern int backtrace(void**,int);
  extern void backtrace_symbols_fd(void*const*,int,int);
#else
# define backtrace(A,B) 1
# define backtrace_symbols_fd(A,B,C)
#endif

/*
** Each memory allocation looks like this:
**
**  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
**  | Title |  backtrace pointers |  MemBlockHdr |  allocation |  EndGuard |
**  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
**
** The application code sees only a pointer to the allocation.  We have
** to back up from the allocation pointer to find the MemBlockHdr.  The
** MemBlockHdr tells us the size of the allocation and the number of
** backtrace pointers.  There is also a guard word at the end of the
** MemBlockHdr.
*/
struct MemBlockHdr {
  i64 iSize;                          /* Size of this allocation */
  struct MemBlockHdr *pNext, *pPrev;  /* Linked list of all unfreed memory */
  char nBacktrace;                    /* Number of backtraces on this alloc */
  char nBacktraceSlots;               /* Available backtrace slots */
  short nTitle;                       /* Bytes of title; includes '\0' */
  int iForeGuard;                     /* Guard word for sanity */
};

/*
** Guard words
*/
#define FOREGUARD 0x80F5E153
#define REARGUARD 0xE4676B53

/*
** Number of malloc size increments to track.
*/
#define NCSIZE  1000

/*
** All of the static variables used by this module are collected
** into a single structure named "mem".  This is to keep the
** static variables organized and to reduce namespace pollution
** when this module is combined with other in the amalgamation.
*/
static struct {
  
  /*
  ** Mutex to control access to the memory allocation subsystem.
  */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;

  /*
  ** Head and tail of a linked list of all outstanding allocations
  */
  struct MemBlockHdr *pFirst;
  struct MemBlockHdr *pLast;
  
  /*
  ** The number of levels of backtrace to save in new allocations.
  */
  int nBacktrace;
  void (*xBacktrace)(int, int, void **);

  /*
  ** Title text to insert in front of each block
  */
  int nTitle;        /* Bytes of zTitle to save.  Includes '\0' and padding */
  char zTitle[100];  /* The title text */

  /* 
  ** sqlite3MallocDisallow() increments the following counter.
  ** sqlite3MallocAllow() decrements it.
  */
  int disallow; /* Do not allow memory allocation */

  /*
  ** Gather statistics on the sizes of memory allocations.
  ** nAlloc[i] is the number of allocation attempts of i*8
  ** bytes.  i==NCSIZE is the number of allocation attempts for
  ** sizes more than NCSIZE*8 bytes.
  */
  int nAlloc[NCSIZE];      /* Total number of allocations */
  int nCurrent[NCSIZE];    /* Current number of allocations */
  int mxCurrent[NCSIZE];   /* Highwater mark for nCurrent */

} mem;


/*
** Adjust memory usage statistics
*/
static void adjustStats(int iSize, int increment){
  int i = ((iSize+7)&~7)/8;
  if( i>NCSIZE-1 ){
    i = NCSIZE - 1;
  }
  if( increment>0 ){
    mem.nAlloc[i]++;
    mem.nCurrent[i]++;
    if( mem.nCurrent[i]>mem.mxCurrent[i] ){
      mem.mxCurrent[i] = mem.nCurrent[i];
    }
  }else{
    mem.nCurrent[i]--;
    assert( mem.nCurrent[i]>=0 );
  }
}

/*
** Given an allocation, find the MemBlockHdr for that allocation.
**
** This routine checks the guards at either end of the allocation and
** if they are incorrect it asserts.
*/
static struct MemBlockHdr *sqlite3MemsysGetHeader(void *pAllocation){
  struct MemBlockHdr *p;
  int *pInt;
  u8 *pU8;
  int nReserve;

  p = (struct MemBlockHdr*)pAllocation;
  p--;
  assert( p->iForeGuard==FOREGUARD );
  nReserve = (p->iSize+7)&~7;
  pInt = (int*)pAllocation;
  pU8 = (u8*)pAllocation;
  assert( pInt[nReserve/sizeof(int)]==REARGUARD );
  assert( (nReserve-0)<=p->iSize || pU8[nReserve-1]==0x65 );
  assert( (nReserve-1)<=p->iSize || pU8[nReserve-2]==0x65 );
  assert( (nReserve-2)<=p->iSize || pU8[nReserve-3]==0x65 );
  return p;
}

/*
** Return the number of bytes currently allocated at address p.
*/
static int sqlite3MemSize(void *p){
  struct MemBlockHdr *pHdr;
  if( !p ){
    return 0;
  }
  pHdr = sqlite3MemsysGetHeader(p);
  return pHdr->iSize;
}

/*
** Initialize the memory allocation subsystem.
*/
static int sqlite3MemInit(void *NotUsed){
  if( !sqlite3Config.bMemstat ){
    /* If memory status is enabled, then the malloc.c wrapper will already
    ** hold the STATIC_MEM mutex when the routines here are invoked. */
    mem.mutex = sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM);
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Deinitialize the memory allocation subsystem.
*/
static void sqlite3MemShutdown(void *NotUsed){
  mem.mutex = 0;
}

/*
** Round up a request size to the next valid allocation size.
*/
static int sqlite3MemRoundup(int n){
  return (n+7) & ~7;
}

