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URI.h
//
// URI.h
//
// $Id: //poco/1.4/Foundation/include/Poco/URI.h#1 $
//
// Library: Foundation
// Package: URI
// Module:  URI
//
// Definition of the URI class.
//
// Copyright (c) 2004-2006, Applied Informatics Software Engineering GmbH.
// and Contributors.
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person or organization
// obtaining a copy of the software and accompanying documentation covered by
// this license (the "Software") to use, reproduce, display, distribute,
// execute, and transmit the Software, and to prepare derivative works of the
// Software, and to permit third-parties to whom the Software is furnished to
// do so, all subject to the following:
// 
// The copyright notices in the Software and this entire statement, including
// the above license grant, this restriction and the following disclaimer,
// must be included in all copies of the Software, in whole or in part, and
// all derivative works of the Software, unless such copies or derivative
// works are solely in the form of machine-executable object code generated by
// a source language processor.
// 
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
// IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
// FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT
// SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS OR ANYONE DISTRIBUTING THE SOFTWARE BE LIABLE
// FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE,
// ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
// DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
//


#ifndef Foundation_URI_INCLUDED
#define Foundation_URI_INCLUDED


#include "Poco/Foundation.h"
#include <vector>


namespace Poco {


00050 class Foundation_API URI
      /// A Uniform Resource Identifier, as specified in RFC 3986.
      /// 
      /// The URI class provides methods for building URIs from their
      /// parts, as well as for splitting URIs into their parts.
      /// Furthermore, the class provides methods for resolving
      /// relative URIs against base URIs.
      ///
      /// The class automatically performs a few normalizations on
      /// all URIs and URI parts passed to it:
      ///   * scheme identifiers are converted to lower case.
      ///   * percent-encoded characters are decoded
      ///   * optionally, dot segments are removed from paths (see normalize())
{
public:
      URI();
            /// Creates an empty URI.

      explicit URI(const std::string& uri);
            /// Parses an URI from the given string. Throws a
            /// SyntaxException if the uri is not valid.
            
      explicit URI(const char* uri);
            /// Parses an URI from the given string. Throws a
            /// SyntaxException if the uri is not valid.
            
      URI(const std::string& scheme, const std::string& pathEtc);
            /// Creates an URI from its parts.
            
      URI(const std::string& scheme, const std::string& authority, const std::string& pathEtc);
            /// Creates an URI from its parts.

      URI(const std::string& scheme, const std::string& authority, const std::string& path, const std::string& query);
            /// Creates an URI from its parts.

      URI(const std::string& scheme, const std::string& authority, const std::string& path, const std::string& query, const std::string& fragment);
            /// Creates an URI from its parts.

      URI(const URI& uri);
            /// Copy constructor. Creates an URI from another one.
            
      URI(const URI& baseURI, const std::string& relativeURI);
            /// Creates an URI from a base URI and a relative URI, according to
            /// the algorithm in section 5.2 of RFC 3986.

      ~URI();
            /// Destroys the URI.
      
      URI& operator = (const URI& uri);
            /// Assignment operator.
            
      URI& operator = (const std::string& uri);
            /// Parses and assigns an URI from the given string. Throws a
            /// SyntaxException if the uri is not valid.

      URI& operator = (const char* uri);
            /// Parses and assigns an URI from the given string. Throws a
            /// SyntaxException if the uri is not valid.
            
      void swap(URI& uri);
            /// Swaps the URI with another one. 
            
      void clear();
            /// Clears all parts of the URI.
      
      std::string toString() const;
            /// Returns a string representation of the URI.
            ///
            /// Characters in the path, query and fragment parts will be 
            /// percent-encoded as necessary.
      
      const std::string& getScheme() const;
            /// Returns the scheme part of the URI.
            
      void setScheme(const std::string& scheme);
            /// Sets the scheme part of the URI. The given scheme
            /// is converted to lower-case.
            ///
            /// A list of registered URI schemes can be found
            /// at <http://www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes>.
            
      const std::string& getUserInfo() const;
            /// Returns the user-info part of the URI.
            
      void setUserInfo(const std::string& userInfo);
            /// Sets the user-info part of the URI.
            
      const std::string& getHost() const;
            /// Returns the host part of the URI.
            
      void setHost(const std::string& host);
            /// Sets the host part of the URI.
            
      unsigned short getPort() const;
            /// Returns the port number part of the URI.
            ///
            /// If no port number (0) has been specified, the
            /// well-known port number (e.g., 80 for http) for
            /// the given scheme is returned if it is known.
            /// Otherwise, 0 is returned.
            
      void setPort(unsigned short port);
            /// Sets the port number part of the URI.
            
      std::string getAuthority() const;
            /// Returns the authority part (userInfo, host and port)
            /// of the URI. 
            ///
            /// If the port number is a well-known port
            /// number for the given scheme (e.g., 80 for http), it
            /// is not included in the authority.
            
      void setAuthority(const std::string& authority);
            /// Parses the given authority part for the URI and sets
            /// the user-info, host, port components accordingly.
            
      const std::string& getPath() const;
            /// Returns the path part of the URI.
            
      void setPath(const std::string& path);
            /// Sets the path part of the URI.
      
      std::string getQuery() const;
            /// Returns the query part of the URI.
            
      void setQuery(const std::string& query);  
            /// Sets the query part of the URI.

      const std::string& getRawQuery() const;
            /// Returns the unencoded query part of the URI.
            
