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String.h
//
// String.h
//
// $Id: //poco/1.3/Foundation/include/Poco/String.h#5 $
//
// Library: Foundation
// Package: Core
// Module:  String
//
// String utility functions.
//
// Copyright (c) 2004-2006, Applied Informatics Software Engineering GmbH.
// and Contributors.
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person or organization
// obtaining a copy of the software and accompanying documentation covered by
// this license (the "Software") to use, reproduce, display, distribute,
// execute, and transmit the Software, and to prepare derivative works of the
// Software, and to permit third-parties to whom the Software is furnished to
// do so, all subject to the following:
// 
// The copyright notices in the Software and this entire statement, including
// the above license grant, this restriction and the following disclaimer,
// must be included in all copies of the Software, in whole or in part, and
// all derivative works of the Software, unless such copies or derivative
// works are solely in the form of machine-executable object code generated by
// a source language processor.
// 
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
// IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
// FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT
// SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS OR ANYONE DISTRIBUTING THE SOFTWARE BE LIABLE
// FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE,
// ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
// DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
//


#ifndef Foundation_String_INCLUDED
#define Foundation_String_INCLUDED


#include "Poco/Foundation.h"
#include <cstring>
#include <cctype>


namespace Poco {


template <class S>
S trimLeft(const S& str)
      /// Returns a copy of str with all leading
      /// whitespace removed.
{
      typename S::const_iterator it  = str.begin();
      typename S::const_iterator end = str.end();
      
      while (it != end && std::isspace(*it)) ++it;
      return S(it, end);
}


template <class S>
S& trimLeftInPlace(S& str)
      /// Removes all leading whitespace in str.
{
      typename S::iterator it  = str.begin();
      typename S::iterator end = str.end();
      
      while (it != end && std::isspace(*it)) ++it;
      str.erase(str.begin(), it);
      return str;
}


template <class S>
S trimRight(const S& str)
      /// Returns a copy of str with all trailing
      /// whitespace removed.
{
      int pos = int(str.size()) - 1;
            
      while (pos >= 0 && std::isspace(str[pos])) --pos;
      return S(str, 0, pos + 1);
}


template <class S>
S& trimRightInPlace(S& str)
      /// Removes all trailing whitespace in str.
{
      int pos = int(str.size()) - 1;
            
      while (pos >= 0 && std::isspace(str[pos])) --pos;
      str.resize(pos + 1);

      return str;
}


template <class S>
S trim(const S& str)
      /// Returns a copy of str with all leading and
      /// trailing whitespace removed.
{
      int first = 0;
      int last  = int(str.size()) - 1;
      
      while (first <= last && std::isspace(str[first])) ++first;
      while (last >= first && std::isspace(str[last])) --last;

      return S(str, first, last - first + 1);
}


template <class S>
S& trimInPlace(S& str)
      /// Removes all leading and trailing whitespace in str.
{
      int first = 0;
      int last  = int(str.size()) - 1;
      
      while (first <= last && std::isspace(str[first])) ++first;
      while (last >= first && std::isspace(str[last])) --last;

      str.resize(last + 1);
      str.erase(0, first);

      return str;
}


template <class S>
S toUpper(const S& str)
      /// Returns a copy of str containing all upper-case characters.
{
      typename S::const_iterator it  = str.begin();
      typename S::const_iterator end = str.end();

      S result;
      result.reserve(str.size());
      while (it != end) result += std::toupper(*it++);
      return result;
}


template <class S>
S& toUpperInPlace(S& str)
      /// Replaces all characters in str with their upper-case counterparts.
{
      typename S::iterator it  = str.begin();
      typename S::iterator end = str.end();

      while (it != end) { *it = std::toupper(*it); ++it; }
      return str;
}


template <class S>
S toLower(const S& str)
      /// Returns a copy of str containing all lower-case characters.
{
      typename S::const_iterator it  = str.begin();
      typename S::const_iterator end = str.end();

      S result;
      result.reserve(str.size());
      while (it != end) result += std::tolower(*it++);
      return result;
}


template <class S>
S& toLowerInPlace(S& str)
      /// Replaces all characters in str with their lower-case counterparts.
{
      typename S::iterator it  = str.begin();
      typename S::iterator end = str.end();

      while (it != end) { *it = std::tolower(*it); ++it; }
      return str;
}


#if !defined(POCO_NO_TEMPLATE_ICOMPARE)


template <class S, class It>
int icompare(
      const S& str,
      typename S::size_type pos, 
      typename S::size_type n,
      It it2, 
      It end2)
      /// Case-insensitive string comparison
{
      typename S::size_type sz = str.size();
      if (pos > sz) pos = sz;
      if (pos + n > sz) n = sz - pos;
      It it1  = str.begin() + pos; 
      It end1 = str.begin() + pos + n;
      while (it1 != end1 && it2 != end2)
      {
        typename S::value_type c1(std::tolower(*it1));
        typename S::value_type c2(std::tolower(*it2));
        if (c1 < c2)
            return -1;
        else if (c1 > c2)
            return 1;
        ++it1; ++it2;
      }
    