/*
** Allocate nByte bytes of memory.
*/
static void *sqlite3MemMalloc(int nByte){
  struct MemBlockHdr *pHdr;
  void **pBt;
  char *z;
  int *pInt;
  void *p = 0;
  int totalSize;
  int nReserve;
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  assert( mem.disallow==0 );
  nReserve = (nByte+7)&~7;
  totalSize = nReserve + sizeof(*pHdr) + sizeof(int) +
               mem.nBacktrace*sizeof(void*) + mem.nTitle;
  p = malloc(totalSize);
  if( p ){
    z = p;
    pBt = (void**)&z[mem.nTitle];
    pHdr = (struct MemBlockHdr*)&pBt[mem.nBacktrace];
    pHdr->pNext = 0;
    pHdr->pPrev = mem.pLast;
    if( mem.pLast ){
      mem.pLast->pNext = pHdr;
    }else{
      mem.pFirst = pHdr;
    }
    mem.pLast = pHdr;
    pHdr->iForeGuard = FOREGUARD;
    pHdr->nBacktraceSlots = mem.nBacktrace;
    pHdr->nTitle = mem.nTitle;
    if( mem.nBacktrace ){
      void *aAddr[40];
      pHdr->nBacktrace = backtrace(aAddr, mem.nBacktrace+1)-1;
      memcpy(pBt, &aAddr[1], pHdr->nBacktrace*sizeof(void*));
      if( mem.xBacktrace ){
        mem.xBacktrace(nByte, pHdr->nBacktrace-1, &aAddr[1]);
      }
    }else{
      pHdr->nBacktrace = 0;
    }
    if( mem.nTitle ){
      memcpy(z, mem.zTitle, mem.nTitle);
    }
    pHdr->iSize = nByte;
    adjustStats(nByte, +1);
    pInt = (int*)&pHdr[1];
    pInt[nReserve/sizeof(int)] = REARGUARD;
    memset(pInt, 0x65, nReserve);
    p = (void*)pInt;
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
  return p; 
}

/*
** Free memory.
*/
static void sqlite3MemFree(void *pPrior){
  struct MemBlockHdr *pHdr;
  void **pBt;
  char *z;
  assert( sqlite3Config.bMemstat || mem.mutex!=0 );
  pHdr = sqlite3MemsysGetHeader(pPrior);
  pBt = (void**)pHdr;
  pBt -= pHdr->nBacktraceSlots;
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  if( pHdr->pPrev ){
    assert( pHdr->pPrev->pNext==pHdr );
    pHdr->pPrev->pNext = pHdr->pNext;
  }else{
    assert( mem.pFirst==pHdr );
    mem.pFirst = pHdr->pNext;
  }
  if( pHdr->pNext ){
    assert( pHdr->pNext->pPrev==pHdr );
    pHdr->pNext->pPrev = pHdr->pPrev;
  }else{
    assert( mem.pLast==pHdr );
    mem.pLast = pHdr->pPrev;
  }
  z = (char*)pBt;
  z -= pHdr->nTitle;
  adjustStats(pHdr->iSize, -1);
  memset(z, 0x2b, sizeof(void*)*pHdr->nBacktraceSlots + sizeof(*pHdr) +
                  pHdr->iSize + sizeof(int) + pHdr->nTitle);
  free(z);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);  
}

/*
** Change the size of an existing memory allocation.
**
** For this debugging implementation, we *always* make a copy of the
** allocation into a new place in memory.  In this way, if the 
** higher level code is using pointer to the old allocation, it is 
** much more likely to break and we are much more liking to find
** the error.
*/
static void *sqlite3MemRealloc(void *pPrior, int nByte){
  struct MemBlockHdr *pOldHdr;
  void *pNew;
  assert( mem.disallow==0 );
  pOldHdr = sqlite3MemsysGetHeader(pPrior);
  pNew = sqlite3MemMalloc(nByte);
  if( pNew ){
    memcpy(pNew, pPrior, nByte<pOldHdr->iSize ? nByte : pOldHdr->iSize);
    if( nByte>pOldHdr->iSize ){
      memset(&((char*)pNew)[pOldHdr->iSize], 0x2b, nByte - pOldHdr->iSize);
    }
    sqlite3MemFree(pPrior);
  }
  return pNew;
}


SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetDefault(void){
  static const sqlite3_mem_methods defaultMethods = {
     sqlite3MemMalloc,
     sqlite3MemFree,
     sqlite3MemRealloc,
     sqlite3MemSize,
     sqlite3MemRoundup,
     sqlite3MemInit,
     sqlite3MemShutdown,
     0
  };
  return &defaultMethods;
}

/*
** Populate the low-level memory allocation function pointers in
** sqlite3Config.m with pointers to the routines in this file.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemSetDefault(void){
  sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC, sqlite3MemGetDefault());
}

/*
** Set the number of backtrace levels kept for each allocation.
** A value of zero turns off backtracing.  The number is always rounded
** up to a multiple of 2.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemdebugBacktrace(int depth){
  if( depth<0 ){ depth = 0; }
  if( depth>20 ){ depth = 20; }
  depth = (depth+1)&0xfe;
  mem.nBacktrace = depth;
}

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemdebugBacktraceCallback(void (*xBacktrace)(int, int, void **)){
  mem.xBacktrace = xBacktrace;
}

/*
** Set the title string for subsequent allocations.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemdebugSettitle(const char *zTitle){
  int n = strlen(zTitle) + 1;
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem.mutex);
  if( n>=sizeof(mem.zTitle) ) n = sizeof(mem.zTitle)-1;
  memcpy(mem.zTitle, zTitle, n);
  mem.zTitle[n] = 0;
  mem.nTitle = (n+7)&~7;
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem.mutex);
}

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemdebugSync(){
  struct MemBlockHdr *pHdr;
  for(pHdr=mem.pFirst; pHdr; pHdr=pHdr->pNext){
    void **pBt = (void**)pHdr;
    pBt -= pHdr->nBacktraceSlots;
    mem.xBacktrace(pHdr->iSize, pHdr->nBacktrace-1, &pBt[1]);
  }
}

/*
** Open the file indicated and write a log of all unfreed memory 
** allocations into that log.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemdebugDump(const char *zFilename){
  FILE *out;
  struct MemBlockHdr *pHdr;
  void **pBt;
  int i;
  out = fopen(zFilename, "w");
  if( out==0 ){
    fprintf(stderr, "** Unable to output memory debug output log: %s **\n",
                    zFilename);
    return;
  }
  for(pHdr=mem.pFirst; pHdr; pHdr=pHdr->pNext){
    char *z = (char*)pHdr;
    z -= pHdr->nBacktraceSlots*sizeof(void*) + pHdr->nTitle;
    fprintf(out, "**** %lld bytes at %p from %s ****\n", 
            pHdr->iSize, &pHdr[1], pHdr->nTitle ? z : "???");
    if( pHdr->nBacktrace ){
      fflush(out);
      pBt = (void**)pHdr;
      pBt -= pHdr->nBacktraceSlots;
      backtrace_symbols_fd(pBt, pHdr->nBacktrace, fileno(out));
      fprintf(out, "\n");
    }
  }
  fprintf(out, "COUNTS:\n");
  for(i=0; i<NCSIZE-1; i++){
    if( mem.nAlloc[i] ){
      fprintf(out, "   %5d: %10d %10d %10d\n", 
            i*8, mem.nAlloc[i], mem.nCurrent[i], mem.mxCurrent[i]);
    }
  }
  if( mem.nAlloc[NCSIZE-1] ){
    fprintf(out, "   %5d: %10d %10d %10d\n",
             NCSIZE*8-8, mem.nAlloc[NCSIZE-1],
             mem.nCurrent[NCSIZE-1], mem.mxCurrent[NCSIZE-1]);
  }
  fclose(out);
}