      void setRawQuery(const std::string& query);     
            /// Sets the query part of the URI.
      
      const std::string& getFragment() const;
            /// Returns the fragment part of the URI.
            
      void setFragment(const std::string& fragment);
            /// Sets the fragment part of the URI.
            
      void setPathEtc(const std::string& pathEtc);
            /// Sets the path, query and fragment parts of the URI.
            
      std::string getPathEtc() const;
            /// Returns the path, query and fragment parts of the URI.
            
      std::string getPathAndQuery() const;
            /// Returns the path and query parts of the URI.      
            
      void resolve(const std::string& relativeURI);
            /// Resolves the given relative URI against the base URI.
            /// See section 5.2 of RFC 3986 for the algorithm used.

      void resolve(const URI& relativeURI);
            /// Resolves the given relative URI against the base URI.
            /// See section 5.2 of RFC 3986 for the algorithm used.

      bool isRelative() const;
            /// Returns true if the URI is a relative reference, false otherwise.
            ///
            /// A relative reference does not contain a scheme identifier.
            /// Relative references are usually resolved against an absolute
            /// base reference.
      
      bool empty() const;
            /// Returns true if the URI is empty, false otherwise.
            
      bool operator == (const URI& uri) const;
            /// Returns true if both URIs are identical, false otherwise.
            ///
            /// Two URIs are identical if their scheme, authority,
            /// path, query and fragment part are identical.

      bool operator == (const std::string& uri) const;
            /// Parses the given URI and returns true if both URIs are identical,
            /// false otherwise.

      bool operator != (const URI& uri) const;
            /// Returns true if both URIs are identical, false otherwise.

      bool operator != (const std::string& uri) const;
            /// Parses the given URI and returns true if both URIs are identical,
            /// false otherwise.
            
      void normalize();
            /// Normalizes the URI by removing all but leading . and .. segments from the path.
            ///
            /// If the first path segment in a relative path contains a colon (:), 
            /// such as in a Windows path containing a drive letter, a dot segment (./) 
            /// is prepended in accordance with section 3.3 of RFC 3986.
      
      void getPathSegments(std::vector<std::string>& segments);
            /// Places the single path segments (delimited by slashes) into the
            /// given vector.
      
      static void encode(const std::string& str, const std::string& reserved, std::string& encodedStr);
            /// URI-encodes the given string by escaping reserved and non-ASCII
            /// characters. The encoded string is appended to encodedStr.
            
      static void decode(const std::string& str, std::string& decodedStr);
            /// URI-decodes the given string by replacing percent-encoded
            /// characters with the actual character. The decoded string
            /// is appended to decodedStr.

protected:
      bool equals(const URI& uri) const;
            /// Returns true if both uri's are equivalent.
      
      bool isWellKnownPort() const;
            /// Returns true if the URI's port number is a well-known one
            /// (for example, 80, if the scheme is http).
            
      unsigned short getWellKnownPort() const;
            /// Returns the well-known port number for the URI's scheme,
            /// or 0 if the port number is not known.
            
      void parse(const std::string& uri);
            /// Parses and assigns an URI from the given string. Throws a
            /// SyntaxException if the uri is not valid.

      void parseAuthority(std::string::const_iterator& it, const std::string::const_iterator& end);
            /// Parses and sets the user-info, host and port from the given data.

      void parseHostAndPort(std::string::const_iterator& it, const std::string::const_iterator& end);
            /// Parses and sets the host and port from the given data.

      void parsePath(std::string::const_iterator& it, const std::string::const_iterator& end);
            /// Parses and sets the path from the given data.

      void parsePathEtc(std::string::const_iterator& it, const std::string::const_iterator& end);
            /// Parses and sets the path, query and fragment from the given data.

      void parseQuery(std::string::const_iterator& it, const std::string::const_iterator& end);
            /// Parses and sets the query from the given data.

      void parseFragment(std::string::const_iterator& it, const std::string::const_iterator& end);
            /// Parses and sets the fragment from the given data.

      void mergePath(const std::string& path);
            /// Appends a path to the URI's path.

      void removeDotSegments(bool removeLeading = true);
            /// Removes all dot segments from the path.

      static void getPathSegments(const std::string& path, std::vector<std::string>& segments);
            /// Places the single path segments (delimited by slashes) into the
            /// given vector.

      void buildPath(const std::vector<std::string>& segments, bool leadingSlash, bool trailingSlash);
            /// Builds the path from the given segments.

00301       static const std::string RESERVED_PATH;
      static const std::string RESERVED_QUERY;
      static const std::string RESERVED_FRAGMENT;
      static const std::string ILLEGAL;
      
private:
      std::string    _scheme;
      std::string    _userInfo;
      std::string    _host;
      unsigned short _port;
      std::string    _path;
      std::string    _query;
      std::string    _fragment;
};


//
// inlines
//
00320 inline const std::string& URI::getScheme() const
{
      return _scheme;
}
      

00326 inline const std::string& URI::getUserInfo() const
{
      return _userInfo;
}

      
00332 inline const std::string& URI::getHost() const
{
      return _host;
}

      
00338 inline const std::string& URI::getPath() const
{
      return _path;
}

      
00344 inline const std::string& URI::getRawQuery() const
{
      return _query;
}

      
00350 inline const std::string& URI::getFragment() const
{
      return _fragment;
}


inline void swap(URI& u1, URI& u2)
{
      u1.swap(u2);
}

      
} // namespace Poco


#endif // Foundation_URI_INCLUDED

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