    if (it1 == end1)
            return it2 == end2 ? 0 : -1;
    else
        return 1;
}


template <class S>
int icompare(const S& str1, const S& str2)
      // A special optimization for an often used case.
{
      typename S::const_iterator it1(str1.begin());
      typename S::const_iterator end1(str1.end());
      typename S::const_iterator it2(str2.begin());
      typename S::const_iterator end2(str2.end());
      while (it1 != end1 && it2 != end2)
      {
        typename S::value_type c1(std::tolower(*it1));
        typename S::value_type c2(std::tolower(*it2));
        if (c1 < c2)
            return -1;
        else if (c1 > c2)
            return 1;
        ++it1; ++it2;
      }
    
    if (it1 == end1)
            return it2 == end2 ? 0 : -1;
    else
        return 1;
}


template <class S>
int icompare(const S& str1, typename S::size_type n1, const S& str2, typename S::size_type n2)
{
      if (n2 > str2.size()) n2 = str2.size();
      return icompare(str1, 0, n1, str2.begin(), str2.begin() + n2);
}


template <class S>
int icompare(const S& str1, typename S::size_type n, const S& str2)
{
      if (n > str2.size()) n = str2.size();
      return icompare(str1, 0, n, str2.begin(), str2.begin() + n);
}


template <class S>
int icompare(const S& str1, typename S::size_type pos, typename S::size_type n, const S& str2)
{
      return icompare(str1, pos, n, str2.begin(), str2.end());
}


template <class S>
int icompare(
      const S& str1, 
      typename S::size_type pos1, 
      typename S::size_type n1, 
      const S& str2,
      typename S::size_type pos2,
      typename S::size_type n2)
{
      typename S::size_type sz2 = str2.size();
      if (pos2 > sz2) pos2 = sz2;
      if (pos2 + n2 > sz2) n2 = sz2 - pos2;
      return icompare(str1, pos1, n1, str2.begin() + pos2, str2.begin() + pos2 + n2);
}


template <class S>
int icompare(
      const S& str1, 
      typename S::size_type pos1, 
      typename S::size_type n, 
      const S& str2,
      typename S::size_type pos2)
{
      typename S::size_type sz2 = str2.size();
      if (pos2 > sz2) pos2 = sz2;
      if (pos2 + n > sz2) n = sz2 - pos2;
      return icompare(str1, pos1, n, str2.begin() + pos2, str2.begin() + pos2 + n);
}


template <class S>
int icompare(
      const S& str,
      typename S::size_type pos,
      typename S::size_type n,
      const typename S::value_type* ptr)
{
      poco_check_ptr (ptr);
      typename S::size_type sz = str.size();
      if (pos > sz) pos = sz;
      if (pos + n > sz) n = sz - pos;
      typename S::const_iterator it  = str.begin() + pos; 
      typename S::const_iterator end = str.begin() + pos + n;
      while (it != end && *ptr)
      {
        typename S::value_type c1(std::tolower(*it));
        typename S::value_type c2(std::tolower(*ptr));
        if (c1 < c2)
            return -1;
        else if (c1 > c2)
            return 1;
        ++it; ++ptr;
      }
    
    if (it == end)
            return *ptr == 0 ? 0 : -1;
    else
        return 1;
}


template <class S>
int icompare(
      const S& str,
      typename S::size_type pos,
      const typename S::value_type* ptr)
{
      return icompare(str, pos, str.size() - pos, ptr);
}


template <class S>
int icompare(
      const S& str,
      const typename S::value_type* ptr)
{
      return icompare(str, 0, str.size(), ptr);
}


#else


int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str, std::string::size_type pos, std::string::size_type n, std::string::const_iterator it2, std::string::const_iterator end2);
int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str1, const std::string& str2);
int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str1, std::string::size_type n1, const std::string& str2, std::string::size_type n2);
int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str1, std::string::size_type n, const std::string& str2);
int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str1, std::string::size_type pos, std::string::size_type n, const std::string& str2);
int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str1, std::string::size_type pos1, std::string::size_type n1, const std::string& str2, std::string::size_type pos2, std::string::size_type n2);
int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str1, std::string::size_type pos1, std::string::size_type n, const std::string& str2, std::string::size_type pos2);
int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str, std::string::size_type pos, std::string::size_type n, const std::string::value_type* ptr);
int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str, std::string::size_type pos, const std::string::value_type* ptr);
int Foundation_API icompare(const std::string& str, const std::string::value_type* ptr);