/*
** Return the number of times sqlite3MemMalloc() has been called.
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MemdebugMallocCount(){
  int i;
  int nTotal = 0;
  for(i=0; i<NCSIZE; i++){
    nTotal += mem.nAlloc[i];
  }
  return nTotal;
}


#endif /* SQLITE_MEMDEBUG */

/************** End of mem2.c ************************************************/
/************** Begin file mem3.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2007 October 14
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement a memory
** allocation subsystem for use by SQLite. 
**
** This version of the memory allocation subsystem omits all
** use of malloc(). The SQLite user supplies a block of memory
** before calling sqlite3_initialize() from which allocations
** are made and returned by the xMalloc() and xRealloc() 
** implementations. Once sqlite3_initialize() has been called,
** the amount of memory available to SQLite is fixed and cannot
** be changed.
**
** This version of the memory allocation subsystem is included
** in the build only if SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3 is defined.
**
** $Id: mem3.c,v 1.20 2008/07/18 18:56:17 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** This version of the memory allocator is only built into the library
** SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3 is defined. Defining this symbol does not
** mean that the library will use a memory-pool by default, just that
** it is available. The mempool allocator is activated by calling
** sqlite3_config().
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3

/*
** Maximum size (in Mem3Blocks) of a "small" chunk.
*/
#define MX_SMALL 10


/*
** Number of freelist hash slots
*/
#define N_HASH  61

/*
** A memory allocation (also called a "chunk") consists of two or 
** more blocks where each block is 8 bytes.  The first 8 bytes are 
** a header that is not returned to the user.
**
** A chunk is two or more blocks that is either checked out or
** free.  The first block has format u.hdr.  u.hdr.size4x is 4 times the
** size of the allocation in blocks if the allocation is free.
** The u.hdr.size4x&1 bit is true if the chunk is checked out and
** false if the chunk is on the freelist.  The u.hdr.size4x&2 bit
** is true if the previous chunk is checked out and false if the
** previous chunk is free.  The u.hdr.prevSize field is the size of
** the previous chunk in blocks if the previous chunk is on the
** freelist. If the previous chunk is checked out, then
** u.hdr.prevSize can be part of the data for that chunk and should
** not be read or written.
**
** We often identify a chunk by its index in mem3.aPool[].  When
** this is done, the chunk index refers to the second block of
** the chunk.  In this way, the first chunk has an index of 1.
** A chunk index of 0 means "no such chunk" and is the equivalent
** of a NULL pointer.
**
** The second block of free chunks is of the form u.list.  The
** two fields form a double-linked list of chunks of related sizes.
** Pointers to the head of the list are stored in mem3.aiSmall[] 
** for smaller chunks and mem3.aiHash[] for larger chunks.
**
** The second block of a chunk is user data if the chunk is checked 
** out.  If a chunk is checked out, the user data may extend into
** the u.hdr.prevSize value of the following chunk.
*/
typedef struct Mem3Block Mem3Block;
struct Mem3Block {
  union {
    struct {
      u32 prevSize;   /* Size of previous chunk in Mem3Block elements */
      u32 size4x;     /* 4x the size of current chunk in Mem3Block elements */
    } hdr;
    struct {
      u32 next;       /* Index in mem3.aPool[] of next free chunk */
      u32 prev;       /* Index in mem3.aPool[] of previous free chunk */
    } list;
  } u;
};

/*
** All of the static variables used by this module are collected
** into a single structure named "mem3".  This is to keep the
** static variables organized and to reduce namespace pollution
** when this module is combined with other in the amalgamation.
*/
static struct {
  /*
  ** True if we are evaluating an out-of-memory callback.
  */
  int alarmBusy;
  
  /*
  ** Mutex to control access to the memory allocation subsystem.
  */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;
  
  /*
  ** The minimum amount of free space that we have seen.
  */
  u32 mnMaster;

  /*
  ** iMaster is the index of the master chunk.  Most new allocations
  ** occur off of this chunk.  szMaster is the size (in Mem3Blocks)
  ** of the current master.  iMaster is 0 if there is not master chunk.
  ** The master chunk is not in either the aiHash[] or aiSmall[].
  */
  u32 iMaster;
  u32 szMaster;

  /*
  ** Array of lists of free blocks according to the block size 
  ** for smaller chunks, or a hash on the block size for larger
  ** chunks.
  */
  u32 aiSmall[MX_SMALL-1];   /* For sizes 2 through MX_SMALL, inclusive */
  u32 aiHash[N_HASH];        /* For sizes MX_SMALL+1 and larger */

  /*
  ** Memory available for allocation. nPool is the size of the array
  ** (in Mem3Blocks) pointed to by aPool less 2.
  */
  u32 nPool;
  Mem3Block *aPool;
} mem3;

/*
** Unlink the chunk at mem3.aPool[i] from list it is currently
** on.  *pRoot is the list that i is a member of.
*/
static void memsys3UnlinkFromList(u32 i, u32 *pRoot){
  u32 next = mem3.aPool[i].u.list.next;
  u32 prev = mem3.aPool[i].u.list.prev;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
  if( prev==0 ){
    *pRoot = next;
  }else{
    mem3.aPool[prev].u.list.next = next;
  }
  if( next ){
    mem3.aPool[next].u.list.prev = prev;
  }
  mem3.aPool[i].u.list.next = 0;
  mem3.aPool[i].u.list.prev = 0;
}

/*
** Unlink the chunk at index i from 
** whatever list is currently a member of.
*/
static void memsys3Unlink(u32 i){
  u32 size, hash;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
  assert( (mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x & 1)==0 );
  assert( i>=1 );
  size = mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4;
  assert( size==mem3.aPool[i+size-1].u.hdr.prevSize );
  assert( size>=2 );
  if( size <= MX_SMALL ){
    memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, &mem3.aiSmall[size-2]);
  }else{
    hash = size % N_HASH;
    memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, &mem3.aiHash[hash]);
  }
}

/*
** Link the chunk at mem3.aPool[i] so that is on the list rooted
** at *pRoot.
*/
static void memsys3LinkIntoList(u32 i, u32 *pRoot){
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
  mem3.aPool[i].u.list.next = *pRoot;
  mem3.aPool[i].u.list.prev = 0;
  if( *pRoot ){
    mem3.aPool[*pRoot].u.list.prev = i;
  }
  *pRoot = i;
}

/*
** Link the chunk at index i into either the appropriate
** small chunk list, or into the large chunk hash table.
*/
static void memsys3Link(u32 i){
  u32 size, hash;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
  assert( i>=1 );
  assert( (mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x & 1)==0 );
  size = mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4;
  assert( size==mem3.aPool[i+size-1].u.hdr.prevSize );
  assert( size>=2 );
  if( size <= MX_SMALL ){
    memsys3LinkIntoList(i, &mem3.aiSmall[size-2]);
  }else{
    hash = size % N_HASH;
    memsys3LinkIntoList(i, &mem3.aiHash[hash]);
  }
}

/*
** If the STATIC_MEM mutex is not already held, obtain it now. The mutex
** will already be held (obtained by code in malloc.c) if
** sqlite3Config.bMemStat is true.
*/
static void memsys3Enter(void){
  if( sqlite3Config.bMemstat==0 && mem3.mutex==0 ){
    mem3.mutex = sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM);
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem3.mutex);
}
static void memsys3Leave(void){
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem3.mutex);
}

/*
** Called when we are unable to satisfy an allocation of nBytes.
*/
static void memsys3OutOfMemory(int nByte){
  if( !mem3.alarmBusy ){
    mem3.alarmBusy = 1;
    assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
    sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem3.mutex);
    sqlite3_release_memory(nByte);
    sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem3.mutex);
    mem3.alarmBusy = 0;
  }
}


/*
** Chunk i is a free chunk that has been unlinked.  Adjust its 
** size parameters for check-out and return a pointer to the 
** user portion of the chunk.
*/
static void *memsys3Checkout(u32 i, int nBlock){
  u32 x;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
  assert( i>=1 );
  assert( mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4==nBlock );
  assert( mem3.aPool[i+nBlock-1].u.hdr.prevSize==nBlock );
  x = mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x;
  mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x = nBlock*4 | 1 | (x&2);
  mem3.aPool[i+nBlock-1].u.hdr.prevSize = nBlock;
  mem3.aPool[i+nBlock-1].u.hdr.size4x |= 2;
  return &mem3.aPool[i];
}

/*
** Carve a piece off of the end of the mem3.iMaster free chunk.
** Return a pointer to the new allocation.  Or, if the master chunk
** is not large enough, return 0.
*/
static void *memsys3FromMaster(int nBlock){
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
  assert( mem3.szMaster>=nBlock );
  if( nBlock>=mem3.szMaster-1 ){
    /* Use the entire master */
    void *p = memsys3Checkout(mem3.iMaster, mem3.szMaster);
    mem3.iMaster = 0;
    mem3.szMaster = 0;
    mem3.mnMaster = 0;
    return p;
  }else{
    /* Split the master block.  Return the tail. */
    u32 newi, x;
    newi = mem3.iMaster + mem3.szMaster - nBlock;
    assert( newi > mem3.iMaster+1 );
    mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster+mem3.szMaster-1].u.hdr.prevSize = nBlock;
    mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster+mem3.szMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x |= 2;
    mem3.aPool[newi-1].u.hdr.size4x = nBlock*4 + 1;
    mem3.szMaster -= nBlock;
    mem3.aPool[newi-1].u.hdr.prevSize = mem3.szMaster;
    x = mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x & 2;
    mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x = mem3.szMaster*4 | x;
    if( mem3.szMaster < mem3.mnMaster ){
      mem3.mnMaster = mem3.szMaster;
    }
    return (void*)&mem3.aPool[newi];
  }
}

/*
** *pRoot is the head of a list of free chunks of the same size
** or same size hash.  In other words, *pRoot is an entry in either
** mem3.aiSmall[] or mem3.aiHash[].  
**
** This routine examines all entries on the given list and tries
** to coalesce each entries with adjacent free chunks.  
**
** If it sees a chunk that is larger than mem3.iMaster, it replaces 
** the current mem3.iMaster with the new larger chunk.  In order for
** this mem3.iMaster replacement to work, the master chunk must be
** linked into the hash tables.  That is not the normal state of
** affairs, of course.  The calling routine must link the master
** chunk before invoking this routine, then must unlink the (possibly
** changed) master chunk once this routine has finished.
*/
static void memsys3Merge(u32 *pRoot){
  u32 iNext, prev, size, i, x;

  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
  for(i=*pRoot; i>0; i=iNext){
    iNext = mem3.aPool[i].u.list.next;
    size = mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x;
    assert( (size&1)==0 );
    if( (size&2)==0 ){
      memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, pRoot);
      assert( i > mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.prevSize );
      prev = i - mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.prevSize;
      if( prev==iNext ){
        iNext = mem3.aPool[prev].u.list.next;
      }
      memsys3Unlink(prev);
      size = i + size/4 - prev;
      x = mem3.aPool[prev-1].u.hdr.size4x & 2;
      mem3.aPool[prev-1].u.hdr.size4x = size*4 | x;
      mem3.aPool[prev+size-1].u.hdr.prevSize = size;
      memsys3Link(prev);
      i = prev;
    }else{
      size /= 4;
    }
    if( size>mem3.szMaster ){
      mem3.iMaster = i;
      mem3.szMaster = size;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Return a block of memory of at least nBytes in size.
** Return NULL if unable.
**
** This function assumes that the necessary mutexes, if any, are
** already held by the caller. Hence "Unsafe".
*/
static void *memsys3MallocUnsafe(int nByte){
  u32 i;
  int nBlock;
  int toFree;