#endif


template <class S>
S translate(const S& str, const S& from, const S& to)
      /// Returns a copy of str with all characters in
      /// from replaced by the corresponding (by position)
      /// characters in to. If there is no corresponding
      /// character in to, the character is removed from
      /// the copy. 
{
      S result;
      result.reserve(str.size());
      typename S::const_iterator it  = str.begin();
      typename S::const_iterator end = str.end();
      typename S::size_type toSize = to.size();
      while (it != end)
      {
            typename S::size_type pos = from.find(*it);
            if (pos == S::npos)
            {
                  result += *it;
            }
            else
            {
                  if (pos < toSize) result += to[pos];
            }
            ++it;
      }
      return result;
}


template <class S>
S translate(const S& str, const typename S::value_type* from, const typename S::value_type* to)
{
      poco_check_ptr (from);
      poco_check_ptr (to);
      return translate(str, S(from), S(to));
}


template <class S>
S& translateInPlace(S& str, const S& from, const S& to)
      /// Replaces in str all occurences of characters in from
      /// with the corresponding (by position) characters in to.
      /// If there is no corresponding character, the character
      /// is removed.
{
      str = translate(str, from, to);
      return str;
}


template <class S>
S translateInPlace(S& str, const typename S::value_type* from, const typename S::value_type* to)
{
      poco_check_ptr (from);
      poco_check_ptr (to);
      str = translate(str, S(from), S(to));
      return str;
}


#if !defined(POCO_NO_TEMPLATE_ICOMPARE)


template <class S>
S replace(const S& str, const S& from, const S& to, typename S::size_type start = 0)
      /// Replace all occurences of from (which must not be the empty string)
      /// in str with to, starting at position start.
{
      S result(str);
      replaceInPlace(result, from, to, start);
      return result;
}


template <class S>
S replace(const S& str, const typename S::value_type* from, const typename S::value_type* to, typename S::size_type start = 0)
{
      S result(str);
      replaceInPlace(result, from, to, start);
      return result;
}


template <class S>
S& replaceInPlace(S& str, const S& from, const S& to, typename S::size_type start = 0)
{
      poco_assert (from.size() > 0);
      
      S result;
      typename S::size_type pos = 0;
      result.append(str, 0, start);
      do
      {
            pos = str.find(from, start);
            if (pos != S::npos)
            {
                  result.append(str, start, pos - start);
                  result.append(to);
                  start = pos + from.length();
            }
            else result.append(str, start, str.size() - start);
      }
      while (pos != S::npos);
      str.swap(result);
      return str;
}


template <class S>
S& replaceInPlace(S& str, const typename S::value_type* from, const typename S::value_type* to, typename S::size_type start = 0)
{
      poco_assert (*from);

      S result;
      typename S::size_type pos = 0;
      typename S::size_type fromLen = std::strlen(from);
      result.append(str, 0, start);
      do
      {
            pos = str.find(from, start);
            if (pos != S::npos)
            {
                  result.append(str, start, pos - start);
                  result.append(to);
                  start = pos + fromLen;
            }
            else result.append(str, start, str.size() - start);
      }
      while (pos != S::npos);
      str.swap(result);
      return str;
}


#else


std::string Foundation_API replace(const std::string& str, const std::string& from, const std::string& to, std::string::size_type start = 0);
std::string Foundation_API replace(const std::string& str, const std::string::value_type* from, const std::string::value_type* to, std::string::size_type start = 0);
std::string& Foundation_API replaceInPlace(std::string& str, const std::string& from, const std::string& to, std::string::size_type start = 0);
std::string& Foundation_API replaceInPlace(std::string& str, const std::string::value_type* from, const std::string::value_type* to, std::string::size_type start = 0);
      

#endif      


template <class S>
S cat(const S& s1, const S& s2)
      /// Concatenates two strings.
{
      S result = s1;
      result.reserve(s1.size() + s2.size());
      result.append(s2);
      return result;
}


template <class S>
S cat(const S& s1, const S& s2, const S& s3)
      /// Concatenates three strings.
{
      S result = s1;
      result.reserve(s1.size() + s2.size() + s3.size());
      result.append(s2);
      result.append(s3);
      return result;
}


template <class S>
S cat(const S& s1, const S& s2, const S& s3, const S& s4)
      /// Concatenates four strings.
{
      S result = s1;
      result.reserve(s1.size() + s2.size() + s3.size() + s4.size());
      result.append(s2);
      result.append(s3);
      result.append(s4);
      return result;
}


template <class S>
S cat(const S& s1, const S& s2, const S& s3, const S& s4, const S& s5)
      /// Concatenates five strings.
{
      S result = s1;
      result.reserve(s1.size() + s2.size() + s3.size() + s4.size() + s5.size());
      result.append(s2);
      result.append(s3);
      result.append(s4);
      result.append(s5);
      return result;
}


template <class S>
S cat(const S& s1, const S& s2, const S& s3, const S& s4, const S& s5, const S& s6)
      /// Concatenates six strings.
{
      S result = s1;
      result.reserve(s1.size() + s2.size() + s3.size() + s4.size() + s5.size() + s6.size());
      result.append(s2);
      result.append(s3);
      result.append(s4);
      result.append(s5);
      result.append(s6);
      return result;
}


template <class S, class It>
S cat(const S& delim, const It& begin, const It& end)
      /// Concatenates a sequence of strings, delimited
      /// by the string given in delim.
{
      S result;
      for (It it = begin; it != end; ++it)
      {
            if (!result.empty()) result.append(delim);
            result += *it;
      }
      return result;
}


} // namespace Poco


#endif // Foundation_String_INCLUDED

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