  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
  assert( sizeof(Mem3Block)==8 );
  if( nByte<=12 ){
    nBlock = 2;
  }else{
    nBlock = (nByte + 11)/8;
  }
  assert( nBlock>=2 );

  /* STEP 1:
  ** Look for an entry of the correct size in either the small
  ** chunk table or in the large chunk hash table.  This is
  ** successful most of the time (about 9 times out of 10).
  */
  if( nBlock <= MX_SMALL ){
    i = mem3.aiSmall[nBlock-2];
    if( i>0 ){
      memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, &mem3.aiSmall[nBlock-2]);
      return memsys3Checkout(i, nBlock);
    }
  }else{
    int hash = nBlock % N_HASH;
    for(i=mem3.aiHash[hash]; i>0; i=mem3.aPool[i].u.list.next){
      if( mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4==nBlock ){
        memsys3UnlinkFromList(i, &mem3.aiHash[hash]);
        return memsys3Checkout(i, nBlock);
      }
    }
  }

  /* STEP 2:
  ** Try to satisfy the allocation by carving a piece off of the end
  ** of the master chunk.  This step usually works if step 1 fails.
  */
  if( mem3.szMaster>=nBlock ){
    return memsys3FromMaster(nBlock);
  }


  /* STEP 3:  
  ** Loop through the entire memory pool.  Coalesce adjacent free
  ** chunks.  Recompute the master chunk as the largest free chunk.
  ** Then try again to satisfy the allocation by carving a piece off
  ** of the end of the master chunk.  This step happens very
  ** rarely (we hope!)
  */
  for(toFree=nBlock*16; toFree<(mem3.nPool*16); toFree *= 2){
    memsys3OutOfMemory(toFree);
    if( mem3.iMaster ){
      memsys3Link(mem3.iMaster);
      mem3.iMaster = 0;
      mem3.szMaster = 0;
    }
    for(i=0; i<N_HASH; i++){
      memsys3Merge(&mem3.aiHash[i]);
    }
    for(i=0; i<MX_SMALL-1; i++){
      memsys3Merge(&mem3.aiSmall[i]);
    }
    if( mem3.szMaster ){
      memsys3Unlink(mem3.iMaster);
      if( mem3.szMaster>=nBlock ){
        return memsys3FromMaster(nBlock);
      }
    }
  }

  /* If none of the above worked, then we fail. */
  return 0;
}

/*
** Free an outstanding memory allocation.
**
** This function assumes that the necessary mutexes, if any, are
** already held by the caller. Hence "Unsafe".
*/
void memsys3FreeUnsafe(void *pOld){
  Mem3Block *p = (Mem3Block*)pOld;
  int i;
  u32 size, x;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem3.mutex) );
  assert( p>mem3.aPool && p<&mem3.aPool[mem3.nPool] );
  i = p - mem3.aPool;
  assert( (mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x&1)==1 );
  size = mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x/4;
  assert( i+size<=mem3.nPool+1 );
  mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x &= ~1;
  mem3.aPool[i+size-1].u.hdr.prevSize = size;
  mem3.aPool[i+size-1].u.hdr.size4x &= ~2;
  memsys3Link(i);

  /* Try to expand the master using the newly freed chunk */
  if( mem3.iMaster ){
    while( (mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x&2)==0 ){
      size = mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster-1].u.hdr.prevSize;
      mem3.iMaster -= size;
      mem3.szMaster += size;
      memsys3Unlink(mem3.iMaster);
      x = mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x & 2;
      mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x = mem3.szMaster*4 | x;
      mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster+mem3.szMaster-1].u.hdr.prevSize = mem3.szMaster;
    }
    x = mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x & 2;
    while( (mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster+mem3.szMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x&1)==0 ){
      memsys3Unlink(mem3.iMaster+mem3.szMaster);
      mem3.szMaster += mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster+mem3.szMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x/4;
      mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster-1].u.hdr.size4x = mem3.szMaster*4 | x;
      mem3.aPool[mem3.iMaster+mem3.szMaster-1].u.hdr.prevSize = mem3.szMaster;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Return the size of an outstanding allocation, in bytes.  The
** size returned omits the 8-byte header overhead.  This only
** works for chunks that are currently checked out.
*/
static int memsys3Size(void *p){
  Mem3Block *pBlock;
  if( p==0 ) return 0;
  pBlock = (Mem3Block*)p;
  assert( (pBlock[-1].u.hdr.size4x&1)!=0 );
  return (pBlock[-1].u.hdr.size4x&~3)*2 - 4;
}

/*
** Round up a request size to the next valid allocation size.
*/
static int memsys3Roundup(int n){
  if( n<=12 ){
    return 12;
  }else{
    return ((n+11)&~7) - 4;
  }
}

/*
** Allocate nBytes of memory.
*/
static void *memsys3Malloc(int nBytes){
  sqlite3_int64 *p;
  assert( nBytes>0 );          /* malloc.c filters out 0 byte requests */
  memsys3Enter();
  p = memsys3MallocUnsafe(nBytes);
  memsys3Leave();
  return (void*)p; 
}

/*
** Free memory.
*/
void memsys3Free(void *pPrior){
  assert( pPrior );
  memsys3Enter();
  memsys3FreeUnsafe(pPrior);
  memsys3Leave();
}

/*
** Change the size of an existing memory allocation
*/
void *memsys3Realloc(void *pPrior, int nBytes){
  int nOld;
  void *p;
  if( pPrior==0 ){
    return sqlite3_malloc(nBytes);
  }
  if( nBytes<=0 ){
    sqlite3_free(pPrior);
    return 0;
  }
  nOld = memsys3Size(pPrior);
  if( nBytes<=nOld && nBytes>=nOld-128 ){
    return pPrior;
  }
  memsys3Enter();
  p = memsys3MallocUnsafe(nBytes);
  if( p ){
    if( nOld<nBytes ){
      memcpy(p, pPrior, nOld);
    }else{
      memcpy(p, pPrior, nBytes);
    }
    memsys3FreeUnsafe(pPrior);
  }
  memsys3Leave();
  return p;
}

/*
** Initialize this module.
*/
static int memsys3Init(void *NotUsed){
  if( !sqlite3Config.pHeap ){
    return SQLITE_ERROR;
  }

  /* Store a pointer to the memory block in global structure mem3. */
  assert( sizeof(Mem3Block)==8 );
  mem3.aPool = (Mem3Block *)sqlite3Config.pHeap;
  mem3.nPool = (sqlite3Config.nHeap / sizeof(Mem3Block)) - 2;

  /* Initialize the master block. */
  mem3.szMaster = mem3.nPool;
  mem3.mnMaster = mem3.szMaster;
  mem3.iMaster = 1;
  mem3.aPool[0].u.hdr.size4x = (mem3.szMaster<<2) + 2;
  mem3.aPool[mem3.nPool].u.hdr.prevSize = mem3.nPool;
  mem3.aPool[mem3.nPool].u.hdr.size4x = 1;

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Deinitialize this module.
*/
static void memsys3Shutdown(void *NotUsed){
  return;
}



/*
** Open the file indicated and write a log of all unfreed memory 
** allocations into that log.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Memsys3Dump(const char *zFilename){
  FILE *out;
  int i, j;
  u32 size;
  if( zFilename==0 || zFilename[0]==0 ){
    out = stdout;
  }else{
    out = fopen(zFilename, "w");
    if( out==0 ){
      fprintf(stderr, "** Unable to output memory debug output log: %s **\n",
                      zFilename);
      return;
    }
  }
  memsys3Enter();
  fprintf(out, "CHUNKS:\n");
  for(i=1; i<=mem3.nPool; i+=size/4){
    size = mem3.aPool[i-1].u.hdr.size4x;
    if( size/4<=1 ){
      fprintf(out, "%p size error\n", &mem3.aPool[i]);
      assert( 0 );
      break;
    }
    if( (size&1)==0 && mem3.aPool[i+size/4-1].u.hdr.prevSize!=size/4 ){
      fprintf(out, "%p tail size does not match\n", &mem3.aPool[i]);
      assert( 0 );
      break;
    }
    if( ((mem3.aPool[i+size/4-1].u.hdr.size4x&2)>>1)!=(size&1) ){
      fprintf(out, "%p tail checkout bit is incorrect\n", &mem3.aPool[i]);
      assert( 0 );
      break;
    }
    if( size&1 ){
      fprintf(out, "%p %6d bytes checked out\n", &mem3.aPool[i], (size/4)*8-8);
    }else{
      fprintf(out, "%p %6d bytes free%s\n", &mem3.aPool[i], (size/4)*8-8,
                  i==mem3.iMaster ? " **master**" : "");
    }
  }
  for(i=0; i<MX_SMALL-1; i++){
    if( mem3.aiSmall[i]==0 ) continue;
    fprintf(out, "small(%2d):", i);
    for(j = mem3.aiSmall[i]; j>0; j=mem3.aPool[j].u.list.next){
      fprintf(out, " %p(%d)", &mem3.aPool[j],
              (mem3.aPool[j-1].u.hdr.size4x/4)*8-8);
    }
    fprintf(out, "\n"); 
  }
  for(i=0; i<N_HASH; i++){
    if( mem3.aiHash[i]==0 ) continue;
    fprintf(out, "hash(%2d):", i);
    for(j = mem3.aiHash[i]; j>0; j=mem3.aPool[j].u.list.next){
      fprintf(out, " %p(%d)", &mem3.aPool[j],
              (mem3.aPool[j-1].u.hdr.size4x/4)*8-8);
    }
    fprintf(out, "\n"); 
  }
  fprintf(out, "master=%d\n", mem3.iMaster);
  fprintf(out, "nowUsed=%d\n", mem3.nPool*8 - mem3.szMaster*8);
  fprintf(out, "mxUsed=%d\n", mem3.nPool*8 - mem3.mnMaster*8);
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem3.mutex);
  if( out==stdout ){
    fflush(stdout);
  }else{
    fclose(out);
  }
}
#endif

/*
** This routine is the only routine in this file with external 
** linkage.
**
** Populate the low-level memory allocation function pointers in
** sqlite3Config.m with pointers to the routines in this file. The
** arguments specify the block of memory to manage.
**
** This routine is only called by sqlite3_config(), and therefore
** is not required to be threadsafe (it is not).
*/
SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetMemsys3(void){
  static const sqlite3_mem_methods mempoolMethods = {
     memsys3Malloc,
     memsys3Free,
     memsys3Realloc,
     memsys3Size,
     memsys3Roundup,
     memsys3Init,
     memsys3Shutdown,
     0
  };
  return &mempoolMethods;
}

#endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3 */

/************** End of mem3.c ************************************************/
/************** Begin file mem5.c ********************************************/
/*
** 2007 October 14
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains the C functions that implement a memory
** allocation subsystem for use by SQLite. 
**
** This version of the memory allocation subsystem omits all
** use of malloc(). The SQLite user supplies a block of memory
** before calling sqlite3_initialize() from which allocations
** are made and returned by the xMalloc() and xRealloc() 
** implementations. Once sqlite3_initialize() has been called,
** the amount of memory available to SQLite is fixed and cannot
** be changed.
**
** This version of the memory allocation subsystem is included
** in the build only if SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5 is defined.
**
** $Id: mem5.c,v 1.11 2008/07/16 12:25:32 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** This version of the memory allocator is used only when 
** SQLITE_POW2_MEMORY_SIZE is defined.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5

/*
** Log2 of the minimum size of an allocation.  For example, if
** 4 then all allocations will be rounded up to at least 16 bytes.
** If 5 then all allocations will be rounded up to at least 32 bytes.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_POW2_LOGMIN
# define SQLITE_POW2_LOGMIN 6
#endif

/*
** Log2 of the maximum size of an allocation.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_POW2_LOGMAX
# define SQLITE_POW2_LOGMAX 20
#endif
#define POW2_MAX (((unsigned int)1)<<SQLITE_POW2_LOGMAX)

/*
** Number of distinct allocation sizes.
*/
#define NSIZE (SQLITE_POW2_LOGMAX - SQLITE_POW2_LOGMIN + 1)

/*
** A minimum allocation is an instance of the following structure.
** Larger allocations are an array of these structures where the
** size of the array is a power of 2.
*/
typedef struct Mem5Link Mem5Link;
struct Mem5Link {
  int next;       /* Index of next free chunk */
  int prev;       /* Index of previous free chunk */
};

/*
** Maximum size of any allocation is ((1<<LOGMAX)*mem5.nAtom). Since
** mem5.nAtom is always at least 8, this is not really a practical
** limitation.
*/
#define LOGMAX 30

/*
** Masks used for mem5.aCtrl[] elements.
*/
#define CTRL_LOGSIZE  0x1f    /* Log2 Size of this block relative to POW2_MIN */
#define CTRL_FREE     0x20    /* True if not checked out */

/*
** All of the static variables used by this module are collected
** into a single structure named "mem5".  This is to keep the
** static variables organized and to reduce namespace pollution
** when this module is combined with other in the amalgamation.
*/
static struct {
  /*
  ** The alarm callback and its arguments.  The mem5.mutex lock will
  ** be held while the callback is running.  Recursive calls into
  ** the memory subsystem are allowed, but no new callbacks will be
  ** issued.  The alarmBusy variable is set to prevent recursive
  ** callbacks.
  */
  sqlite3_int64 alarmThreshold;
  void (*alarmCallback)(void*, sqlite3_int64,int);
  void *alarmArg;
  int alarmBusy;
  
  /*
  ** Mutex to control access to the memory allocation subsystem.
  */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;

  /*
  ** Performance statistics
  */
  u64 nAlloc;         /* Total number of calls to malloc */
  u64 totalAlloc;     /* Total of all malloc calls - includes internal frag */
  u64 totalExcess;    /* Total internal fragmentation */
  u32 currentOut;     /* Current checkout, including internal fragmentation */
  u32 currentCount;   /* Current number of distinct checkouts */
  u32 maxOut;         /* Maximum instantaneous currentOut */
  u32 maxCount;       /* Maximum instantaneous currentCount */
  u32 maxRequest;     /* Largest allocation (exclusive of internal frag) */
  
  /*
  ** Lists of free blocks of various sizes.
  */
  int aiFreelist[LOGMAX+1];

  /*
  ** Space for tracking which blocks are checked out and the size
  ** of each block.  One byte per block.
  */
  u8 *aCtrl;

  /*
  ** Memory available for allocation
  */
  int nAtom;       /* Smallest possible allocation in bytes */
  int nBlock;      /* Number of nAtom sized blocks in zPool */
  u8 *zPool;
} mem5;

#define MEM5LINK(idx) ((Mem5Link *)(&mem5.zPool[(idx)*mem5.nAtom]))

/*
** Unlink the chunk at mem5.aPool[i] from list it is currently
** on.  It should be found on mem5.aiFreelist[iLogsize].
*/
static void memsys5Unlink(int i, int iLogsize){
  int next, prev;
  assert( i>=0 && i<mem5.nBlock );
  assert( iLogsize>=0 && iLogsize<=LOGMAX );
  assert( (mem5.aCtrl[i] & CTRL_LOGSIZE)==iLogsize );

  next = MEM5LINK(i)->next;
  prev = MEM5LINK(i)->prev;
  if( prev<0 ){
    mem5.aiFreelist[iLogsize] = next;
  }else{
    MEM5LINK(prev)->next = next;
  }
  if( next>=0 ){
    MEM5LINK(next)->prev = prev;
  }
}

/*
** Link the chunk at mem5.aPool[i] so that is on the iLogsize
** free list.
*/
static void memsys5Link(int i, int iLogsize){
  int x;
  assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(mem5.mutex) );
  assert( i>=0 && i<mem5.nBlock );
  assert( iLogsize>=0 && iLogsize<=LOGMAX );
  assert( (mem5.aCtrl[i] & CTRL_LOGSIZE)==iLogsize );

  x = MEM5LINK(i)->next = mem5.aiFreelist[iLogsize];
  MEM5LINK(i)->prev = -1;
  if( x>=0 ){
    assert( x<mem5.nBlock );
    MEM5LINK(x)->prev = i;
  }
  mem5.aiFreelist[iLogsize] = i;
}

/*
** If the STATIC_MEM mutex is not already held, obtain it now. The mutex
** will already be held (obtained by code in malloc.c) if
** sqlite3Config.bMemStat is true.
*/
static void memsys5Enter(void){
  if( sqlite3Config.bMemstat==0 && mem5.mutex==0 ){
    mem5.mutex = sqlite3MutexAlloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM);
  }
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(mem5.mutex);
}
static void memsys5Leave(void){
  sqlite3_mutex_leave(mem5.mutex);
}

/*
** Return the size of an outstanding allocation, in bytes.  The
** size returned omits the 8-byte header overhead.  This only
** works for chunks that are currently checked out.
*/
static int memsys5Size(void *p){
  int iSize = 0;
  if( p ){
    int i = ((u8 *)p-mem5.zPool)/mem5.nAtom;
    assert( i>=0 && i<mem5.nBlock );
    iSize = mem5.nAtom * (1 << (mem5.aCtrl[i]&CTRL_LOGSIZE));
  }
  return iSize;
}

/*
** Find the first entry on the freelist iLogsize.  Unlink that
** entry and return its index. 
*/
static int memsys5UnlinkFirst(int iLogsize){
  int i;
  int iFirst;

  assert( iLogsize>=0 && iLogsize<=LOGMAX );
  i = iFirst = mem5.aiFreelist[iLogsize];
  assert( iFirst>=0 );
  while( i>0 ){
    if( i<iFirst ) iFirst = i;
    i = MEM5LINK(i)->next;
  }
  memsys5Unlink(iFirst, iLogsize);
  return iFirst;
}

/*
** Return a block of memory of at least nBytes in size.
** Return NULL if unable.
*/
static void *memsys5MallocUnsafe(int nByte){
  int i;           /* Index of a mem5.aPool[] slot */
  int iBin;        /* Index into mem5.aiFreelist[] */
  int iFullSz;     /* Size of allocation rounded up to power of 2 */
  int iLogsize;    /* Log2 of iFullSz/POW2_MIN */

  /* Keep track of the maximum allocation request.  Even unfulfilled
  ** requests are counted */
  if( nByte>mem5.maxRequest ){
    mem5.maxRequest = nByte;
  }

  /* Round nByte up to the next valid power of two */
  if( nByte>POW2_MAX ) return 0;
  for(iFullSz=mem5.nAtom, iLogsize=0; iFullSz<nByte; iFullSz *= 2, iLogsize++){}

  /* Make sure mem5.aiFreelist[iLogsize] contains at least one free
  ** block.  If not, then split a block of the next larger power of
  ** two in order to create a new free block of size iLogsize.
  */
  for(iBin=iLogsize; mem5.aiFreelist[iBin]<0 && iBin<=LOGMAX; iBin++){}
  if( iBin>LOGMAX ) return 0;
  i = memsys5UnlinkFirst(iBin);
  while( iBin>iLogsize ){
    int newSize;

    iBin--;
    newSize = 1 << iBin;
    mem5.aCtrl[i+newSize] = CTRL_FREE | iBin;
    memsys5Link(i+newSize, iBin);
  }
  mem5.aCtrl[i] = iLogsize;

  /* Update allocator performance statistics. */
  mem5.nAlloc++;
  mem5.totalAlloc += iFullSz;
  mem5.totalExcess += iFullSz - nByte;
  mem5.currentCount++;
  mem5.currentOut += iFullSz;
  if( mem5.maxCount<mem5.currentCount ) mem5.maxCount = mem5.currentCount;
  if( mem5.maxOut<mem5.currentOut ) mem5.maxOut = mem5.currentOut;

  /* Return a pointer to the allocated memory. */
  return (void*)&mem5.zPool[i*mem5.nAtom];
}

/*
** Free an outstanding memory allocation.
*/
static void memsys5FreeUnsafe(void *pOld){
  u32 size, iLogsize;
  int iBlock;             

  /* Set iBlock to the index of the block pointed to by pOld in 
  ** the array of mem5.nAtom byte blocks pointed to by mem5.zPool.
  */
  iBlock = ((u8 *)pOld-mem5.zPool)/mem5.nAtom;

  /* Check that the pointer pOld points to a valid, non-free block. */
  assert( iBlock>=0 && iBlock<mem5.nBlock );
  assert( ((u8 *)pOld-mem5.zPool)%mem5.nAtom==0 );
  assert( (mem5.aCtrl[iBlock] & CTRL_FREE)==0 );

  iLogsize = mem5.aCtrl[iBlock] & CTRL_LOGSIZE;
  size = 1<<iLogsize;
  assert( iBlock+size-1<mem5.nBlock );

  mem5.aCtrl[iBlock] |= CTRL_FREE;
  mem5.aCtrl[iBlock+size-1] |= CTRL_FREE;
  assert( mem5.currentCount>0 );
  assert( mem5.currentOut>=0 );
  mem5.currentCount--;
  mem5.currentOut -= size*mem5.nAtom;
  assert( mem5.currentOut>0 || mem5.currentCount==0 );
  assert( mem5.currentCount>0 || mem5.currentOut==0 );

  mem5.aCtrl[iBlock] = CTRL_FREE | iLogsize;
  while( iLogsize<LOGMAX ){
    int iBuddy;
    if( (iBlock>>iLogsize) & 1 ){
      iBuddy = iBlock - size;
    }else{
      iBuddy = iBlock + size;
    }
    assert( iBuddy>=0 );
    if( (iBuddy+(1<<iLogsize))>mem5.nBlock ) break;
    if( mem5.aCtrl[iBuddy]!=(CTRL_FREE | iLogsize) ) break;
    memsys5Unlink(iBuddy, iLogsize);
    iLogsize++;
    if( iBuddy<iBlock ){
      mem5.aCtrl[iBuddy] = CTRL_FREE | iLogsize;
      mem5.aCtrl[iBlock] = 0;
      iBlock = iBuddy;
    }else{
      mem5.aCtrl[iBlock] = CTRL_FREE | iLogsize;
      mem5.aCtrl[iBuddy] = 0;
    }
    size *= 2;
  }
  memsys5Link(iBlock, iLogsize);
}

/*
** Allocate nBytes of memory
*/
static void *memsys5Malloc(int nBytes){
  sqlite3_int64 *p = 0;
  if( nBytes>0 ){
    memsys5Enter();
    p = memsys5MallocUnsafe(nBytes);
    memsys5Leave();
  }
  return (void*)p; 
}

/*
** Free memory.
*/
static void memsys5Free(void *pPrior){
  if( pPrior==0 ){
assert(0);
    return;
  }
  memsys5Enter();
  memsys5FreeUnsafe(pPrior);
  memsys5Leave();  
}

/*
** Change the size of an existing memory allocation
*/
static void *memsys5Realloc(void *pPrior, int nBytes){
  int nOld;
  void *p;
  if( pPrior==0 ){
    return memsys5Malloc(nBytes);
  }
  if( nBytes<=0 ){
    memsys5Free(pPrior);
    return 0;
  }
  nOld = memsys5Size(pPrior);
  if( nBytes<=nOld ){
    return pPrior;
  }
  memsys5Enter();
  p = memsys5MallocUnsafe(nBytes);
  if( p ){
    memcpy(p, pPrior, nOld);
    memsys5FreeUnsafe(pPrior);
  }
  memsys5Leave();
  return p;
}

/*
** Round up a request size to the next valid allocation size.
*/
static int memsys5Roundup(int n){
  int iFullSz;
  for(iFullSz=mem5.nAtom; iFullSz<n; iFullSz *= 2);
  return iFullSz;
}

static int memsys5Log(int iValue){
  int iLog;
  for(iLog=0; (1<<iLog)<iValue; iLog++);
  return iLog;
}

/*
** Initialize this module.
*/
static int memsys5Init(void *NotUsed){
  int ii;
  int nByte = sqlite3Config.nHeap;
  u8 *zByte = (u8 *)sqlite3Config.pHeap;
  int nMinLog;                 /* Log of minimum allocation size in bytes*/
  int iOffset;

  if( !zByte ){
    return SQLITE_ERROR;
  }

  nMinLog = memsys5Log(sqlite3Config.mnReq);
  mem5.nAtom = (1<<nMinLog);
  while( sizeof(Mem5Link)>mem5.nAtom ){
    mem5.nAtom = mem5.nAtom <<